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AS 

ACCOMPANIMENT 

TO 

MITCHELL'S 

MAP OF THE WORLD, 

ON MERCATOR'S PROJECTION; 
coNTAimiie 

AN INDEX 

TO TBM 

VARIOUS COUNTRIES, CITIES, TOWNS, ISLANDS, &c., 
REPRESENTED ON THE MAP, 

AND ao OQIINBCTED TBKtLKWJTB, 

THAT THE POSITION OF ANY PLACE EXHIBITED ON V 
MAY BE READILY ASCERTAINED: 

ALfl9i 

A GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

OP 

THE FIVE GREAT DIVISIONS OF TBE GLOBE, 

AMERICA, EUaOPE, AFRICA, ASIA, AND OCBAMCA, 

WXTB THKOl 

SEVERAL EMPIREa KINGDOMS, STATES, TERRITORIES^ Ac 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PUBLISHED BY R. L, BARNES, 

No. 50. NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
Comer of Appletree Alley. 

1840. 



KF /■s'^-V 



HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBPARY 



Entered according to the act of congreai, in the year 1837, by Human & 
DinroN, in the 'clerk's office of the district court of the eastern district of Penn« 
sylvania. 



STEREOTYPlfD BY J. FAOATf PHILAOELPRTA. 



PREFACE. 



Oir the utility and importance of the study of Geography^ it would be 
needless to expatiate; every person^s experience must show that some ac- 
quaintance with it is indispensable in the ordinary business and inter- 
course of life. It enables the navigator, the merchant, and the military 
commander, to carry on their respective operations ; and embraces a vast 
variety of those objeots which are most interesting in themselves, and 
with which it concerns man ipost to be acquainted. It is evident, that at 
a very early period of society, the necessity of cultivating this science, 
must in a measure have attracted the attention of mankind : theur curi- 
osity to know somethixig of the country they inhabited, and the necessity 
of marking, in some manner, the boundaries of their property, would 
unite in forming the outlines, and directing their attention to the subject. 

In modem times, and especially at the present period, the general inter- 
course of knowledge amongst all classes, the intimate commercial and 
political relations existing between civilized communities, and the univer- 
sal desire of all enquiiing minds to become acquainted with distant coun- 
tries, and with the inhabitants, condition, and productions of regions differ- 
ing from our own, unite in rendering geographical knowledge interesting 
to the majority, and to many indispensable in qualifying them for the pur- 
suits of commerce and industry, and for much of the current and daily 
avocations of life. 

The object of the following Accompaniment is not to give extended geo- 
graphical details, but rather general results, so that it may present in con- 
nexion with the Map, a distinct view of the principal geographical fea- 
tures of the world, and serve, generaUy, as a work of reference. In its 
compilation, the principal of the numerous works which have issued from 
the press within the last few years on geography, travels, statistics, &.c., 
have been consulted, and in all cases the most recent published details hi 
the latter branch of science are given : of the works most freely resorted 
to, the principal are, Murray's Encyclopedia of Geography, Malte-Frun's 
and Goodrich's Universal Geography, Flhit's Geography of the Western 
States and Territories, Encyclopaedia Americana, Darby and Dwight's 
United States Gazetteer, Origin and History of Missions, Missionary 
Gazetteer, Ellis's Polynesian Researches, Transactions of the Geographi- 
cal Society of London, &c. The extent of the Accompaniment being 
necessarily limited, a comprehensive and minute detail, either in the de^ 
6cription of countries, or in the statement of &cts, is not to be expected ; 
yet, notwithstanding, it is believed that the leading features in the general 
account given of each of the great divisions of the earth and their respec- 



iv PREFACE. 

live subdivisions, will be found sufficiently clear and distinct as to give 
those who may consult it, a general idea of the present geography of the 
world, as accurate as can probably be gleaned from any equal number of 
pages extant on the same subject. 

In treating of geography, it is usual to arrange and describe countries 
according to their real or supposed political importance ; a method which 
is rather calculated to confuse and bewilder the mind than otherwise, in 
consequence of the necessity of referring to the Map in an irregular man- 
ner. In the following Accompaniment, it is proposed to adopt a purely 
geographical arrangement, commencing with North America, which lies 
at the north-west comer of the map, and passing thence to the other 
grand divisions of the globe, taking up in succession South America, Eu- 
rope, AfHca, Asia, and finally, the fifth grand division, or Oceanica. In 
this way, it is believed, a clear and distinct representation of the various 
portions of the earth, will probably be more vividly impressed on the 
mind, than by any other method. 

The basis of the Map is Purdy's large Chart of the World, improved to 
1836 ; a work held in high estimation by men of science, and navigators 
generally, for the complete and accurate representation of the coasts, 
islands, tracks of distinguished circuinjiavigators, 6lc. The interior parts 
of some of the countries represented on the chart were, however, found not 
to be so full and complete as could be desired : special attention has been 
paid to suppl3ang all deficiencies in this respect. Many portions of the 
original work have been replaced by new compilations, extracted in all 
instances from the most recent authoiities ; this is the case particularly in 
North America, Afiica, Australasia, and Polynesia. All the topographical 
details are exhibited as much in accordance with the present improved 
state of geographical knowledge as possible. The latest discoveries will 
be found exhibited as distinctly as the scale of the map will admit Nume- 
rous items of information, and many islands, the majority of which were 
discovered by American navigators, are now inserted for the first time 
in a general map of the world. The Consulting Index, comprising near 
thirteen thousand items, will, with the plan adopted for its use, be found 
to give great facility in searching for the position of the various countries, 
cities, towns, islands, &c., represented on the Map. 

PBIL4DUPHIA, May 20, 1837. 



v^ 



CONTENTS. 



CuH WL TUP Irdbc Page 11 

GzNKEAii Vnw or mi Woftu> 117 



AMERICA.... 
North Amenca . 
Russian 
British Po 

New Britain 

Upper Canada 

Lover Canada 

New BnuMwick 

Nova Sootia 

Cape Breton 

Frmoe Edward's Island. 

Newfoundland 

ADticosti 

United SUtae 

Eastern States 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Maseachnsetts 

Rhode Island 

Connectieat 

Middle States 

New York 

New JTersej 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Cohmibia. . . . 

Southern SUtas 

Virginia 

North Carolina '. 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida Territory 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana. 



Western States and Territories. 

Ohio 

Kentucky 

Indiana 



Michigan 

Missouri 

Arkansas 

Wisconsin Territory. 
Western Territory • • 
Missouri Territory. • 
On^pon Territory . . . 

Texas 

Mexico 

Guatemala , 



.119 
. 131 
.128 
.129 
.133 
.135 
.136 
.138 
.139 
.140 
.140 
.140 
.141 
.143 
.154 
.155 
. 157 
.159 
.161 
. 165 
.166 
.168 
.169 
.175 
. 177 
. 183 
.184 
.186 
.187 
.188 
.193 
.195 
.197 
.300 
.301 
.303 
.305 
.308 
.310 
.313 
.315 
.317 
.SIR. 
.323 
.324 
.336 
.338 
.229 
.333 
.333 
.335 
.337 
.248 



West Indies 351 

British Islands 353 

Jamaica 353 

Barbadoes 354 

Antigua 354 

St Christopher's 355 

Monserrat, dec 355 

Nevis .' 355 

Barbuda 355 

Anguilla 355 

Virgin Islands 355 

Dominica 355 

St Vincent 355 

Grenada 355 

Tobago 355 

St Lucia 855 

Trinidad 355 

Bahama Islands 356 

Bermudas 356 

Spanish Islands 356 

Cuba 856 

Porto Rico 358 

French Islands 359 

Martinico 359 

Guadaloupe 359 

Dutch, Swedish, and Danish Islands 359 

St EusUtia 3 

Saba 359 

St Martin 359 

Curacoa S 

Santa Crux 360 

St Thomas 360 

St John's :..360 

St Bartholomew 360 

Hayti 360 

South America 363 

Colombia 369 

New Grenada 373 

Venezuela 376 

Equador 377 

Gallapagos Islands 379 

Guiana .'. . 379 

Demarara, Berbioe, and Esseqwibo . . 379 

Surinam 360 

Cayenne 380 

Braril 281 

Peru 388 

South Peru 393 

Bolivia 295 

Chili 296 

IsUndofChiloe 301 

Islands of Juan Femandei 301 

Buenos Ayres 301 

Paraguay 306 

Uruguay « 307 

Patagonia 308 { 



1* 



CONTENTS. 



EUROPE 309 

Sweden and Norway 315 

-Norway 319 

Lapland 320 

Denmark > • • • 321 

Iceland, &C. 324 

Faroe lalonds 325 

HoUand 325 



British lalea 331 

England 333 

Isle of Man 337 

Jersey, Goernsey, dtc. 337 

WaJea 339 

Scotland 340 

Hebrides 343 

Orkney Islands 343 

Shetland Islands 343 

Ireland 345 

France 348 

Corsica 351 

Spain 353 

BolearicIslM 356 

Andorra 358 

Portugal 358 

Russia 361 

Poland 366 

Kingdom of Poland 368 

Cracow 369 

Germany 369 

Austria 373 

Hungary 376 

Croatia 378 

Sdavonia 378 

Transylvania 378 

Military Frontier 378 

Dalmatia 379 

Galicia 379 

Prussia 380 

Bavaria 384 

Saxony 385 

Hanover « 386 

Wirtemberg 387 

Baden 387 

Hessian Sutes 388 

Hesse Cassel 388 

Hesse Darmstadt 388 

Hesse Homburg 389 

Saxon SUtcs 389 

Saxe Weimar 389 

Saxe Coburg Gotha 389 

Saxe Meiningen ffildburghauaen . . . 389 

Saxe Altenburg 389 

Mecklenbco'g &hwerin 389 

Mecklenburg StreUts 390 

Brunswiclt 390 

Oldenburg 390 

Nassau 390 

AnhaltDessaa 390 

Anhalt Bemburg 390 

Anhah Cothen 390 

German Principalities 390 

Schwartzburg Rudolstadt 390 

Sehwartzburg Sondorshausen 390 



Reuss Greitz 

Reuss Schleitz. 

Lippe Detmold 

Lippe Schauenburg 

HohenzoUem Sigmaringen. 
Hohenzollem Hechingen . . 

Waldeck P^rmont 

Lichstenstem 

Kniphausen 

Hamburg 

Lubeck 



Fran kfort 

Switzerland • 

Italy 

Sardinia 

Island of Sardinia 

Monaco 

Lombardo- Venetian Kingdom 

Tuscany 

Parma 

Lucca 

Modena 

States of the Church 

San Marino 

Naples 

Sicily 

Lipari Islands 

Malta, Slc 

Ionian Islands 

Turkey 

Greece 

Candia 

Cyclades 

Negropont 

N. Sporades 

Hydra, dtc 

Tabular view of the European States 



,390 
.390 
390 
.390 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.391 
.392 
.392 
.394 
.397 
.398 
.399 
.399 
.401 
.402 
.402 
.403 
.403 
.405 
.405 
.406 
.406 
.407 
.408 
.409 
.413 
.416 
.416 
.416 
416 
416 
418 



AFRICA 419 

Barbary 424 

Morocco 425 

Algiers 427 

Tunis 428 

TripoU 429 

Barea 430 

Egypt 430 

Nubia 433 

Abyssinia 434 

Sahara, or Great Desert 436 

Fezzan 436 

Tibesty 437 

Gadomis 437 

Tafilet, Draha, &c 437 

Tibboos 437 

Tuaricks 438 

Western Africa 438 

Senegambia 438 

Foulahs 439 

Jalofi 439 

Mandingoea 439 

Foota Jalkm 440 

Soolimana 440 

Senegal 440 



a)NTENTS. 



vu 



441 
441 
441 
443 
443 
443 
443 
443 
443 
443 



Bamboak 

Gambia < 

Sierra Leone > 

Guinea ...•• • • 

Liberia. ••• ••• 

Grain Coaet 

Ivory Coaat 

GoldCkMst 

Slaye Coast > 

Aahantee 

Dahomey 444 

Benin 444 

Waree , 444 

Biafia,&c 445 

Loaogo 445 

CoD|no, Anff ola, &«. 445 

Cimbebafl,3bc. 446 

Soathem Africa 446 

Hottentola 447 

CapeColoaj 448 

Gaffraria 449 

BechoanaB 450 

EaatemAfiica 450 

Inhambane 451 

Sabia 451 

SofiUa 451 

Mozambique • 451 

MonomoUpa 453 

Gazembe 453 

Mookm 453 

Zanzibar or Zangnebar 453 

Qniloa 453 

Mombaa 453 

Melinda 453 

Brmva 453 

Magadoxa 453 

Ajan 453 

Berbora 453 

Adel and Hnrnir 453 

Central Africa 453 

Darfinr 456 

Kordo&n 456 

Bergoo 456 

Bahr el Gfaaal 457 

Begharme 457 

Bomoa 457 

Mandara, &e.. • 457 

Hooaaa 458 

Kaoo 458 

Kaaima 458 

Zcgzeg 458 

Taoone 459 

Bemm^ Sus. 459 

Borgoo 459 

Tarriba 459 

NvfB 459 

Timbuetook Ac 460 

Bambarrm 460 

Masina, Beroo» 4ba 460 

African Ulands 461 

Aa>re8 lalandfl 461 

Madeira 461 

Canary lalanda 461 

C^Ms Verde lalanda 4^ 

■ ssssssssssaBsaBsssssssssssss 



Fernando Po, dec 

Aaoensioo • 

St Helena 

Madagascar 

Imerina 

Maacaienha Islands 

Boorbon Island 

Mauritius, or Isle of France. 

Seycbeiles, Slo. 

Comoro lalanda 

Soootra 



ASIA 

Asiatic Russia..*.... 

Siberia 

New Siberia, &c ... 

Kamtschatka 

Korile lalanda 

Astrachan, &c 

Caacastan Rusaia . . . 

Circassia 

Daghestan 

Ge^gia 

Shirran, Erivan, dte.. 

Mingrelia, Slc 

Abaua 

Turkey in Asia 

Archipelago 

Rhodes, £c. 

Syria • 

Cyprus 

Adana 

Palestine 

Arabia 



Muscat 

Persia 

Afghanistan. 
Bek)ochistan 
Kafieristan. . 
Kaschgnr . . . 
India 



Lahore, dtc 

Bootan and Nepaul 

Ceylon 

Laccadire and Maldive Islands. 

Chin India 

British Territories 

Birmah. . i 

Siam 

Malaya or Malacca 

Sincapore • 

Pulo Pmang 

Nioobar and Andaman Islands . 

Anam 

Cochin China •• 

Cambodia 

Tonquin 

Tsiampa . • . . « 

Laos 

Thibet 

Little Thibet 

China 



.463 
.463 
.463 
.463 
.463 
.463 
.463 
.464 
.464 
.464 
.464 

.465 

.473 

.473 

.475 

.475 

.475 

.475 

.477 

.478 

.478 

.478 

.479 

.479 

.479 

.480 

.489 

.483 

.484 

.486, 

.486 

.486 

.488 

.491 

.491 

.491 

.495 

.498 

.499 

.499 

.499 

.500 

.503 

.503 

.510 

.511 

.511 

.514 

.515 

.516 

.516 

.516 

.516 

.517 

.517 

.517 

.517 

.518 

.518 

.518 

.518 

.530 

.531 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Loo Choo Islands 537 

Formosa* 528 

Hainan 528 

Corea » 528 



Tartarv 

Mantchooria. 



531 

Mongolia 531 

Soongaria 533 

LiUleBucharia 534 

Independent Tartair 534 

Great Bucharia, or Bokhara 535 

Balkh 535 

Kbokan 536 

Khiva 536 

Koondooz 536 

Kirguis 537 

Turcomania 537 

Japan 537 

OCEANICA .543 

MalaysU 547 

Sunda Islands 547 

Sumatra 547 

Polo Lingin, Banca, ite. 547 

Java 547 

Ballj, Lombock, Sumhawa, 5lc. .... 548 

Borneo 548 

Sooloo Archipelago 548 

Celebes 548 

Moluccas or Spice Islands 548 

Phillippines 549 

Gocos or Keeling Islands 549 

Australasia. 549 

Australia 549 

Colomr of Western Australia 550 

Vmn Dieinen*s Land 550 

New Zealand 550 

Papua, or New Guinea 551 

Louisiade 551 

New Britain 551 

New Ireland 551 

New Hanover, &e. 551 

New Hebrides 551 

New Caledonia 551 

Norfolk Island 551 

Massacie Islands 551 

Polynesia 551 

Ladrone or Marian Islands 553 

Caroline Islands 553 



Pelew Islands 552 

Central Archipelago 552 

Sandwich Islands 553 

Marquesas or Washington Islands . . 553 

Society Islands 554 

Georgian Islands 554 

Pearl or Paumotu Islands 554 

Palliser Ishmds 554 

Hervey's or Cook's Islands 554 

Austral or Raivaivai Islands 555 

Friendly Islands 555 

Navigator's Islands 555 

Feejee Islands 555 

Tonga Islands 555 

Haboai Islands 555 

Pitcaim's Island 555 

Easter Island 556 

Islands in the Polar Seas 556 

North Polar Islands 557 

North Georgian Islands 557 

Boothia FelL 557 

Greenknd 558 

Scoresby's land 558 

Spitsbergen 558 

Nova Zembk 559 

South Polar Islands 559 

Falkland Islands 559 

South Georgia 559 

South Shetland 560 

South Orkney 560 

Palmer's Land 560 

Kerguelen's Land 560 

Tristan d' Acunha 560 

Enderby's Land 560 

Graham's Land 560 

OCEAN 560 

Pacific Ocean 560 

Atlantic Ocean 561 

Indian Ocean 561 

Arctic Ocean 561 

Antarctic Ocean 561 

Mediterranean Sea, &c 561 

Baltic Sea, &c 562 

Extent and Popuktion of the World 563 

Christian Missions 565 

Missionary Stations 566 

Newly discovered Islands, dbo. ..... 569 



EXPLANATIONS TO THE CONSULTING INDEX. 



To «Bcertem the pomtioa on the Map of any place mentUmed in the Index, observe the 
letters annexed te it in the fourth oolomn ; then find the corresponding letters on the top 
or bottom and sides of the Map; firom these letters pass the eye abmg the ranges due 
north or sooth, and east or west, until they intersect : in the square in which they meet, 
the place sought for will be found. 

It will be obtenred, that every page of the Index contains two ranges of four columns 
each ; the first of tiicse shows the names of Places, the second the class to which they 
respectively belong, as Cities, Towns, Slc ; the third column points out the Country in 
which places are situated ; and the fourth, the reference letters that correspond with those 
on the top and bottom and sides of the Map, and by means of which the position of cities 
and towns may be found. F<»r example, Aaik, the first name in the Index, is an Island 
in North America, the Reference letters attached to which axe A b ; on examining the 
Map, A win be found near the left comer at the top, and b, the second letter, in the left 
hand border in proceeding downward from the top of the Map : by the plan mentioned 
above the square containing Aaik will be found. The second name in the Index, is Aal- 
borg, a town in Denmark, letters M c ; this will be found, according to the rule stated, 
near the the middle of the Map, and about one-third of the breadth fi>om the top ; and by 
the same simple means every place mentioned in the Consulting Index may be readily 
ascertained. 

The figures attached to a few of the names in the first column of the Index, signify 
that those places are represented on the Map by the figures attached to them ; this occurs 
only in the cases of the governments of European Russia, a few of the minor German 
States, and in two or three provinces in Bolivia. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Archipelago 

Bank 

Bight 

Bluff 

Bluffs 

Canal 

Cape 

Channel 

City 

Cliff 

Cliffs 

Coast 

Colony 

Country 

Department 

Desert 

District 

Division 

Duchy and Dukedom . 

Electorate 

Empii» 

Entrance 

Factory 

Falls 

Fiord 

Foreland 



.Arc 
.Bk. 

:T 

.Bis. 

.GnL 

.C. 

.Ch. 

■2- 

.Cls. 
.Cst 

.Cd. 

'^• 

.Dep. 

.Des. 

.Dis. 

.Div. 

.D. 

.EL 

.Em. 

.Ent 

.Fac. 

.Fls. 

Fd. 

.Fid. 



Fork 

Fort 

Government... 
Grand Duchy. 

Group 

Gulf 

Harbour 

Head 

Hill 

Hills 

Hook 

House 

Inlet 

Island 

Islands 

Isthmus 

Kingdom .... 

Lake 

Lakes 

Land 

Mountain .... 
Mountains ... 

Oasis 

Peak 

People 

Pcninsida ...... 



..Fk. 

..Ft. 

..Gov. 

..G.d. 

..Gr. 

..G. 

..Har. 

..Hd. 

..HI. 

..His. 

..Hk. 

..Ho. 

..In. 

..I. 

..Is. 

..Ist 

..Km. 

..L. 

..Ls. 

..Ld. 

..ML 

.rMts. 

..Os. 

..Pk. 

..Pea 

, .Pen. 



Plains 

Point , 

Port 

Possessions. . 

Province 

Promontory . 

Reef 

Reefs 

Republic. .. . 

River 

Rock 

Ruck 

Ruins 

Settlement .. 

Sboal 

Shoals 

Sound 

State 

Station 

Steppe 

Strait 

Territory . . . 

Town 

Tribe 

Village 



.Pis. 
.PL 
.Po. 
•Pos. 
.Pra 
Prm. 
.Rf. 
.Rfs. 
.Rep. 
.R. 
.Rk. 
.Rks. 
.Rns. 
.ScL 
.Sh. 
.Shs. 
.Sa 
.SL 
.Sta. 
.Ste. 
.Str. 
• Ter. 
.T. 
.Tr. 
.Vil. 



TT 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Aaik 

AAlborg 

Aamua 

Aaom 

Aaom 

Aarhiw 

Aam 

Abaeo 

Abcichai 

Abadeh 

Abahai 

Abakainak • . . 

Abakan 

Abasia 

Abana 

Abawi 

Abb 

Abbakul 

Abbasabad . . . 
Abbazaccm ... 
Abbejjeriiajiip 
Abbetibbe.... 
Abbetibbe .. . . 
Abbetibbe .. . . 
Abbetibbe .. . . 
Abbetibbes . . . 
Abd al Curia . 

Abde^ 

Abee Garm . . 
Abeliagbskaia 
Aberdeen . . . . 
Abingdon . . . • 
Abingdon . . . . 
Abipooes .... 

Abo , 

Aboabinan .. . 

Abomey 

Aboo 

AboChnbbee . . 
Aboa Girgeb • 
AboQ Ibee . . . 

Abookir 

AbiMitiah 

Abraates 

Abreojos . . . . 
Abaheron . . . . 
Abu Arish . . • 
Abu Fatera • • 

Abuna .• 

Abo Seniun . . 



I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

Dis. 

R. 

L. 

Ho. 

Tr. 

L 

T. 

T. 

B. 

?• 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

B. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

IT, 



North America 
Denmark . . . . . 

Barca 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Denmark 

Norway 



Mongolia • 
Peiaui. 



Mongolia .... 
Asiatie Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Rassia 
Asiatic Russia 
Abyssinia.... 

Arabia 

Africa 

Persia 

Africa •...«« 

Africa 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Arabian Sea.. 
Mantchooria . 
Little Bucharia 
Asiatic Russia 

Scotland 

Gallapagos .... 

Virginia 

South America 

Russia 

Barbary 

Dahomey 

Tibesty 

Arabia 

%ypt 

Arabia 

Egypt 

Egypt 

Portugal ... . 
Malaysia ..... 
Asiatic Russia 
Arabia . . ... 

Arabia , 

Peru 

BergoQ 



Ab 
Mc 
Ne 
Ud 
Vd 
Mc 
Mb 
Gf 
Rd 
Pe 
Td 
Sc 
Sc 
Od 
Qc 

Pe 

Mh 

S§ 

Gd 
Gd 
Gd 
Gd 

Pg 
Ud 
Qd 
Va 
Lc 
Fb 
Ge 
Hk 
Nb 
Le 
Mh 
Nf 
Pf 
Of 
Of 
Oe 
Of 
Le 
Uf 
Pd 
Oe 
P? 
Hi 
Ng 



HUMOf riMMk 



Abu Shareb . 
Abntua.... . 
Abyaainia .. • 
Acaponeto . . 
Acapulco . . . 

Acari 

Acariay . . . . 
Aooarah . . ! . 
Achagnas. .. 

Acbeeu 

Acheen 

Achil 

Achtuskaye . 

Achita 

Acoma 

Acquire . . . . 

Acra 

Acre 

Acton 

Adach 

Adair 

Adamowa. . 
Adamowa. . • 

Adams 

Adams 

Adana 

Addington .. 
Addon. ..«.. 

Adel 

Adda 

Adelaide. ... 
Adelaide.,.. 
Adelaide. . . . 

Aden 

Aden 

Adjidi 

Auniralty .. . 
Admiralty . . 
Admiralty . , 
Admiralty . . 
Admiralty .. 
Admiralty . . 
Admiralty . , 
Admiralty . < 

Adoo 

Adowa 

Adramyti .*• 
Adrianople .. 
Adriatic . . . . 
AdventBTB .. 



T. 

Cty 

^: 

R. 
T. 



Bergoo .... 

Africa 

Africa 

Mexico.... 
Mexico. .«. 
South Peru 

Brazil 

Ashantee .. 
Venezuela.. 



Sumatra < 

Ireland 

Asiatic Russia 

Japan 

Mexico , 

Patagonia .... 

Arabia 

Syria 

Brit. America , 
North America 
Brit America 

Soudan 

Soudan 

Ceylon 

Ceylon 

Asiatic Turkey 
North America 



Km. Sumatra • 

^'- 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

Ho. 

L 

C. 

T. 
Br. 
Pk. 
T. 
C. 
L 

Km. 
L 

Bay 
Bk. 
I. 
G. 
T. 
.R. 

I. 

L 

L 

In. 

Rks 

So. 

Cat 

T. 

T. 

S: 

Sea 
I. 



Africa 

Australasia.... 
Brit America 
Indian Ocean . 
S. Pacific Oc. 

Africa 

Arabia 

Barbary 

New Zealand. . 
New HoUand. . 
Australasia... . 
North America 
Nova Zembla 
Brit America 
Australasia... 
Patagonia.... 
Guinea ..•••. 
Abyssinia.... 
Asutic Turkey 
Turkey . . 
Europe. . . 
Polynesia. 



N^ 

F^ 

Mh 
Hh 
Sh 
Sh 
Lc 
Qc 
Ve 
Ke 
Hn 
Of 
Oe 
Ec 
Ac 
Ha 
Mh 
Mh 
Rh 
Rh 
Oe 
Dc 
Qi 
0|f 

Fa 
Pi 
Ho 

Me 
Xm 

UJ 
Vi 
Dc 
Pa 
Ga 
Wl 
Hn 
h 
Og 
Ne 
Nd 
Nd 
Cj 



u 



G0NSULTIN6 INDEX. 



idy 

Idzerbijan. . . . 

^eng 

Iffdgay 

Ifiboo 

V&hanutan... 

imgnak 

ifrican 

igadeer 

igan 

igardam . . . . 

igaiee 

igattu 

igrdass 

\grda8e 

^gen 

igrgrerhuns.... 

^ggidiba 

^gffrochiawik . 

\ghadefl 

A^miflca 

^gra 

^a /.•- 

igrahaskoi . . . 

.\grram 

.\guacalo 

^^adiUa 

^goatuleo . . . , 
\gulogfak.. . ., 
\gwi80eowik.. 

fVhkaf. 

ihmedabad . . . 
Vhmedapore •• 
ihmedanagnr . 

\iakit. . ! 

iidak 

iidat 

l^iLsa 

/ilia 

\\m 

^mis 

4iiiad 

^inoor 

lion 

iitkens 

litatake 

iix 

iizu 

ijaccio 

%jan 

i^mere 

ijon 

ikaba 

Ualzike 

ikarman .... 
ikchinskam . 

ikka 

ikkably 

ik Kourgan . 
Ikkum 



,L 
Pr. 
. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
.Cty. 



T. 
R. 

.a 

T. 

I. 

T. 
. T. 
Div. 
T. 
Tr. 
T. 
L 
Pr. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L. 
. C. 
Des. 

•?f 

T. 

R. 
. R. 
. I. 
.T. 
. I. 
. I. 
.R. 
. L. 
. T. 
. Sta. 
. I. 
. Rk. 
. I. 

:^- 

.T. 

.Cty 

. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
T. 
. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
.T. 



Indian Ocean 

Persia 

Birmah 

Soudan 

Africa 

Asia 

North America 
Indian Ocean 

Morocco 

Adatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Aleout Arc... . 

Africa 

Africa 

France 

Norway 

Soudan.. . •». . 
Brit America 

Africa 

Brit America 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia 

Austria 

Mexico 

Porto Rico. ... 

Mexico 

North America 
Brit America 

Arabiii 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Caspian Sea. . . 

Japan 

Scoresby*s Ld. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Arabia 

Nubia 

Asiatic Russia 
Atlantic Ocean 

Polynesia 

France 

Japan 

Corsica 

Africa 

Hindoostan . . . 
Negrros 



P e 

S« 

Mg 

Mg 

Qe 

Be 

Pi 

Le 

Qb 

Va 

Mf 

Xc 

Mg 

Mg 

Md 

Mb 

Mh 

6b 

Mg 

6c 

Rf 

Rf 

Pd 

Nd 

Ee 

^^ 

Be 
6b 
Pf 
Qf 
Qf 

l« 
Pc 

Ua 

Pe 

Vd 

K a 

Xg 
Uc 
Nb 

^^ 

Xb 
Lc 

Bj 

Md 

Ve 

Md 

Ph 

Qf 

Uh 

Arabia Of 

Od 
Od 
To 
Lf 
Mf 
Qd 
Re 



Akian. 



Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 



Africa 

Tartary 

Little Thibet . 



Akmetcbet.... 

Aksu 

Aksu 

Akul 

Akum 

Akyab 

Akyab 

Ala 

Alabama 

Alabama 

Alacranes 

Aladi 

Alagoas 

Alaid 

Alaika 

AlakUna 

AlakUna 

Aland 

Alanieh 

Alapa 

AlapayoT 

Alatamaha . . . 

Alatyre 

Alavo 

Alazaersk 

Alazcia 

Alazeia 

Albach 

Albania 

Albany 

Albany 

Albany 

Albany , 

Albany 

Albany 

AI Bareton ... 

Albasin 

Albatross 

Albemarle . . . 
Albemarle . . . 

Albenga 

Albert Dirkes 

Albion 

Albion 

Alboran 

Albreda 

Albuquerque . 
Albuquerque . 
Alcantara. . . . 
Alcantara .... 
Alcantara. . . . 

Alchow 

Alcofoaco .... 

Alcodia 

Aldabra 

Aldama 

Aldan 

Aldan 

Aldanskoi... . 



R. 

T. 

C. 

Dis. 

T. 

L. 

I. 

Sta. 

I. 

T. 

St 

R. 

Rk. 

L 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Mts 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

Dis. 

5f 

R. 

Ft 

Ho. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

I. 

So. 

T. 

a 



Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Little Bucharia 
Little Bucharia 
Tartary 
North America 

Birmah 

Birmah 

Arabia 

United States 

Alabama 

Mexico. ...... 

Bay of Bengal 

Brazil 

Kurile Islands 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Russia 



Wb 
Wb 
Od 
Qd 
Rd 
Qc 
Ac 
Sf 
Sf 
Of 
6e 
6e 
6f 
Sh 
Ji 
Wc 
Vb 
Vb 
Vb 
Nb 
Asiatic Turkey O e 



Mexico. 
Asiatic Russia 
6eor^a 



L 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 



Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Turkey 

Brit America 
New York.... 
New Holland 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Barca 

Mantchooria . . 
New Zealand. . 
6allapagoe . . . . 
North Carolina 

Sardinia 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Australasia ... . 
Australasia... . 

Spain 

Scneranbia . . . 

Bolivia 

Mexico 

Branl 

Brazil 

Spain 

Mantchooria . . 

Brazil 

Soudan 

Indian Ocean.. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 



Pc 

6e 

Pc 

Nb 

Wb 

Vb 

Wb 

Lf 

Nd 

6c 

H d 

Tl 

6c 

6c 

Fc 

Ne 

Uc 

XI 

Fi 

6e 

Md 

Ma 

Wi 

VI 

Le 

'/ 

Ee 
li 
Ji 
Le 

Ud 

Pi 
Vc 
Ub 
Ub 
Ub 



CONSULTING INDKX. 



13 



Aldernay 

Aldota 

Aleiakoi 

Alekaandrov. . . . 

AlcD^on 

Aleoutian 

AleouUkaia . . . . 

Aleppo 

Alexander 

AJezaDder Ist.. 

Alexander 

Alexander 

Alexander 

Alexandria 

Alexandria 

Alexandria 

Alexandrina. . . . 
AiexandroT . . . . 
Alexandrovak.. . 
Alexandrovskaia 
Aiexeivskaya • . . 

Alfbnmo 

Algiers 

Algiers 

Algoa 

Alhandra , 

Aliaska 

Alicante 

Alimya 

Alipatak 

AJiatoriBkot 

AI Jesira 



Allahabad 

ADaliabad 

Allah Shehr.... 

AlUa 

Alleghany 

AUegranza 

Allen's 

Allepie 

AUison*8 

Amflon*8 

Alkmdi 

AllSainto 

Alloffiiti 

Almagro 

Ahnaffner 

Almaheira 

Almeida 

Almeida 

Almeida 

Almeirin 

Almeria 

Almesego 

Almirante 

Almoden 

Almora. . . , 
Alojamento 

Alola 

Alonam . . . 



Str. 

Mts. 

I. 

Rf. 

T. 

£:' 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

^: 

T. 
Is. 



English Cik .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

France 

N. Pacific Oc. . 
Aleoutian Arc. 

Syria 

Tartary 

S. Pacific Oc. . 
Oregon Ter. .. . 
BriL America . 
Benguela 

%ypt 

D. of Columbia 

Louisiana 

New S. Wales. 

Russia 

Russia 

North America 
Asiatic Russia 
Indian Ocean. 

Afiica 

Algiers 

'^ Colony . 

Brazil 

North America 

Spain 

Asiatic Russia 
Brit America 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Turkey 
Tartary ... 
Hindoostan 
Hindoostan 
Asiatic Turkey 
Malaysia .... 
United States. . 
Canary Islands 
N. Pacific Oc. . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Greenland r. . . 
Brit America . 

Abyssinia 

Brazil 

Polynesia 

Spain 

New Grenada . 

Malaysia 

Brazil 

Portugal 

Mozambique . . 

Brazil 

Spain 

Brazil 

Indian Ocean.. 

Spain 

Hindoostan . . . 

Chili 

Afi>ica 

Australasia . . . 



R. 
T. 
T. 

Arc 
Is. 
Cy. 
Bay 

Ft 
Ft 
Po. 
Cy. 

S^' 
T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

I. 

Cty. 

Sy- - 

Bay Cape 
T. ~ 
Pen. 

'^: 

I. 

T. 

Pr. 

L. 

Pr. 

Cy. 



MtL 



Ld 

Vc 

Re 

Od 

Md 

Xc 

Xc 

Oe 

Pd 

Ga 

Dc 

Fc 

Mj 

Nc 

Ge 

Fe 

VI 

Oc 

Od 

Be 

Tc 

Pi 

Me 

Me 

Nl 

Ji 

Be 

Le 

Pb 

Hb 

Xb 

Oe 

Qd 

Rf 

Rf 

Ne 

Ti 

Ge 

Lf 

Af 

Rh 

la 

Fa 

i' 

L e 
Gh 

Uh 

Jj 
Ld 

Oj 

li 

Le 

li 

Pi 

Le 

Rf 

Hk 

PP 

Tl 



Aluktapul. 
i Alvarado. . 



Alps 

Alsapahta 

Alstahoug 

Alta-vela 

Altchighe 

Altengaard . . . . 
AltenskcM .... 
Alto do Cham 

Alton 

Altyn 

Aluik . 



Alviavara 

Amabara , 

Amakirrima. . . . 

Amakusa ... . . 

Amanbahy 

Amanguchi . . . ■ 

Amarante 

Amargura 

Amaroleite .. . . . 

Amasia 

Amassero 

Amatique 

Amatitlan 

Amazon 

Ambatamb .. .. . 

Ambatonmango 

Ambloo 

I Ambow 

Amboyna 

Ambriz 

Ambro 

Ambrym 

Ambuge 

Anegada 

Ameland 

Ameraglik 

America 

Arogha 

Amginskoi 

Amgouis 

Amguema 

Amhara ....... 

Amherst 

Amherst 

Amherst 

Amherst 

Amiens 

Aminski 

Amitioke 

Amlai 

Amol 

i Amoo 

Amooliagbskaia 

Amour 

Amoy 

Amoy 

Amsterdam . . . . 

Amsterdam . . . . 



Mts. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

L. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

T. 

L. 

I. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Is. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

5^- 

Bay 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

T. 
I. 
I. 
I. 

5r- 

I. 



I. 
T. 
R. 
G. 
R. 



Ret 



Md 
Nb 
Mb 

?« 
R e 

Nb 



Europe 

Norway 

Norway 

West indies.. . 

Thibet 

Norway 

Asiatic Russia. T d 

Brazil |l i 

Illinois 'F e 

Re 
Jb 
Qd 

yg 
Nb 
Tb 
Uf 
Ue 
Ik 
Ue 

Od 
Od 

^« 

f^ 
Pk 

Pj. 
Ui 

V 

sJ 1 
Mi 

J] 

Nl 

Hg 

M c 

lb 

Bh 

Ub 

Ub 

Wc 

Xb 

2^ 

Sg 

Hd 
Ue 
Gb 
Mc 
Qb 
Gb 
Ac 
Pe 
Pd 
Va 
Uc 
Tf 
Tf 
Mc 
Rl 



Asiatic Russia 
Greenland . . . 
Soongaria.. .. 

Mexico 

Norway 

Asiatic Russia 
Eastern Sea.. . 

Japan 

Paraguay .... 

Japan 

BrazU 

Polynesia .. .•< 

Brazil 

Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Turkey 
Guatemala .... 
Guatemala .... 
South America 
Madagascar... 
Madagascar.. . 

Malaysia 

Polynesia 

Malaysia 

Congo 

Madagascar.. . 
Australasia... . 

Congo 

West Indies.. . 

Holland 

Greenland .... 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Abyssinia 

Birmah 

North America 

Corea 

Brit America . 

fVance 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
North America 

Persia 

TarUry 

Asiatic Russia. 
MantchoMria . . 

China 

China 

Holland 

Southern Ocean 



3 



14 



CX)NSULTING INDEX. 



KaiDM of FIften, fcc. 



Amsterdam . 

Amtatka.. .. 
I Anabarskoe . 

' Anadir 

I Anadir . . . . . 
1 Anadirskoi . . 

; Anah 

! Anaiajan . . . 
I Anaklia . . * < 
I Ananour .. .. 
' Anapa 

Anaaeh ... ■ 

Anatolia .. . 

Anauan .... 

Anazo 

Anbac .. ... 

Anchor .... 

Anchorites . 



.T. 

. Sea 

. R. 

.T. 

.T. 

. I. 

.T. 

.T. 

.T. 

,Tr. 

.Pr. 

. R. 

.R. 

. R. 

.Pt 

. Is. 

Anclute C. 



I. 



Ancona Cy. 

Ancrctc Bay 

Andalgala L. 

Andaman Is. 

Andaman* East . Is, 
Andaman, Great 
Andaman, Little 

Andencss 

Andero 

Anderson 

Andes 

Andes of Cuchao 

Andgan 

Andkoo 

Andocn 

Andom 

Andorra 

Andorra 

Andozero 

Andraida 

Andrcanovskie. 
Androssan .... 
Andujar ...... 

Ancmur 

Angad 

Angala 

Angali 

Angara, Lower 
Angara, Superior 
Angarka. . 
Angazicha 
Angeia . . . 
Angel .... 
Angers . . . 
Anglesea . . 
Angola ... 
Angola ........ jCst 

Angora Cy. 

Angomow T, 

Angostura Cy, 

i Angote Dis 

i Aiigour I. 



C. 

Mts. 

Mts. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

L. 

Rep 

T. 
. T. 
. C. 

Is. 
. Pk. 

T. 
, T. 

Des. 
. T. 

I. 

Pr. 
rR. 

R. 

I. 
. T. 

H. 

:^^- 

.ay 



Spitsbergen . . . 
Aleoutian Arc. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Arabia 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Arabia 

Asiatic Turkey 

Brazil , 

Abyssinia. . .. 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 
Australasia . . . 

Mexico 

Italy 

Greenland .... 
Buenos Ayres . 
Bay of Bengal. 
Bay of Bengal. 
Bay of Bengal . 
Bay of Bengal . 

Norway 

Archipelago. . . 
North America 
South America 

Peru 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Norway 

Russia 

Spain 

Spain 

Russia 

Tartary 

Aleoutian Arc 
Brit America 

Spain 

Asiatic Turkey O e 
Algiers \M. e 



Ma 
Xc 
Ta 
Ab 
Xb 
Xb 
Oe 

Vg 

Od 

Od 

Od 

Oe 

Oe 

Ih 

Og 

S b 

Be 

Vi 

Ef 

Md 

Jb 

Hk 

i« 
sg 

Na 

Ne 

Ab 

Hj 

Hj 

Qd 

Qc 

Nb 

Ob 

Md 

Md 

Ob 

Pd 

Xc 

Ha 

Le 



Ng 
Td 
Sc 
Tc 
Wb 

V 

ti 

Lc 

Ni 
Mi 
Oe 
Mg 
Hh 
Og 
Polynesia | U li 



Soudan 

Mantchooria . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Indian Ocean . 

Brazil 

Africa 

France 

England 

Africa 

Africa 

Asiatic Turkey 
Soudan . . , 
Venezuela 
Abyssinia 



Angola... . 

Angra 

Angrar... . 

Angra 

Angra de St Am- 
brosia 

Angra Juntas.. 
Angra Pequina 

Angria*s 

Anguijan 

Anguilla 

I Anguilla 

Anguilla 

An'tBcmburg2*2 
AnhaltCothen21 
Anhalt Dessau 20 
Anholt ... 

Anikom 

Aniuy 

Aniwa 

Aniwa 

Anjicr 

Ankapilly 

Ankcnes 

Ankobcr 

Ann 

Annaa 

Annabaloo 

Anna de Chaves 

Annadia 

Annamooka .. . . 

Annapa 

Annapolis 

Annans 

Annatom 

Anne 

Annobon 

Annobon 

Ann^s 

Annunciation.. . 
Annunciation.. . 
Annunciation.. . 

Anok 

Anonca 

Anquilla 

Anson 

Anson^s 

Ansvig 

Antadcr 

Antalo 

Antas 

Antenego .... 

Anthony 

Antibes 

Anticosti 

Antigua ... . 

Antioch 

Antipodes. .. . 
Antioquia. . . . 
Anton Gils. . . 
Antonio Viana 



Mozambique 

Africa 

Azores ... . 
Abyssinia.. . 



Dis. 
Bay 
I. 
R. 

Bay 

Bay 

Bay 

Bk, 

I. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

D. 

D. 

D. 

1. 

T. 

R. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R, 

T. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

I. 

Str. 

I. 

R. 

I. 

Bay 

Arc. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

ViL 

R. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

^'- 

T. 

Bay 

Bk 



Oi 
Kf 
K e 
Mh 



Africa.. , 

Africa 

Africa 

Asia 

Polynesia 

Newfoundland. 
West Indies.. . 
Bahamas .... 

Germany ..... 

Germany ...... 

Germany .... 

Denmark .... 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Scghalien .... 

Seghalien .... 

Java 

Hindoostan .. 

Norway 

Abyssinia. . . . 
Massachusetts . 
Polynesia 
Sumatra . 
St Thomases I. 

Brazil 

Polynesia.. .. 

Brazil 

Nova Scotia .. 
New Zealand. 
Australasia... 
Endcrby's Ld. 
Annobon I. . . 
Soutliern Ocean 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia 
Indian Ocean 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 
Asiatic Russia 

Bahamas 

xVewHoUand 

Polynesia 

Norway 

Russia 

Abyssinia 

Brazil 

Mexico 

Mozambique . . 

France 

North America 
West Indies... 

Syria 

Australasia .... 
New Grenada . 
Madagascar .. . 
Soutliern Ocean 



Mk 
Nk 

Nk I 



Mc 
Mc 
M c 
M c 
Uc 
Wb 
Vd 
Vd 
Ti 

Rgf 

Nb 
Oh 
Hd 

Cj 
Sh 

Mhj 

'A 

li 

Hd 

Xm 

Xk 

Po 

Mi 

Mi 

Ag i 

Va ! 

Pi 

Va 

Ac 

Xb 

Gf 

Uj 

Wf 

Mb 

Od 

Og 

Ik 

£e 

Oj 

Md 

H d 

Hg 

Oe 

Xm 

II h 

Pj 

Mj 



C50NSULTING INDEX. 



15 



NasM at FlMHk fte. Cisik 



Antrobos 

Antwerp 

Anxiety 

Anziko 

Anziko 

Aoagan 

Apacheria 

Apae 

Apako 

Apalachioola . . . 

Apalacbie 

Apallo 

Apoluria 

Apenrade 

Apiokacumiah . . 

Apnuas 

Apostles, Twelve 
Apoukinskoi . . . 

Apparent 

Appenine 

Appolonia 

Apsley 

Apore 

Apurimac 

Aqnin 

Arabella 

Arabia 

Arabia Deserta . 
Arabia Felix ... 
Arabia Petrea . . 

Arabian 

Arabs {of the) . . 

Aracaty 

Aracis 

Arad 

Arafat 

aT"^::::::: 

I Aranary 

Aranda.. 

Aransaso 

Ararat 

Araschie 

Arancanoe 

Araxes 

Area 

Areas 

Archangel 

Archangel 

Archangel 

Archidona 

Archipelago . . . . 

Arcos 

Arctic 

Ardatov 

Ardebil 

Arden 

Ardencaple 

Ardra 

Arecivo 

Arena 



C. 

Sy 

PL 

T. 

R. 

Dis. 

L 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

I. 

I. 

T. 

L. 

L. 

Is. 

C. 

Har 



Brit America 

Belgium 

North America 

Africa 

Africa 

Asiatic Rossia 

Mexico 

Australasia .. 
Asiatic Russia 

Florida 

Florida 

Polynesia 

Indian Ocean . . 

Denmark 

Brit. America 

Sweden 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit. America 



Mts. Italy. 

T. ^ ■ 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

^ty 

Div. 

Div, 

Div. 

G, 

G. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

Mt 

R. 

Sea 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

Mt 

T. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

Is. 

Pr. 

2^' 
Bay 

T. 

Sea 

T. 

So. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

In. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



Ashantee 

News. Wales . 

Venezuela 

Peru 

Hayti 

Brit America 

Asia 

Arabia 

Asia 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Egypt 

BrazU 

South America 

Austria 

Arabia 

Brazil 

Tartary 

Brazil 

Spain 

Texas 

Asiatic Turkey 

Barca 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Mexico 

Russia 

Russia ... 

Russia 

Ecuador 

Medlterran. Sea 

Brazil 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Persia 

New S. Wales . 
Scoresby^s Ld. 

Dahomey 

Porto Rico .... 
Brit America 



Ha 
M c 
Ca 
Mi 

Ni 
Xb 
Ee 

^i 

Gf 

Gf 

Ri 

Mc 

He 

Mb 

Fd 

Xb 

Hb 

Md 

Lh 

Wl 

Hh 

Hj 

Hg 

Ha 

Pf 

Of 

9.^ 
Oe 

Of 

Ne 

Ji 

li 

Nd 

Of 

li 

Pd 

Ih 

Ld 

Ff 

Oe 

Nf 

HI 

Po 

Lf 

Ff 

Ob 

Ob 

Ob 

Gi 

Ne 

li 

Eb 

Oe 

P e 

VI 

K a 

Mh 

Hg 

Fd 



Nanet of Fliean, fte. 



Arendal 

Arenoe 

Arentes 

Arensburg .... 

Arequipa 

Arcquipa 

Arez 

Argha 

Arghis 

Argonaut 

Argounskoi . . . 

Arianas 

Arguin 

Argyin ....... 

Ari AtoUon .. . . 

Arica 

Aric'ePs 

Arid 

Arinhos 

Arispe 

, Arjeplog 

I Arkansas 

Arkansas ..... 

Arkansas 

Arkeeko 

Arlagnarioo . . . 

Ariagnuk 

Arraa 

Armenia 

Armstrong's. . . 

Arna 

Amar 

Arnetifbrd . . . . 

Aruheims 

Arnheim 

Amo 

Aroan 

Arolapozi 

Arovango 

Arracan 

Arracan 

Arrackschecf .. 

Arran 

Arrecife 

Arrelakskoi . . . 

Arroo 

Arrowsmith . . . 

Arrowsmith*s.. 

Arsk 

Arta 

Arthur's 

Arthur's 

Arthur's Table. 

Artillcro 

Artillery 

Arubah 

Arvids 

Arzamass 

Arzobizpo 

Asa 

Asangara 



T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Dep 

Cy. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

Bay 

f. 

I. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

|T. 

St 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

^. 

a,. 

T. 

U. 

T. 

Ld. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

^'- 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

R. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Mt 

T. 

L. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

Fd. 

T. 



Norway 

Norway 

Malaysia 

Russia 

South Peru . . . 
South Peru . . . 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Turkey 

Coiea 

Asiatic Russia 

Equador 

Africa 

Africa 

Maldives 

South Peru 

Polynesia 

New Holland. . 

Brazil 

Mexico 

Sweden 

United Stales.. 

Arkansas 

United States . . 

Abyssinia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
New Grenada . 

Asia 

Polynesia 

Tibcsty 

Iceland 

Norway 

New Holland . . 
News. Wales. 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Mantchooria . . 

Africa 

Birmah 

Birmah 

Polynesia 

Scotland 

Buenos Ayres . 
Asiatic Russia 
Australasia .... 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Russia 

Greece 

Polynesia. . . . 

Polynesia 

Guiana 

Chili 

Brit America 
Bcloochistan . . 

Sweden 

Russia 

Polvnesia 

Iceland 

South Peru . . . 



Nc 
Na 
Ti 
Nc 
Hj 

J 1 

Vb 

Oe 

Ue 

Tc 

Hi 

Kf 

Kf 

Qh 

Hj 

Wh' 
Ul 

L^e 
Nb 
Fe 
Fe 

Fo I 

Og 

Gb 

Gb 

Hh 

Od 

A k 

Nf 

Kb, 

Mb 

Uj 

^i 

Nj 
Sf 
Sf 

L c 

II 

Ub 

Vi 

N k 

Xh 

Pc 

Ne 

Wg 

Ai 

Ih 

Hm 

Eb 

Qf 

Nb 

Oe 

Vf 

Kb 

Hj 



16 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



sof Fboatfte. 



Asben 

Ascension 

Ascension 

Asele 

Ashangce 

Ashangee 

Ashantee 

AshrafT 

Ashtola 

Asia Minor . . . 

Asinanl 

Askersund .... 

Askow 

Asoada 

Asplands 

Assam 

Assean 

Asseergur .... 
Assea* Ears • . . 

Assicu 

Assinco 

Assiniboia .... 
Assiniboine . . . 
Assiniboines... 

Assouan 

Assuay ....... 

Assumpcam ... 
Assompcao. . . . 

Astsurapcion ... 
Assumpcion .« . 
Assumption . . . 

Astara 

Astor^ 

Astoria 

Astovo 

Astrabad 

Astrabad 

Astrachan 

Astrachan . . I . 
Astronomical Soc 
Atakembo . . 
Atbara .... 
Atbara' .... 

Atcha 

Atchafalaya 
Atchinsk,. . 
Atchipov. . . 

Atfieh 

Athabasca.. 
Athabasca.. 
Athabasca . . 
Athabasca . . 
Athens .... 
Athens .... 
Athlone .... 

Athol 

Athol 

Atico 

Atikan .... 
Atkarsk . . . 
Atlas 



Afi-ioa. 
Mexico 
Southern Ocean 
Sweden .... 
AbjBsinia. . . 
Abyssinia. . . 

Gjiinea 

Persia 

Belpochistan 
Asiatic Turkey 



T. 
Bay 

T. 

T. 

L. 

Cty. 

T. 

I. 

T. 
R. 
T. 

h 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

Set 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

Dep 

T. 

T. 

c, 
I. 

T. 

Ft 

1. 

Pr. 

T. 

Pr. 

Cy. 

Is. 

I. 

Db. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

L. 

R. 

Ft 

5^ 

T. 
C. 
I. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
Mts. 



Mff 

L 1 
Nb 
Og 
Og 
Lh 
Pe 
Qf 
Oe 



Mediterran. Sea M d 



Sweden 

Brit America 

Africa 

South Shetland 
Hindoofltan . . . 
Brit America 
Hindoostan . . . 

Japan 

Africa 

Guinea 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Egypt 

Equador 

Brazil 

Brazil ........ 

Paraguay 

I Polynesia 

Indian Ocean.. 

, Persia 

Spain 

Oregon Ter... . 
Indian Ocean . 

Persia 

Persia 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America 
Polynesia. . . . 
Nubii 



Mc 

Ec 

Mg 

lo 

Sf 

Fc 

Rf 

Uc 

Mg 

Lh 

Fd 

Fd 

Fc 

Of 

Hi 

li 

Ji 

Ik 

Pi 
Pe 
Ld 
Dd 

V 
Pe 

Pe 

Pd 

Pd 

Fd 

^j 
Og 

Nubia lOg 

North America 'A e 

Louisiana |Ff 

Asiatic Russia. S c 

Asiatic Russia 

Egypt 

Brit America 

Brit America . 

Brit America 

jOregon Ter... 

Greece 

Georgia 

Ireland 

Brit America 

Brit America 

Soutli Peru . . 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Morocco 



Qb 

Of 

Ec 

Ec 

Ec 

Ec 

Ne 

Ge 

Lc 

Ha 

Fa 

Hj 

Wb 

Oc 

Le 



Nauei of Viaem, ke. 



Atol Adomatis 
AtolNalosMadou 

Atooi 

Atorka 

Atoupinskoi ... 
Atahwahpiskan 

Attnas 

Attnas 

Attock 

Attoo 

Attruck 

Attuio 

Atui 

Auckland 

Aucutta 

Audicrne 

Augsburg 

Auguela 

Augusta ...... 

Augusta 

Augusta 

Aulas 

Aur .•. . 

Aurillac 

Aurora 

Aurungabad. .. 
Aurungabad . . . 

Austral 

Australasia. . .. 

Australia 

Australia del Es- 
piritu Santo 

Austria 

Autridge 

Auz Cayes . . . 

Aujcerro 

Ava 

Avamska . . .. 
Avanteos .... 

Aveiro 

Aveiro 

Averella 

Aves 

Avignon 

Avila 

Aviles 

Avinoff ...... 

Avistivable . . . 

Awa 

Awa 

Awadsi 

Awatska 

Axar 

Azum 

Ayacucho. . . . 
Ayacucho. . . . 

Ayas 

Aylmer 

Aypore 

I Ayr 

Ayr, North . . . 



I. 
I. 
I. 
I. 

C. 
R. 
Tr. 
ViL 

!'■ 

R. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 

Cy. 

T. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

Set 

T. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Pr. 

I': 

Div. 
I. 

I 

Em. 
Bay 
T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

^^: 

T. 

C. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

Fd. 

T. 

Dep 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 



Maldives ..... 
Maldives ..... 
Sandwich Is. . 
Kurile Is. ... . 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit. America 
Oregon Ter... 
Oregon Ter... 
Hindoostan .. 
Aleout Arc. 

Persia 

Arabia 

Polynesia .... 
Australasia... 

Asia 

Kerguelcn^s Ld. 

Bavaria 

Barca 

Greorgia 

Maine 

New Holland 

Arabia 

Polynesia. . . . 

France 

Australasia... 
Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan . . 
Polynesia. .... 
Oceanica .... 
Australasia ... 

Australasia . . 

Europe 

Brit America 

Hayti 

Franc© 

Birmah 

Asiatic Russia 

Peru 

BrazU 

Portugal ... . 
Cochin China 
West Indies... 
France . . . 
Spain .... 
Spain .... 
North America 
Oregon Ter. .. 

Japan 

Spain 

Japan 

Asiatic Russia 

Iceland 

Abyssinia 

SouUiPeru.... 
South Peru.... 

Arabia 

Brit America . 

Sumatra 

Scotland 

North America 



Qh 
Qh 
Bf 
Vd 
Xb 
Go 
Dc 
Dc 
Qe 
Xc 
Pe 

%i 

Xn 

^^ 
Qm 

Md 

Nf 

Ge 

Hd 

Tl 

Of 

Xh 

Md 

^j 
Rg 

Rg 

Ck 
Vk 
Uk 

Xj 

N4 

Ga 

Hg 

Md 

Sf 

Rb 

Hi 

11 

Ld 

Tg 

Hg 

Md 

Ld 

Ld 

Be 

Dc 

Ve 

Ld 

Ue 

Wc 

Kb 

Og 

Hj 

Hj 

Eb 
Si 
Lc 
Hb 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



17 



A jrao 

Ay tan ........ 

Azamore 

Azanaga. ..... 

Azania 

Azores 

Azov Sea 

Azov 

Azua ^ . .. 

Azaela 

Baadja 

Baab 

Babahan 

Babalia 

&*bbage 

Babean 

Babelthoop 

Bab el Mandeb 

Baber 

Babiacora 

Babine 

Babine 

Baboobane .... 

Babuyan 

Babylon 

Bacaoru 

Back's 

Back's 

Back's 

Baamda 

Bacras 

Bacaachi 

Badagry 

Badajos 

Badakafaan .... 
Badakshan .... 
Baddagame . . . . 

Baden 7 

Badinska 

Badoc 

Baependy 

Ba61a 

Baedoo 

Baffin's 

Baffin's 

Baffin's 

Baganga 

Bagatova , 

Bagdad 

Bagoe 

Bagottan 

Bafoudiska ... 

Bahama 

Bahama 

Bahama, Old . . 

Bahama 

Babar 

Bahar 

Baharootzees . . . 
Bahawnlpore . . 

2» 



T. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

Cty, 

Is. 

Od. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Dis. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

l! 

Str. 

I. 

T. 

Ft 

Mts. 

R. 

Is. 

Rns 

R. 

Bay 

Pt 

In. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T, 

s^- 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

G.D 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

L 

Har 

T. 

'^ 

T. 

R. 

Is. 

Ch. 

Ch. 

Bk. 

Pr. 

sj- 

Tr. 
T. 



Brazil 

Mantchooria . . 

Morocco 

Africa 

Africa 

Atlantic Ocean 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Hayti 

Equador 



Africa 

Greenland .... 

Persia 

Soudan 

Brit America . 

Malaysia 

Polynesia 

Aihca 

Australasia . . . 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Tartary 

Malaysia 

Arabia 

Brazil 

Brit America . 
North America 
Brit America 

Tripoli 

Nubia 

Mexico 

Dahomey .... 

Spain 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Ceylon 

Germany .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Luzon 

Brazil 

Senegambia .. 

Soudan 

Greenland . . . 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Mindanao I. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Turkey 

Africa 

Borneo 

Asiatic Russia 
West Indies.. 
West Indies.. 
West Indies.. 
West Indies. . 
Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan . . 

Africa 

Hindoostan . . 



Uta. 



Hi 
Ud 
Le 
Lf 
Ph 
Ke 
Od 
Od 
H^ 
Hi 

Nh 
I b 
Pe 

?« 
Fa 

Ti 

Uh 

Og 

Vi 

Ff 

Dc 

Dc 

Qd 

Ug 
Oe 

E^b 
Ca 
Eb 
Me 

2« 
Ee 

Mh 

Le 

Qe 

Qe 

Rh 

Md 

Ub 

Ug 

Jk 

Lg 

Mg 

la*" 

Gb 

Ha 

Uh 

Re 

Oe 

L^ 

Ti 

Ub 

Gf 

Gf 

Gf 

Gf 

Rf 

Rf 

Nk 

Qf 



NamM of riaoai, Ac 



Bahia 
Babia 
Bahia de Todos 

Santos 
Bahia de Todos 

Santos 

Bahia Grande . . 
Bahia Nueva . . . 

Bahoulda 

Bahrein 

Bahr el Abiad . . 
Bahr el Ada. . . . 
BahrelGhazal.. 

Bahr Kulla 

Bahr Miri 

Baikal 

Baillies 

Baillies 

Baja 

Bajoor 

Bakau 

Bake 

Baker 

Baker's 

Baker's 

Baker's 

Bakhtegan 

Bakhmout 

Bakhta 

Baklanova 

Bakou 

Bakrain 

Balabac 



Balafouan 

Balaklava 

Balambangan.. . 

Balasore 

Balatov 

Balaugir 

Balbec 

Balcash 

Bald 

Bald 

Balearic 

Bale of Cotton. 

Balfrush 

Balize 

Balize 

Balize 

Balkan 

Balkan 

Balkh 

Balkoui 

Ball's Pyramid. , 

Bally 

Balmala 

Balpinskoi 

Balsamao • 

Balta 

BalUc 

I Baltimore 



Pr. 
Cy. 

Bay 

Bay 

Bay 

Bay 

Des. 

I. 

R. 

R. 

Dis. 

R. 

R. 

L. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Fd. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

L. 

L. 

T, 

R. 

Ft 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

£f 

I. 

Hd. 

Is. 

Rk. 

T. 

Ter. 

T. 

R. 

Bay 

Mt 

§f 

Rk. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Sea 

Cy. 



Brazil . 
Brazil . 



Brazil 

Buenos Ayres . 
Patagonia .... 
Patagonia .... 

Nubia 

Persian Gulf . 

Africa 

Africa 

Soudan ..- 

Soudan 

Soudan 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit. America . 
Brit America . 

Austria 

Cabul ..../.... 
Asiatic Russia. 

Iceland 

Brit America . 
Brit. America . 
Patagonia .... 
Brit America . 

Persia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Arabia 

Malaysia 

Mindanao .... 

Russia 

Malaysia ... . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Rucsia 

Little Bucharia 

Syria 

Soongaria 

Australasia... . 
North America 
Mediterran. Sea 

Asia 

Persia 

, North America 

Balize 

North America 

Tartary 

Turkey 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Australasia... . 
Malaysia .... 

Africa 

>^siatic Russia. 

Brazil. 

Russia 

Europe 

Maryland 



Jj 
Jj 

Hm 
Hn 
Hm 

?.f 

Cb^ 

Ng 
Nh 

2^ 
Tc 

Da 

Fb 

Nd 

Qe 

Pd 

Kb 

Fa 

Fb 

Hm 

Fb 

P f 

Od 

S b 

Tc 

Nd 

li 

Uh 
Od 
Th 
Rf 
Oc 
Rd 
Oe 
Qd 
TI 
Bb 
Le 
Rh 
Pe 

S& 

S^ 

2^ 
Pe 

Nd 

Qe 

Pd 

Wl 

Ti 

Nf 

Pb 

Hi 

Od 

Nc 

Ge 



Id 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NamMof Fboatfte. 



Baltimore .. 
Bahigo .... 
Bamba .... 
Bamborra. . 
Bamberg^ . . 
Bambom. .. 
Bambouk . . 
Bambouk . . 
Bameean . . 
Bammakoo . 
Bamoo . « . . 
Bampl&soi.. 
Bampton's . 
Bampton*B . 

Banan 

Banca 

Banca 

Bancora . . . 

Banda 

Banda 

Banda 

Banff 

Bangalore. • 
Bangasai... 
Bangay. .. . 
Bangor . • . • 
Bangue^ . . . 
Baniserile .. 
Bankok.... 
Bankote • . . 
Banks* .... 
Banks* . . . . 
Banks* . . . . 
Banks* . . . . 
Banks* . . . . 
Banks* . . . . 
Banoss . . . . 
Bansmate .. 
Bantam . . . . 
Bantangan . 
Bantry . . . . 
Barabinsk.. 
Baracoa . . . 
Barakak .. . 
BaralasB ... 
Baraaca ... 
Baranoff . . . 
Barataria . . 
Barbacoas.. 
Barbadoes. . 
Barbadoes. . 
Barbalos . . 
Barbarra. . . 
Barbary . . . 
Barbas . . . . 
BarbeU . . . . 
Barbuda . . . 
Barbados . , 

Barca 

Barca . . . . , 
Barcam..., 



. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
.Cty. 

:^- 

.cty. 
. T. 
. T. 
. T. 

:^- 

. I. 

.Sh. 

:^ 

. I. 
.R. 
.Sea 
. I. 
. Pt. 
.T. 
. T. 
.T. 
. I. 

.T. 

:5r- 

. Bay 

.1. 

. I. 

.Str. 

.Sh. 

. Pen 

. R. 

.R. 

. T. 

.C. 

.Bay 

.Ste. 

. T. 

.T. 

. T. 

. T. 
..C. 
, . Bay 
.. T. 

.1. 

.1. 
..R. 
..T. 
..Cty. 
..C. 
..R. 
..I. 
..Tr. 
..Cty. 
.. Des. 
..C. 



Ireland 

Samar 

Congo 

Africa 

Bavaria 

Cochin China 
Sonegambia . . 
Senegambia «• 

Tartary 

Africa 

Birmah 

Siam 

Australasia .. 
Australasia... 

Soudan 

Malaysia .... 
Malaysia .... 

Africa 

Malaysia .... 
Malaysia .... 

Loango 

Scotland 

Hindoostan . . 

Africa 

Malaysia .... 

Maino 

Malaysia .... 
Senegambia .. 

Siam 

Hindoostan . . 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter... 
Australasia . . 
Australasia . . 
North America 
New Zealand. . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Brazil 

Java 

Cochin China . . 

Ireland 

Asiatic Russia. 

Cuba 

Fezzan ....... 

Asiatic Roasia 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia 

Louisiana 

New Grenada . 

Polynesia 

West Indies... 

Brazil 

Liberia 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 

West Indies... 

Peru 

Africa 

Barca 

Spitsbergen . . . 



Lc 
Mi 
Mc 

Lg 

k^ 
Qe 

Sf 
Sg 
Wj 
Wj 
L|r 
Ti 
Uh 
Ni 
Ui 
Ui 
Ml 
Lc 
Kg 

L|r 

Ui 
Hd 
Th 

k« 

Ga 

Dc 

Xj 

Vm 

Cc 

Xm 

Rf 

li 

Ti 

Tg 
Lc 
Re 
Hf 
Mf 
Ub 
Hk 
Wi 
Ff 
Gh 
Ah 



NuBBi of fbeen, fte. 



? 



Me 
Kf 

Ni 

H? 
Hi 

Ne 

Ne 
Na 



Barcello 

Barcelona 

Barcelore 

Barcha 

Barclay 

Bareilly , 

Barentz 

Bargasoutai'. .. . 

Bargousin 

Bargousin .... 

Bari 

Barica 

Baring's 

Baring's 

Barletta 

Barnaule 

Bamcgat 

Baroda 

Barolongs 

Barquisimeto . . 

Barr 

Barra 

Barra 

Barrad 

Barra de Arena 

Barren 

Barren 

Barren 

Barren 

Barrier 

Barrier 

Barrima 

Barrinha 

Barripore 

Barrow 

Barrow 

Barrow 

Barrows 

Barrows 

Barrows 

Barrulo 

Barshli 

Barso 

Barsouk 

Bartfeld 

Barvajoki 

Barwell 

Barzouga 

Basalt 

Baschkirs 

Basheo 

Bashia 

Basht 

Basikana 

BasU 

Basilan 

Basil HaU 

Bas Island . . . . 
Basket Pot.... 

Basle 

Basman 



T. 

T. 

L. 

C. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Pt 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

^^ 
T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

I. 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Rf. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Pt 

Pt. 

I. 

I. 

Str, 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Des. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Mt 

Tr. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

C. 



Brazil 

Venezuela... . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Mongolia 

Scoresby's Ld.. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Nova Zembla 

Soongraria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 

Naples 

Guatemala .... 
Australasia . . . 

Polynesia 

Naples 

Asiatic Russia 
New-Jersey . . 
Hindoostan . . 

Africa 

Venezuela . . . 

France 

Scotland 

Scotland 

Arabia 

Mexico 

NortJi America 
Bay of Bengal 
Madagascar. . 
Australasia... 
Australasia ... 
Australasia.. . 

Guiana 

Brazil 

Hindoostan . . 
Brit. America 
North America 
Madagascar. . 
Australasia . . . 
Polynesia. . . . 
Brit America 

Borneo 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Tartary 

Austria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Australasia... 

Russia 

Tripoli 

Russia 

Malaysia .... 
Senegambia .. 

Persia 

Russia 



Bay Corea . 

Bay 
Ho. 
R. 



Malaysia .... 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter... 
Switzerland . . 
Beloochitftan . 



Hi 
Hh 

Qff 

8d 

Kb 

Rf 

Qa 

Rd 

Tc 

Tc 

Nd 

Gh 

Wk 

Xh 

Nd 

Re 

He 

Qf 

Nk 

Hg 

Md 

Lc 

Lc 

Og 

De 

Be 

^? 
Oj 

Vm 

XI 

Vj 

Ih 

Jj 

Rf 

Eb 

Ba 

Ok 

Tk 

Ck 

Fa 

Th 

Pd 

Ob 

Pd 

Nd 

Qb 

Xj 

Ob 

Nf 

Pc 

Uf 

^^ 
Pe 

Pb 

Ue 

Uh 

£b 

Ec 
Ed 

Md| 
Pf 



CX)NSULTING INDEX. 



19 



NanuBi of FlMBi, ftc. 



Bass . 
fiassa 



Bassas de India . 

Basseen 

Basaeen ....... 

Bastia 

Batabano 

Bataguigan 

Batanga 

Batanta 

Batavia 

Batchian 

Bateman 

Bates 

Batesville 

Bath 

Bath 

Bathurat 

Bathurst 

Bathurtt 

Bathurat 

Bathurat 

Bathurat 

Bathurat 

Bathurat 

Batkali 

Batoch 

Baton Rouge . . . 

Batapolas 

Batoum 

Batraka 

Batta 

Battle 

Battle 

Batticaloe 

Battou 

Batty Malve 

Baude 

Bauflk 

Bautzen 

Bavaria 

Baxo do Ambar. 
Baxo do Patram 
BazoB de Villa 

Loboe .. 
Baxos do8 AbroU 

ho8 

Bayao 

Bayne 

Bayonne.. . 

Bayru 

Bayztatekoi 
Bazarouta. . 
Bazarouta. . 

Bazon 

Beachy .. . . 
Beachy .. . . 

Beana 

Bear 

Bear 



Cisik 



Str, 
Ooye 
C. 
Rks 

^'• 

T. 
Is. 
Is. 

?'• 

Bay 

In. 

T. 

^: 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

In. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Pr. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Km. 

Bk. 

Bk. 

Bks 

Bks 

T. 

I. 

?• 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

T. 

Hd. 

Hd. 

T. 

Is. 

I. 



New S. Wales . 

Liberia 

Africa 

Indian Ooean.. 

Birmah 

Hindoostan . . . 

Coreica 

Cuba 

Samar Iriand. . 
Bay of Bengal. 

Malaysia 

Java 

Malaysia ... . 
New S. Wales . 
Oregon Ter. . . . 

Arkansas 

England 

Texas 

Cape Colony . . 
N. Brunswick . 
Senegambia.. . 
News. Wales. 
Brit. America . 
Brit. America . 
New Holland 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia 

Mongolia 

Louisiana 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 

Barca 

Congo 

Missouri 

Brit. America . 
Ceylon ....... 

Liberia 

Bliy of Bengal. 
New Grenada . 

Russia 

Saxony 

Grermany 

Indian Ocean.. 
Indian Ocean.. 



Polynesia . 



Sondi* America 

Brazil 

Indian Ooean . 

France 

New Grenada . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mozambique . . 

Africa 

TripoU 

Patagonia . . . . 

England 

Hindoostan ... 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 



VI 
Lh 
Ph 
Ok 

Q? 
Md 
Gf 

^« 
S^ 

Ui 

Ti 

Ui 

Wl 

Dc 

Fe 

Lc 

Fe 

Nl 

Hd 

Da 
Fa 

eI 

Pd 

So 

Fe 

Ef 

Od 

Ne 

Mi 

Ed 

Ec 

Rh 

Lh 

Sh 

Gh 

Nc 

Mc 

Md 

Pi 

Pi 

Ag 

U 

Qm 

Ld 

U 

Ok 
Ok 

Ne 
Hm 
Mc 
Rf 
Gc 
Wa 



Naaci of rbaa^ae. 



Bear 

Bear 

Bear's 

Bear Gat.. 
Bear Lake 
Beata .... 
Beauchene Guyoo 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Beaufort 

Beauvais 

Beaver 

Beaver 

Beaver 

Beaver 

Beaver.... «... 

Beaver 

Beaver Indians 

Beba 

Bcbedero ..... 

Bechuana 

Bedekariee .... 

Bedford 

Bedford 

Bednore 

Bedoed 

Bedouin 

Bedout 

Beeban 

Beechey 

Beechey 

Beechey ...... 

Beeder 

Boeder 



Mt 

So. 



Bay Spitsbergen . 



Beerjoor 

Begbarmi 

Behring's 

Behring's 

Behring's 

Behring's 

Beila 

Beilay a 

Beikem 

Beique 

Bcitschelgorod . 

Beja 

Beiapoor 

Be^apoor 

Bejapore 

Bekal 

Bela 

Belanaish 

Belaspore 

Belbeis 

Belcher's 

Belem 

Beles 

Belfast 



Spitsbergen . . . 
Greenland . . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 



T. 

^- 

R. 

R. 

L. 

Har 

Ha 

Tr. 

I. 

L. 

Tr. 

T. 

^^ 

C. 
I. 

His. 
L. 

Pt 

a 

Pr. 

I- 

T. 

Cty. 
Str. 
Bay 

S3ea.4 

T. 

R. 

R. 

L 

T. 

Dis 

Pr. 

&• 
T. 

R. 

R. 

Rns 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T, 

T. 

T. 



Brit America 
West Indies. . 
Southern Ocean 
North Carolina 
Cape Colony . . 
Nc^ America 
Brit America 
North America 

France 

Pennsylvania. . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Nova Scotia. . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Kankoe Sea . . 
Buenos Ayres . 

Africa 

Soudan 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 

Ajan 

Australasia .... 

Africa 

Brit, America . 
North America 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Malaysia 

Peraia 

Soudan 

North America 
North America 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 
Beloochistan .. 
Asiatic Russia 

Mongolia 

West Indies... 
Asiatic Russia 

Nubia 

■Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Soongaria 

Asiatic Russia. 

Barca 

Hindoostan . . . 

Egypt 

Brit America . 
Buenos Ayrea . 

^ia 

Maine 



Na 

Id 

Va 

Ma 

Db 

Hg 

I n 

Ge 

Nl 

Cb 

Fb 

Bb 

Md 

Gd 

Fc 

Ec 

Ec 

Hd 

Fc 

EJ) 

Qa 

HI 

Nk 

Mg 

Fa^ 

Fc 

Eb 
Ph 
Tg 

Nf 
Eb 
Ca 
Ea 

S^ 
Rg 

^f 

Cc 
Xc 
Ad 
Qf 

Pc 

Sc 

^« 

Sc 

2^ 

Rg 
Rg 

Rf 

Rd 

Sc 

Ne 

Rf 

Oe 

Gc 

II 

Oe 

Hd 



20 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NaBMorPlMB^ke. 



dam. 



Belfast 

Belgaum. : . ... 

Belgrade 

Belgium 

Beliebei 

Bella 

Bell 

Boll 

BeUary 

Belle 

Belle 

Belle tale 

Bellona 

Bellona 

Bellingahansen . 

Belluno 

BeliDODte 

Belochan 

Beloiarskaya . . . 
Beloochistan . . . . 

Belaham 

Beltyri 

Belugeikoae . . . . 
Belor Tagh . . . 

Bemarive 

Bemba 

Bembarooghe.. . 

Bcmini 

Benares 

Bench ..... . . . 

Bencoolen ...... 

Bencoonat 

Benda 

Bender 

Bendloes 

Benevente 

Bengal 

Bengasi 

Benguela 

Bcni 

Beniabbas 

Beni Gwarid . . . 

Benin 

Benin 

Benin 

Benioleed ...... 

Beni Sahed 

Bcni Shaber.... 

Benisouef 

Benjar Maasin . . 
Benjar Massin .. 

Benowm 

Bentak 

Bentinck 

Beqaia 

Bera 

Berabzan 

Berar 

Berawa ••■•«•.. 

Berbice 

Berbioe 



T. 

I. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

I' 

T. 
T. 
Cty. 
T. 

T. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

L. 

Pr. 

T. 

Gel. 

R. 



Ireland .... 
Hindooetan 
Asiatic TDurkcy 

Europe 

Asiatic Russia. 

Morocco 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

France 

Labrador 

Labrador 

Australasia .. 
Australasia . . . 

Polynesia 

lUly 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 

Asia 

Elephant Island 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Little Buchoria 
Madagascar 
Benguela . . 

Africa 

Bahamas . . 
Hindoostan 
Australasia . 
Sumatra .. . 
Sumatra ... 



T. 
T. 

I^. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

So. 

T. 

L 

L 

Str. 

I. 

Sh. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T, 

T. 

8!^ 

Tr. 

T. 

Mts. 

R. 

Pr. 

R. 

Is. 

£'• 

T. 
T. 

Di»J Africa 



r 



Russia 
Grallapa^os . 

Brazil 

Hindoostan 

Barca 

Africa 

Bolivia .... 

Tripoli 

TripoU 

Guinea 

Guinea 

Guinea 

Tripoli 

Sahara 

Arabia 

Egypt 

Borneo 

Borneo 

Africa 

Tartary 

New S. Wales. 
West Indies.. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Africa 

Guiana 

Guiana 



Lc 

Nd 
Mc 

P'C 

Lc 
Ma 
Ma 

Rff 
Ld 
lc 
lc 
Wj 
Wk 

Bj 
Md 

Jj 

Ra 

Sc 

Qf 

lo 

Re 

Pd 

Qe 

Pj 

Nj 

Mj 

Gf 

Rf 

Xm 

Si 

Si 

Nh 

Nd 

n 

Rf 

Ne 

Mj 

Hj 

Me 

Me 

Mh 

Mh 

Mh 

Me 

Mf 

Oe 

Of 

Ti 

Ti 

Qd 
Vj 

^« 
Re 

Fb 

Rf 

Oh 

Ih 

Ih 



Berbora 

Berbora 

Berdai 

Berdoa 

I Berecbnigh . . . . 

Berendinskoi . . . 

Berens 

Berens 

Beresouskoi . . . . 

Beresov 

Beresovskaya .. . 

Berg 

Bergamoe 

Bergen 

Bergen 

Bergen 

Bergh's 

Bergoo 

Berigan 

Berkeley's 

Berkeley Ridge. 

Berlin 

Berlin^ 

I Bermcja , 

Bermudas 

Bemardin 

Berne 

Bernera , 

Bemier 

Bemier 

fiemizet < 

Beroo , 

Beroo 

Bertela 

Berwick 

Besan9on 

Bescora 

Bescha 

Besliakhskoi... . 

Bessarabia ..54. 

Bessastad 

Besymiannoi . . . 

Bethany 

Bethelsdorf 

Bethlehem 

Bctlen 

Betlen 

Betra-par 

Beuduque 

Beveridge 

Beverley ...*.. 

BevU 

Beyrout 

Bhering's 

Bhooj 

Bhopal 

Bhukor 

Bhutneer 

Bhurtpore 

Bia 

Biafra 



T. 
T. 

ay. 

T. 

R. 

Ho. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Div. 

?■ 

Gr. 

T. 

So. 
Mis. 

I, 

Is. 

C. 

^'- 

C. 
Is. 
Pk. 

Tr. 
T. 

Mts. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Pr. 

Sh. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

idea. 



T. 
R. 

ay, 



Africa 

Africa 

Tibesty 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Nova Zembla. . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Norway 

Norway 

Malaysia ... . 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Barbary 

Falkland Is.. . . 
New S. Wales . 

Prussia 

Portugal 

Mexico 

Atlantic Ocean 
New Zealand. . 
Switzerland . . . 

Scotland 

New Holland- 
Australasia... . 
Msjitchooria . . 

Africa 

Malaysia .... 
Africa.. ...... 

Scotland 

France 

Barbary 

Soongaria 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Iceland 

Russia 

Africa 

Cape Colony . . 

Syria 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayres . 

Asia 

Congo 

Polynesia 

New HoUand. . 

Texas 

Syria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Africa 



PfiT 

Nf 

Nf 

Va 

Tb 

Fc 

Fc 

Xb 

Qb 

Qc 

Pa 

Nc 

Mb 

Mb 

Si 

Wh 

Ng 

Me 

In 

VI 

Mc 

Le 

Ff 

He 

Xm 

Md 

Lc 

^} 
Tk 

Vd 

i^ 

Si 

Ph 

Lc 

Md 

M c 

Rd 

Ub 

Nd 

Kb 

Pb 

Nk 

Nl 

Oe 

Ef 

Hk 

^? 

Fe 
Oe 
Xc 
Qf 
Rf 
Qf 
Qf 
Rf 
Re 
Mh 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



3] 



iBiafra 

Bicaneer . . . 
Bichaquen . 

Bicley 

Biddle 

Bielaya .. . • 

Bid 

Bieiey 

Uiclgorod . . 
Bielkov .... 

Bieb 

Bieloi 

BicloTodsk . 
Bielozerak.. 
Bielsk 



Big 

Biff 

Big Horn 

Big Lake 

Big Stone 

Biisk 

Bijar 

Bilbao 

BiHinghaasen . 

Billiton 

BUliton 

Billiyard 

Bilmah 

Bilmah 

Bilmah 

Bilovskaya . . . . 

Bineicova 

Bii\)ebara ..... 

Biot 

Bir 

Bird 

Bird 

Bird's 

Biiti'B 

Bird'8 

Bird's 

Birdstail 

Bir el Malba . . 

Biri 

Birifl 

Birige 

Biriousa 

Birmah , . 

Bir Massaguen 
Birminghun . . 

Birnie's 

Biroutchia 

Bir Quillin . » . . 

Birsk 

Birterbuy 

Bisanig 

Biscay 

BiHcoe's Range 

Bishara Taib . . 

i Bishlisik 



^£- 

T. 

L. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

L 

L. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

L. 

R. 

Ho. 

L. 

T. 

Is. 

^'- 

L 

Str. 

I. 



Des. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

L 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Ft. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Em. 

Sta. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

Sta. 

Sy- 

Bay 
T. 

^ 

T. 
Ft. 



Country ... 
Hindoostan . . . 

Chili 

Russia 

Missouri Ter. . 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Karskoe Sea . . 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Missouri Ter. . 
Brit America . 
Wisconsin Ter, 
Asiatic Russia 

Polynesia 

Spain 

Seghalien 

Malaysia 

Mahysia 

Persian Gulf . . 
Africa 
Africa 
Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Fezzan 

Sooresby's Ld. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Polynesia 

Southern Ocean 
Indian Ocean 
N. Pacific Oc. 
Polvnesia. . . . 
Malaysia .... 
Brit America 

Africa 

Norway 

Benguela .... 

Congo 

Asiatic Russia 

Asia 

Africa. ...... 

England 

Polynesia.. .. 

Tartary 

Africa 

Russia 

Ireland 

Mexico 

Europe 



S. Pacific Oc. 

Darfur 

Tartary 



Mh 

Of 

HI 

Oc 

Ed 

Pc 

Oc 

Oc 

Oc 

Va 

Ob 

Ra 

Od 

Ob 

Nc 

Gc 

Gc 

Eb 

Ed 

Gc 

Fd 

Re 

Xg 

Ld 

Vd 

Ti 

Ti 

Pf 

Mg 

Mg 

Mg 

Tb 

Sc 

Mf 

Ka 

Oe 

J m 
Pi 
Bf 

l« 

Fc 

Ng 

Mb 

Nj 

Mi 

Sc 

Sf 

Mf 

Lc 

Ai 

Pd 

Mf 

Pc 

Lo 

Ee 

Ld 

Ho 

Ng 

Pd 



Bishop and Clerk 
Bishop's . . 
Biskaia... 
Bissagos . . 
Bisson. . . . 
Bistraia... 
Bitter .... 
Bizerta . . . 
Bjorneborg ...5. 
Bjorneborg 

Block ! ! . . ! 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black . . . . , 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black .... 
Black .... 
Black .... 
Black .... 
Black Bear 
Blackfoot Indians 

Blackfoot 

Black Harutsh. . 
Black Hook .... 
Black Mongols . 
Blackwater ..... 
Blair's.... ....&; 

Blake 

Blanc .^. . . 

Blanca 



Is. 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

C. 



Blanco 

Blanco 

Blanco 

Blanco 

Blanco 

Blaney's 

Blaye 

Bled el Jerid . . 

Bled Fillcly . . . 

Bligh's Cap . . . 

Bligh's Lagoon 

Blois 

Blondela • 

Blood Indians . 

Bloody Farknd 

Bkmdnaia 

Blountvillo .... 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

I Bluefields 

I Blue Mud. .. .*, 
I Blue Nose . . . . 
, Boatiang 



R. 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

Sea 

R. 

R. 

R. 

Mt 

Ld. 

Pt 

Pt 

Pt 

Hk. 

Bl. 

H. 

L 

Tr. 

R. 

Mt 

C. 

Tr. 

L. 

1 

Bay 

Mt 

I. 

C. 

C. 

c. 
c. 
c. 
I. 

T. 

Dis. 

Dis. 

C. 

I. 

?• 

Tr. 

Pt 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Mto. 

Mts. 

Mts. 

His. 

R. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 



Australasia ... 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Senegambia .. . 
Brit. America . 
Asiatic Russia 
Cape Colony . . 

Tunis 

Russia 

Russia 

Europe ....... 

Asiatic Russia. 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Missouri Ter. 
Labrador .... 

Brit America 

Africa 

Greenland . . . 

China 

Arabia 

Nora Zembla 
Greenland . . . 
Brit America 
Missouri Ter. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter... 

Africa 

Spitsbergen . . 
Mongolia .... 
Brit America 
4firit America 
Brit America 

Italy 

Venezuela.... 
Oregon Ter... 
Morocco. . . , . 

Africa 

Peru 

Patagonia . . . 
Polynesia .... 

France 

Barbary 

Barbara 

Keri 

Polyi 

Franca 

Mantchooria . 
Brit America 

Ireland 

Asiatic Russia 
Tennessee • . . 
Abyssinia .... 
Mongolia . . • . 
United SUtes . 
New S. Wales 
Brit America 
Guatemala ... 
New S. Wales 

Russia 

Cambodia .... 



Wn 

Xi 
Sc 
Kg 
Hb 
Tc 
Nl 
Me 
Nb 
Nb 
Od 
Sc 
Fd 
Fd 
Ic 
£c 
Lf 
la 
Tf 

l« 
Pa 

la 

Ed 

Ec 

Ec 

Ed 

Nf I 

Ma 

Td 

Db 

Fa 

Gb 

Md 

Hg 

Dd 

Le 

Kf 

Gi 

Hm 

Xi 

Ld 

Lc 

Lc 

Qm| 

Ck 

Md 

Vd 

Ec 

Lc 

Wb 

Gc 

Og 

Re 

Ge 

VI 

Ea 

Vj 
Ob 
Sg 



22 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



fbuHBof nMBi^fee. 



Boavista 

Boavisia 

Boavista 

Bobrysk 

Bocqua 

Bodega 

Bodego 

Boe 

Bocn 

Bocton 

Boeyra 

Bog 

Bogashua .*.*.. 

Bogaad 

Bogdo ly ..... . 

Boghoutchansk 
Bogorodidtsk . . 

BogfosloY 

Bogota 

Bohemia 

Bohol 

Bohuslav 

Boiole 

Boja 

Bojador 

Bojador 

Bokhara 

Bokki 

Bolachna 

Bolachna 

Bolcheretsk ... 
Bolcheretflkoi .. 

BoU 

Boliano 

Bolinoi Aniuy . 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Bologna 

Bololova 

Bolor 

Bolschei 

Boltcharovskoe 
Bolvanskoy . . . 

Bomba 

Bombay 

Bombay 

Bombetok 

Borabctok 

Bomeny • 

Bommel 

Bona 

Bona 

Bona 

Bonacca 

Bona venture.. . 

Bonavista 

Bonavista 

Bonavista 

Bong 

Bongoulma .... 
Bonham*s 



T. 

T. 
. T. 

T. 

T. 

Po. 
, T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 
, T. 
. R. 

C. 
. T. 

Mts. 

T. 
. T. 
, T. 
,Cy. 

Pr. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 
, C. 
,Cy. 
, Die. 
, L. 
, R. 
. Har 
. T. 
. T. 
. Pt 
. R. 

Rep 
. Pt 
,Cy. 
. T. 

MU. 

L. 

T. 

C. 

G. 

rJi 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

I. ' 

T. 

Bay 

C. 

I. 

Pr. 

T. 

Is. 



Brazil • 

Brazil 

Bolivia 

Russia 

Soudan 

Mexico 

Tonquin 

Iceland 

Australasia... 
Malaysia .... 

Tibesty 

Russia 

Arabia 

Hindoostan . . 
Mongolia .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

New Grenada 

Austria 

Malaysia .... 

Russia 

Celebes 

Venezuela .... 

Africa 

Luzon 

Great Bucharia 
Abyssinia 



Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Luzon 

.tic Russia. 
South America 

Texas 

Italy. 

Asiatic Russia . 
Little Bucharia 
Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Barca 

Hindoostan . . . 
Malayan Sea . . 
Madagascar. . . 
Madagascar. . . 

Russia 

Norway 

Tunis 

Madagascar .. . 

Algiers 

Guatemala .... 
Lower Canada . 
Newfoundland . 
Newfoundland. 
Cape Verd Is. . 

Birmah 

Asiatic Russia. 
Polynesia 



KbL 
Led. 



Nc 

Mh 

Dc 

Tf 

Kb 

Ui 

Ui 

Nf 

Od 

Pg 

Qf 

Sd 

Sc 

Oc 

Pc 

Hh 

Mc 

Ug 
Od 
Ui 
H h 
Lf 

H^ 
Qe 

2^ 

Sa 

Sa 
Wc 
Wc 
Od 
Ug 
Wb 

^i 

Ff 
Md 
Qc 
Qc 
Od 
Qc 
Pb 

Ne 

?l 

Pj 
Pj 
Ob 
Mc 
Me 

Pj 
Me 

Gg 
Hd 
Id 
Id 
Kg 
Sf 
Pc 
Xb 



Bonifacio 

Bo'^in 

Bonjem 

Bonn 

Bonne 

Bontek-oe 

Bontokoo 

Bong 

Bong 

Boo Ali 

Boobian 

Booby 

Booby 

Boogoonalinskoi 

Boohecra 

Boojnoord 

Bool 

Boola 

Booloo 

Bootan « 

Booth 

Boothia 

Boothia 

Boothia Felix.. 

Boquecns 

Borabora , . 

Borba 

Borbon 

Borda 

Borddji 

Bordeaux 

Bordoe 

^roa ' 

Borg 

Borga 

Borgar 

Bor-ghai , 

Bor-ghai 

Borgholm 

Borgoo 

Borisov 

Borja , 

Borja 

Borlase Warren. 

Borneo 

Borneo 

Bornholm 

Bomou 

Bornou 

Borolach 

Boronook 

Bororofl 

Borotaia 

Borotala 

Borovitchi 

Bortfawick 

Boscawen^s . . . . 

Bosham 

Bosnia 

Bosra 

Boston 



Str. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

L 

I. 

Sh. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

So. 

1st. 

G. 

Tr. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

?'■ 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Fd. 

Bay 

t/. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
C. 
I. 

^'■ 

cty. 

T. 

Tr. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 
Pr. 

IT. 
Cy. 



Mediterran. Sea 
Polynesia .... 

Tripoli 

Russia 

Newfoundland 
Scoresby's Ld. 
Ashantee . . . 

Celebes 

Celebes 

Persian Gulf . 

Arabia 

Australasia ... 
Australosia... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Persia 

Celebes 

Celebes 

Cabul 

Hindoostan . . . 
BriL America . 
Brit America . 
Brit. America . 
Brit America . 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Brazil 

Mexico 

New Holland. . 

Mongolia 

France 

Faroe Islands . 

Africa 

Iceland 

Russia 

Iceland 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Oeland 

Soudan 

Russia 

Mexico 

Ecuador 

Scorcsby's Ld.. 

Malaysia 

Borneo 

Baltic Sea .... 

Soudan . , 

Soudan 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia . 
South America 

Soongaria 

Soongaria 

Russia 

Brit America . 
Polynesia. . . . 

Africa 

Turkey 

Syria 

Massachusetts . 



Refl 

LMK. 



Md 

Vf 

Ne 

Mc 

Id 

Ka 

Lh 

Ui 

Ui 

Pf 

Pf 

Vj 

Wk 

Ub 

Vb 

Pe 

Ui 

Ti 

Qe 

Rf 

Ha 

Fb 

Fa 

Fa 

Nk 

Ff 

Uj 

Td 

Ld 

Lb 

Mh 

Kb 

Nb 

Kb 

Ua 

Ua 

Nc 

Mh 

Nc 

Ef 

Gi 

Ka 

Th 

Th 

Nc 

Mg 

Mg 

Vb 

Vb 

Rd 
Rd 
Oc 
Hb 

Oh 
Nd 
Oe 
Hd 



CONSULTING INDE3L 



23 



Boston 

Boeyt ... 

Botamaiskol. . 

Botany 

Botel Tobago . 

Bothnia 

Botistmeni . . . 

Botomia 

BotoYskaja . . 
Bottomless Pit 

Botzen 

Bouchage .... 
Bougainville . . 
BoQgainville. . 
Bougainville . . 
Bougainville . . 
Bougoutchar . 

Bouillon 

Booinsk 

Boojah 

Bouka 

Boukioup .. . . 
Boaktarminsk 

Boulak 

Bonldyr 

Boulogne .... 

Bouloun 

Bounty 

Bouraika .... 

Bourbon 

Bourbon 

Boure 

Boure 

Bourgas 

Bourges 

Bouriman .. .. 
Boumand .... 

Bouro 

Bouro 

Bouiygham . . 

BouBsa 

Boutactoi .... 

Bonvet^B 

Bouyan 

Bouyour 

Bouzim 

Bouzoulouk . . 

Bovrov 

Bow 

Bowden ... . 

Bowen 

Bowen 

Bowen 

Bowen'8 

Bowles 

Bojracca 

Boyanna 

Boypeba 

Brabant 

Bradfield 

Bradore 



T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

I. 

G. 

Mts. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

C. 

Rfs. 

Sir. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Est 

Is. 

C. 

I. 

Ft. 

T. 

I. 
I. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

C. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

Po. 

Po. 

I. 

C. 

Dep 

Bay 

C. 
C. 
Har 



England 

Syria 

Asiatic Russia. 
New S. Wales. 
Eastern Sea .. . 

Russia 

Madagascar .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

Austria 

Australasia... . 
New Holland. . 
Australasia .. 
Australasia . . . 
Australasia... . 

Russia 

Belgium 

Russia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Australasia... 

Laos 

Asiatic Russia 

Persia 

Aleout Arc. 

France 

Asiatic Russia 
Australasia... 
Russia ... . , 
Indian Ocean 

Bolivia 

Africa 

Africa 

Turkey , 

France 

Africa , 

Australasia... 
Malaysia . . . . , 
Ashantee .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Soudan , 

Asiatic Rusbia 
Southern Ocean 

Egypt 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Russia 

Polynesia. . .. 
Brit America 
Brit America . 
News. Wales. 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Clarence Island 
New Grenada . 
Madagascar.. . 

Brazil 

Isle of France. 
North America 
Labrador 



Lc 

Oe 

Ub 

Wl 

Uf 

Nb 

Pk 

Ub 

Tc 

Mj 

Md 

Wi 

Uj 

Vj 

Wi 

Wi 

Od 

Md 

Pc 

Ne 

Wi 

Sg 

Rd 

Pe 

Xc 

Mc 

Ua 

Xm 

Pb 

Pk 

Ik 

Lg 

5f§ 

Md 

Lg 

Wi 

Ui 

Lh 

Vb 

Mg 

Ub 

Mn 

Oe 

Td 

Sc 

Pc 

Oc 

Ci 

Fa 

Ga 

Wk 

Ga 

Vf 

lo 

Hh 

Pk 
Ca 
Ic 



Brady 

Braga 

Braganca . . . 
Braganza . . . 
Bragatskoi . . 
Brahcstadt . . 

Braiga 

Brainerd .... 

Brak 

Braknaks . . . 

Branco 

Braiico 

Brandenburg 
Brandley*s. . . 
Brandon .... 

Brandy 

Brandy-wine 

I Brannavik .. 

Braslaw .... 

Bratton^s.... 

Bratzlav 

Brava 

Brava 

Brava 

Brazil 

Brazoria .... 

Brazos 

Breaker .... 

Brechin 

Breede 

Brecmanger-land 
Bree Sund . . 

Bremen 

Breneau .... 

Brest 

Brett 

Brevig 

Brewer^s. . . . 
Brewster .... 
Bridgetown . 
Bridgewater . 
Bridgman*8 . 
Bridport .... 

Briesda 

Brindici ... 

Brind*s 

Brintford . . . 
Brisbane .... 
Brisbane .... 

Bristol 

Bristol 

Bristol 

Bristol 

Bristol Chain 
Bristow*s . . . 
Britannia . . . 

British 

British 

British 

Britwine .... 
Broach 



Ft 

T. 
T. 

r. 

Sta. 

T. 

R. 

Tr. 

R, 

R. 

Cy. 

Sh. 

Ho. 

Pt 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Cty. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R, 

Bay 

T. 

Bay 

I. 

Bay 

§: 
^- 

T. 

L. 

C. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

In. 

Vil. 

T. 

L 

Bay 

T. 

R. 

Cy. 

Ch. 

Bay 

C. 

Mts. 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Pos. 

So. 

C. 

T. 



Michigan 

Portugal 

Brazil 

Portugal 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Barca 

Tennessee .... 

Africa 

Africa 

Bolivia 

Bolivia * 

Prussia. ...... 

Australasia... . 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Iceland 

Russia 

Missouri Ter. . 

Russia 

Africa 

Africa 

Cape Verd Is. . 
South America 

Texas 

Texas 

Patagonia .... 

Scotland 

Iceland 

Norway 

Norway 

Germany 

Oregon Ter... . 

France 

New Zealand. . 

Norway 

Guatemala .. . . 
Scoresby'sLd.. 
Barbadoes «... 
New S. Wales . 
South Shetland 
Brit America . 

Mexico 

Naples 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
News. Wales. 
New a Wales. 

England 

England 

North America 
Sandwich Ld. . 
North America 
Australasia . . . 
Australasia.. . . 

Europe 

North America 
Madagascar. . . 
Nova Zembla. . 
Ilindoostan . 



Gd 

Ld 

li 

Ld 

Ub 

Nb 

Ne 

Go 

Nl 

Hi 
Ij^ 

Wi 
Fd 
Ge 
Na 
Kb 
Nc 
Ed 
Od 
Oh 
Oh 

ff 

Ff 

Ff 

Hn 

Lc 

Kb 

Mb 

Mb 

Mc 

Ed 

Ld 

XI 

Na 

Gg 

Ka 

Iff 

VI 

lo 

Ea 

Ec 

Nd 

Xh 

Fa 

Wk 

Wk 

Lc 

Lc 

Be 

Kn 

Cb 

Wi 

Xk 

Lc 

Eb i 

P. 

Qf 



24 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



I. 

Bay 

T. 

C. 

R. 

PL 

T. 

^'- 

I. 
I. 

Sh. 

c. 

Arc. 
C, 



Broad 

Brwk's .... 

Brodie 

Brody 

Broer Ruys 
Broken .... 
Broken .... 
Bronson . . . 
Brooklyn .. 
Brothers* .. . 
Brothers*... 
Brothers*... 
Brothers*... 
Broughton . 
Broughton*8 

Brown 

Brown IC. 

Brown |C, 

Brown 

Brown 

Brown*s < 

Brown*s 

Brown*8 

Brown*B < 

Brown*8 Range 
Broyle Head... 

Bruce 

Bruges 

Brunei 

Brunn 

Brussels 

Brunswick . .16 
Brunswick .... 
Brunswick .... 
Brunswick .... 
Brunswick .... 
Brunswick .... 

Bruny 

Brusa 

Brzcst LitoY. . . 

Bubaker 

Bucaneers 



Mt 
Mt 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Pt 

Is. 

C. 

Bay 

Cy. 

In. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

D. 

^- 



Pen 
Ho. 
I. 



^- 

T. 

Arc. 

BucarelU Po. 

I. 
R. 
Cy. 



Buchan .... 
Buchanan . . 
Bucharest .. 

Bucharia Cy. 

Bucharia, Great iCty. 
Buckland Mts. 



Buda 

Budda 

Buddown 

Buenaventura.. 
Buenaventura.. 
Buenaventura.. 
Buenavista .... 
Buen Ayre .... 

Bueno 

Buenos Ay res . 
Buenos Ayres . 
Buenos Ayres . 



New S. Wales . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

^oistria 

Scoresby*s Ld. 
Brit. America . 
Brit America . 

Michigan 

New York.... 

Java 

Brit America . 
Malayan Sea . . 
N. Pacific Oc. . 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Scoresby*s Ld.< 
Brit America 
News. Wales 

Polynesia 

Brit America 
Greenland ... 
Mantchooria . 
Polynesia .... 
Newfoundland 
Brit America 

Belgium 

Brit America 

Austria 

Belgium 

Germany .... 
Brunswick ... 

Georgia 

Bay I New Holland . 
Patagonia . . . 
Brit America 
V.I)iemen*sLd. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Poland 

Africa 

Australasia... . 
North America 
Greenland .... 
Brit America . 

Turkey 

Great Bucharia 

Asia 

Brit America . 

Austria 

News. Wales. 
Hindoostan . . . 
New Grenada . 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Venezuela 

Chili 

South America 
Buenos Ayres . 
Buenos Ayres . 



Cy. 
L. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
L. 
T. 
I. 
R. 
Rep. 
. Pr. 

.'Cy. 



Vk 

Bi I 

Hb 

Nc 

Ka 

Fc 

Hb 

Gd 

Hd 

Ti 

Gc 

Th 

Af 

Hb 

Dc 

Gb 

Da 

Ka 

Ea 

VI 

Fa 

la 

Vc 

Wg 

Id 

Ha 

Mc 

Fb 

Nd 

Mc 

Mc 

Mc 

Ge 

Uj 

Hn 

Gc 

Vm 

Od 

Nc 

Lff 

HJ 

Dc 

la 

Fb 

Nd 

Qe 

Qe 

Cb 

Nd 

VI 

Rf 

Gh 

Ee 

Ec 

Ee 

Hg 

Hm 

Hk 

HI 

II 



Buffit 

Bufialo 

Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Buffalo 

Bufialo 

Buffalo 

Bufo 

Buffon 

Buikovskoy . . . 
Buitenzorg .... 

Bukke 

Bulgaria 

Bullen 

Bullen 

Bulloma 

Bull Pound.... 

Bulug 

Bulugam 

Bun<fer Cassim 

Bundmeer 

Bung Bailak... 
Bunker*8 

Bunpore 

Buntingville . . . 

Buraits 

Buralnkh 

Burdia 

Burdwan 

Burgeo 

Burgos 

Burgur 

Burgowa 

Burhampore . . . 

Burkha 

Burlas 

Burlington . . . . 

Burney 

Bumcs 

Burnham 

Burnt 

Bnmtwood . . . . 

Burrampooter .. 

Burrishol 

Bushbara 

Busheer 

Bu8hman*s . . . . 

Bushmen 

Bussorah 

Bustar 

Bustard 

Bustard ....... 

Busvagon • . . . . 

Bute 

Bute's Three . . 

Butna 

Butnan 

Butrarba 

Butterworth . . . 

Butt of Lewis.. 

Button's 



T. 

Sf- 

Is. 

L. 

Ha 

Ho. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

Fd. 

Pr. 

Pt 

R. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Po. 

T. 

Sta. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

S- 

k- 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Tr. 

§f 

Bay 

R. 

I. 

I. 

Mts. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

C. 

I. 



Cyprus O e 

New York.... Gd 

Eb 

Ec 
Ec 
Fc 

Ne 

VI 

Ua 

Ti 

Mc 

Nd 

Ci 

Fb 

Lh 

Ec 

Pf 

Sd 

Pe 
Re 

Pf 
Nl 
Tc 
Va 

Id 

Ld 
Rf 
Rf 
Rf 
Pf 

l^g 
Hd 
Tk 
Cc 

I c 

Sf 
Rf 
Ne 
Pf 
Ha 
Nk 
Pe 

Wk 

He 

Ug 

Lc 

Ed 

Nj 

Uh 

Ne 

Nl 

Lc 

Hb 



Brit America 
Ba^ of Bengal. 
Bnt America 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Candia 

New S Wales 
Asiatic Russia 

Java 

Norway 

Turkey . 

North America 
Brit America 

Africa 

Brit America 
Beloochistan . 
Mongolia .... 

Africa 

Persia 

LitUe Thibet . . 

Polynesia 

Beloochistan.. . 

Caffraria 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Gulf of Siam 
Hindoostan . . . 
Newfoundland. 

Spain 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Arabia 

Malaysia 

Vermont 

New Holland.. 
North America 

Samar 

Africa 

Brit America 

Asia 

Hindoostan . . 

Barca 

Persia 

Brit America 

Africa 

Asiatic Turkey 
Hindoostan . . . 
News Wales. 
South Carolina 
Malaysia ... . 

Scotland 

Oregon Ter... , 

Africa 

Mindanao .... 

Barca 

Caffraria 

ScoUand 

Brit America . 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



2^ 



Boxar 

Buxe 

Bjam Martin.. . 
Byam Martin.. . 
Bjam Martin. .. 

Byers*8 

Byganbarry .... 

Bylot 

Byron 

Byron 

Byron's 

Byron*B 

Byron's 

Bytown 

Caballas 

Cabasa 

Cabenda 

Caberabera 

Cabes 

Cabes 

Cabrera 

Cabnl 

Cabnl 

Cabnl 

Cabunoskaya .. . 

Cacado 

Cachar 

Cacheo 

Cachinoi 

Cachipour 

Cachoun 

Cacfaynochiyersk 
Caconda . . 
Cacongo . . 
Cacongo . . 
Cacoroa . . . 
Cadiz ..... 

Caen 

Caernarvon 

Caffa 

CalTraria . . 
Cafuanas . . 
Cagliari .. 
Cagnan. . . 
Cahawba . 
Cahite .. . . 
Cahors . . . 

Caiffa 

Cai-fong . . 
Calling . . . 

Caire 

Cairo 

Caisignran 
Calabaza. . . 
Calabaxo . . 
Calais .... 
Calamian • 

Calasir 

Calatayud. 
Colayan . . 

3 



R. 

Fd. 

C. 

l! 

Str. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

Bay 

l! 
T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

G. 

I. 

Cty. 

Cy. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Ft 

Cty. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

'^: 

Dis. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

97' 
?' 

T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
I. 



Hindoostan . . . 
Greenland .... 
Brit America* . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Patagonia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
New & Wales. 

Georgia 

Labrador 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Upper Canada . 

Sooth Peru. . . . 

Africa 

Loango 

Africa 

Nubia 

Tunis 

Mediterran. Sea 

Asia 

Cabal 

Cabul 

Asiatic Russia. 
St Thomas's I, 

Birmah 

Senegambia .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Benguela .... 

Africa 

Loango 

Africa 

Spain 

France 

Wales 

Abyssinia.. .. 

Africa ....... 

Gquador... . 

Sardinia 

New Grenada 
Alabama .... 

Brazil 

France 

Syria 

China 

China 

Polynesia .... 

Egypt 

Luzon 

New Grenada 
Venezuela.. .. 

France 

MalajTsia .... 

Socotra 

Spain 

Malaysia .... 



Rf 

lb 
Ga 

SJ 

Fa 

Gn 

Rf 

Gb 

Wk 

Ge 

Ic 

Xi 

Ai 

Gd 

Gj 

Ni 
Mi 

Nj 
Of 
Me 
Me 
Qe 
Qe 
Qe 
Re 
Mh 
Sf 

^^ 
Re 

Lh 

Sd 

Sc 

Nj 

Ni 

Mi 

Lh 

Le 

Ld 

Lc 

Oh 

NI 

Hi 

Me 

Hh 

Gc 

Jj 

Md 

Oe 

Te 

Tf 

Vh 

Oe 

Ug 

Me 
^^ 
Ld 



• of Fben^ltc. 



^ Calbongas 

Calca 

Calca 

Calcasiu 

Calcutta 

Caldcleugh . . . . 

Caldera 

Caldcro 

Caldiera 

Caldwell 

Caledon 

Caledon 

Caledon 

Cali 

Calicut 

California 

California, Up. . 

California 

Calimere 



Calingapatam . 
Calinkina .... 
Collapoewah.. 

Callao 

Colling 

Callow 

Calm 

Calmar 

Calmez 

Calonas 

Calthorpc .... 

Caltura 

Caluilweet . . . 

Calvert's 

Calvi 

Camabas 

Camana 

Camapuan . . . 
Camargo .... 
Camaroncs . . . 
Cambambe . . . 

Cambay 

Cambay 

Cambodia ». . . 
Cambodia .... 
Cambodia .... 
Cambridge . . . 
Cambridge . . 
Cambridge . . . 
Cambyna .... 

Camden 

Camden ... . 

Camden 

Camel 

Camenca 

Camenskoie . . 
Camenya . . . . . 

Cameron , 

Cameroons .... 
Cameroons . . . . 

Camcta 

i Camma 



2^y 

T. 
T. 
L. 

Cy. 

In. 

T. 

R. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Ter. 

Ter. 

G. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

C. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Ft 

Cy. 

G. 

Cty. 

'c" 

I. 

T. 

G. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Bay 

Mt 

T. 

T. 



Africa 

Borneo 

South Peru . . 
Louisiana .... 
Hindoostan .. 
Patagonia . . . 
Mindanao .... 
Buenos Ayres 
Mozambique . 

Siberia 

Cape Colony . 
News. Wales. 
Brit America . 
New Grenada . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Oregon Ter... 

Peru , 

Brit America . 
Polynesia .... 
New Mexico . 

Sweden 

Nubia ....... 

Polynesia .... 

Brit America . 

Ceylon 

Labrador . . . 
Oregon Ter. 

Corsica 

Peru 

South Peru . . . 

Brazil 

Mexico. .... 
Patagonia . . 

Angola 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . 
Asia ....... 

Cambodia, . . . 
Cambodia. .. 
China Sea . . 
England .... 

New Holland. . 

Malaysia 

Patagonia 

South Carolina. 
North America 
New Zealand. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Guatemala .... 



Mts. Africa. 
Africa . 
Brazil. 
Africa. 



Cly. 



26 



CXDNSULTING INDEX. 



NamM of Flaen, kc 



Cainina 

Camosin 

Camp 

Campana 

Campbell 

Campbell 

Campbell 

Campbell 

Campbell 

Camptell 

Campbell's .... 
Campbell's .... 

Campeche 

Campo 

Campo Maior .. 
Campos Parcxis 

Camtoos 

Canabae 

Canada, Upper. 
Canada, Lower 

Canadian 

Cananea 

Cananea 

Cananore 

Canary 

Cancobello .... 
Candelaria .... 
CaQdelaria . . . 

Candia 

Candia ....;.. 
Candlemas .... 

Candu 

Cane , 

Canea 

Caneo 

Canete 

Canga 

Can^oxima. .. . 
Caniapuscaw . . 

Caninde 

Cannaveral .... 
Canning . . 

Canning 

Cannon Ball. .. 

Canouge 

Canaa 

Canso . . , . i . . . 
Canterbury. . . . 

Cantin 

Canton 

CanCyre 

Canyketoke . . . 

Caoonde 

Capangara .... 

Capo 

Capo 

Cape 

Cape Breton . . . 
Cape Clear. ... 
Ca|)e Coast Castle 
Cape Fear.. .. 



R. 

T. 

Har 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Mt 

Pt 

Is. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Pis. 

Bay 

I. 

Col. 

Col. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

I. 

"('■ 

I. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L. 
T. 
C. 
I. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
G. 

a 

£^- 

Pen 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

CoL 

R. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

Ft 

R. 



PoutiocL 



Loango 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia 
Patagonia . . . 

Africa 

New S. Wales 
Brit America 
New Zealand. 
Kerguelen's Ld. 
North America 
Australasia... . 
Brit America . 

Mexico 

Africa 

Brazil 

South America 
Cape Colony . . 
Sencgambia .. . 
North America 
North America 
Western Ter. . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Hindoostan .". . 
Atlantic Ocean 

Africa 

Bolivia 

Australasia . . . 
Mcditerran. Sea 

Candia 

Sandwich Ld. . 
Indian Ocean . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Candia 

Oregon Ter. . . 

Peru 

Afi-ica 

Japan 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

Florida 

Scoresby's Ld.. 
North America 
Missouri Ter. . 
Hindoostan . . . 
North America 
Nova Scotia. . . 
England ...... 

Morocco 

China 

ScoUand 

Labrador 

Cazcmbe 

Africa 

Africa 

Brit America . 
Guatemala .« . . 
North America 

Ireland 

Africa 

Nortli Carolina 



Mi 

Ji 

Va 

Gm 

Nk 

Wl 

Hb 

Xm 

Qm 

Cb 

Xn 

Db 

Ff 

Mh 

Ji 

's\ 

Kg 
Gd 
Hd 
Fe 
Ik 
Ik 

Rg 

Kf 

Ni 
Ik 
Wi 
Ne 
Ne 
Kn 
Qi 
Rf 
Ne 
Ec 

Gj 

Ni 

Ue 

He 

Ji 

Gf 

Ka 

Ca 

Fd 

Rf 

Hd 

Hd 

Mc 

Le 

|Tf 

Lc 

Ic 

Nj 

Nj 

NI 

Fc 

Gg 

Hd 

Le 

Lh 

Oe 



Namca of Pbco, kc 



Cape Haytien . 
Cape Town . . 
Cape Verd . . . 

Capilica 

Capim 

Capot River . . 

Capper's 

Capremeera . . 

Caprera 

Capricorn .... 

Capua 

Caqueta 

Caraccas 

Caraccos 

Caracu 

Caragha 

Caraghinskoi . 

Carah 

Caraibas 

Carakhanska . 
Caramania . . . 
Caramavida . . 
Caranaba .... 

Caravela 

Caravellas. . . . 
Carawang .... 

Carbon 

Carbonaro . . . 
Carcorella. . . . 

Cardenas 

Cardigan .... 
Carenage .... 

Carey 

Carey 

Cariaco 

Caribbean .... 
CariboBuf .... 

Caribs , 

Carimata .... 
Carimon Java. 

Carlisle 

Carlisle 

Carlisle 

Carlo 

Carlopago. .. . 
Carlsburg .... 
Caclscrona . . . 
Carlsgammen. 
Carlsruhe . . . . 

Carlstadt 

Carlton 

Carmass ..... 

Carmel 

Carmo 

Carmo ...... 

Carnatic ... . 

Car Nicobar . . 

Caroline 

Caroline 

Caroline 

Caroni 



CUa. 



T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

Ft 

I. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

'i- 

Cy. 

Bay 

R. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

R. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

Pt 

C. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

Sta. 

T. 

Sea 

Mt 

Tr. 

Is. 

Is. 

^- 

So. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I- 

Ho. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

I. 

I. 

Mt 

I. 

R. 



Hayti 

Cape Colony . . 

Africa 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Sardinia 

New S. Wales. 

Naples 

Venezuela .... 
Venezuela .... 
Eqiiador. .. .. . 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Syria 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia. 
West Indies . . . 

Brazil 

Java 

Algiers 

Sardinia 

Barca 

Cuba 

Wales. 

St Lucia 

Brit America . 

Michigan 

Venezuela.. . . . 
North America 
Brit America . 

Guiana 

Malaysia 

Malaysia .'. . . . 

England 

Jamaica 

Falkland Is.. .. 

Russia 

Austria 

Austria. 

Sweden 

Russia 

Baden 

Sweden 

Brit America . 

Soudan 

Georgia ...... 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Hindoostan . . . 
Bay of Bengal . 

Polynesia 

New Holland. . 

Polynesia 

Venezuela .... 



I' 

Fc 
Wf 
Oj 
Md 
Wk 
Md 
Hi 

"? 
G 1 

Ji 

Wc 

We 

Oe 

Ji 

Rb 

Oe 

Ilni 

Tc 

Ti 
Me 
Me 
Ne 
Gf 
Lc 
Hg 
Ha 
Gd 
II g 

9» 
Ec 

Ih 

Ti 

Ti 

Lc 

Gg 

I n 

Nb 

Nd 

Nd 

No 

Ob 

Md 

Mc 

Fc 

Mg 

G€ 

Jj 
Hh 

Rg 
Sh 
Bi 
TI 
Wh 
Hh 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



27 



Carora 

Carori 

Carp 

Carpathian . . 
Carpentaria . 
Carpentaria . 
Carriacou . . . 
Carrington . 

Cartago 

Cartage.. ... 
Carthagena. . 
Carthagena. . 

Cartier*8 

Carwar 

Carysibrt . . . 

Gas 

Casabinda... 

Caaala 

Casamayor .. 

Gasarin 

Casati 

Casbin 

Casboboa . . . . 
Cascade . . . . 
Cascade . . . . 

Cashan 

Cashee . . . . . 
Cashgar . . . . 
Cashgar . . . 
Cashmen .• 
Cashmere .. 
Casiqoiare . 
Cas Nor . . . , 

Caspian 

Ctas 

Cassadgath. . 
Cassange ... 
Cassav . . . . . 

Casael.. 

Caasiqnln . . , 
Cassville • . . . 
Castahana • . 
CastellUMi 

Castle 

Castlebor .. 

Castlereagfb 

'Casticreagh 

Caatriev ... 

Castio 

Cat 

Cat 

Catamarca . , 
Cbtamarea ., 
Cfttanduanee 

Catania 

Catanzaro ... 
CataquloaB . 
Catastrophe . 
Catharine's . 
Catharine's. . 
, Catieh 



T. 
R. 
Ls. 

Mtfl. 

Cty. 

G. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Po. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Pt. 

In. 

T. 

T. 

^- 

ft. 

^: 

L. 

Sea 

L. 

L. 

|Cty. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

L. 

Pr. 

T. 

I. 

?f 

Tr. 

C. 

I. 

Fid. 
T. 



Venezuela . . . , 

Brazil , 

Brit America 

Austria 

News. Wales 
New S. Wales 
West Indies.. 
New S. Wales 
Guatemala .. . 
Guatemala .. . 
New Grenada 

Spain 

Malaysia .... 
Hindoostan . . 
Polynesia.. .. , 
Little Bucharia 
Buenos Ayrcs . 

Mexico 

Patagonia .... 

Tunis 

Africa 

Persia 

Polynesia 

New Zealand. . 
Oregon Ter, . . . 

Persia 

Beloochistan . . 
Little Bucharia 
Little Bucharia 
Hindoostan . . 
Hindoostan . . 
Venezuela . . • ■ 
Mongdia ..... 

Asia , 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Brit America 

Africa 

Birmah 

Hesse Cassel . 

Peru , 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Missouri Ter. 
Asiatic Turkey 
New Zealand. . 

Ireland 

Brit America . 
New S. Wales . 
Mantchooria . . 

Chili 

Bahamas 

Brit America . 
Buenos Ayres . 
Buenos Ayrcs . 

Malaysia 

Sicily 

Napjcs 

South America 
New S. Wales . 

Polynesia 

Patagonia . 
Egypt.... 



Hh 
Hi 
Eb 

Nd 
Vj 
Vj 
Hg 
Wl 
Gh 

^^ 
Gg 

L e 

Qff 

Ck 
Qd 
Hk 
Ef 
Hm 
Mc 
Ni 
Pe 
Vh 
X m 
Dc 
Pe 
Pf 
Qd 
Qd 
Qe 
Qe 
Hh 
Rd 
Pd 
Fd 
Eb 

^j 
Sf 

Mc 

Hi 

Fd 

Ed 

Ne 

Xm 

Lc 

Ga 

VI 

Vc 

Hm 

Hf 

Fc 

Hk 

H k 

Ur 
Ne 
Ne 

Hi 

VJ 

Xh 

...tHn 

...lOe 



■ orFlioeB,ac. 



Cat Lake 

Cat Lake 

Catoche 

Catopaxi 

Catos 

Catska 

Cattaro 

Cattegat 

Gattum Currafee 

Cauca 

Cauca 

Caucasus 

Caucasus 

Gavalis 

Ca valla 

Cavally 

Cavalos 

Caves 

Caviana 

Cavite 

Cawnpore 

Cawoor 

Caxamarca 

Caxamarquilla . . 

Caxatambo 

Caxias 

Caxones 

Cayagan Sooloo. 

Caycara 

Caycas 

Cayenne 

Cayenne 

Coyetano 

Cayman 

Cayor 

Cayrasu 

Cay tcte 

Cayubabas 

Cayuni 

Cazembe 

Cazembe 

Celebean 

Celebes 

Celestial 

Central America 

Centurions 

Cephalonia 

Cera 

Ceram 

Ccrigo » 

Cernez 

Gerralbo 

Gerro Pasco . . . 

Gerros 

Cessano 

Geata 

Cevema 

Cevero Vostochnoi 
Ccvero Zepatnoi . 

Ceylon 

Ghab 



R. 

Ho. 

G. 

Mt 

Bk. 

T. 

T. 

G. 

T. 

Dep 

R. 

Pr. 

Mts. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

L 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

r. 

Col. 

T. 

Vil. 

L. 

Cty. 

Bay 

T. 

L. 

R. 

Ter. 

T. 

Sea 

I. 

Mts. 

Rep. 

Bk. 

L 

I. 

I. 

L 

T. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

G. 

G. 

I. 

Ter. 



Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Mexico 

Equador 

Australasia .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Austria 

Europe 

Africa 

New Grenada . 
New Grenada . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Barca 

Turkey 

Guinea • 

Africa 

Australasia .... 

Brazil 

Mindanao .... 
Hindoostan . . . 

Sumatra 

Peru 

Peru 

Peru 

Brazil 

Caribbean Sea. 

Malaysia 

Venezuela .... 

Bahamas 

Guiana ....... 

Guiana 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Africa Kg 

Brazil Jk 

Brazil 

Peru 

Venezuela 
Africa.. . , 
Cazembe .. 
Malaysia . 
Malaysia . 
Soongaria. 
North America 
Indian Ocean 
Ionian Isles. . 
Australasia . . 
Malaysia .... 
Ionian Isles .. 



Fc 

Fc 

Gf 

Gl I 

Wk 

Sc 

Nd 

Mc 

Mh 

Gh 

Hh 

Od 

Od 

Ne 

Nd 

Lh 

Lf 

Wi 

Ih 

Uh 

Qf 

Si 

I- 

Hh 
Hf 
Ih 
Ih 
Ee 
Ff 



J 

Hj 

Hh 

Nj 
Nj 
Uh 
Ui 
Rd 
G? 
Qi 
Ne 
Ui 
Ui 
Ne 



Austria |N d 



Mexico 

Peru 

Mexico 

Naples . 

Morocco 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Asia 

Persia 



•Ef 

Gj 
Ef 

Ne 
Le 
Sb 
Sa 
Sa 
Rh 
Pe 



28 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NamMorFlMaiite. 



Ctiabarga 

Chacao 

Chacapoyas . . . . 

Chachct 

Cha-chow 

Chaco 

Chactoole ...... 

Chadrina 

Ciiagfofl 

Chag^re 

Cha Uo 

Chaidu 

Chain 

Chai'ja 

Chala 

Chalagskoi 

Chaleur 

Challahcngah .. . 

Chalons 

Chamala 

Chamar Daban . 
Chanieg^abas . . 

Chamcia 

Chamil 

Chamil 

Chamir 

Chamka 

Champlain 

Champon 

Chamram-ning . . 

Chancaj 

Chanco 

Chandernagore . 

Changai 

Changamera . . . 
,Chang-chow .. . . 
Chang-chow.... 

Changina 

Chanina 

Chantrey 

Chao-chow 

Chaoming 

Chapa 

Chapada ....... 

Cha{>ala 

Chapoo 

Chapunga 

Charabali 

Charalop 

Charamukotan .. 
Charatzaiskaya . 

Charcas 1 . 

Chargaldshan. . . 

Charjooco 

Charles 

Charles 

Charles 

Charles 

Charles 

Charles 

Charleston 



Mts. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Bay 

Dcs. 

Cy. 

T. 

Mts. 

Tr. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

r. 
r. 

T. 

Mts. 

Ter. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
Mt 

?^ 

R. 

T. 

L. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Dep 

L. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

Ml 

Cy. 



Soongaria. . . . 

Chili 

Peru 

Hindoostan . . 
Mongolia .... 
Buenos Ayres 
North America 
Asiatic Russia. 
Indian Ocean.. 
New Grenada . 

China 

liittle Bucharia 
Polynesia .... 

Siam 

Soutli Peru . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit America 

Africa 

France 

Mexico 

Mongolia .... 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mongolia .... 
Mongolia .... 

Arabia , 

Thibet 

United States . 

Siam 

Thibet 

Peru 

ChiU 

Hindoostan . . 
Mongolia ..... 
Africa 



China .....*... 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 

China 

Mongolia 

Chili 

Brazil 

Mexico 

China 

Mozambique . . 
Asiatic Russia, 
liittle Bucharia 
Kurile Islands. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Bolivia 

Tartary 

Great Bucharia 
Brit America . 
Gallapagos .... 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Labrador 

Virginia ...... 

Enderby's Ld. 
South Carolina 



Rd 

Hm 

Gi 

Rf 

Sd 

Ik 

Bb 

Re 

Qi 

Gh 

Te 

Rd 

u 

lid 

Nk 

Md 

Fg 

Rd 

Ee 

Ef 

Sd 

Sd 

2f 

Hd 

1^ 
Re 

Gj 
III 
Rf 

Nj 

Te 

Se 

Vc 

Wc 

Fb 

Tf 

Sd 

HI 

¥e 

Ue 
Oj 
Pd 
Rd 

Sc 

Qc 
Qe 
Gb 
Fi 
Ma 
Ic 
Ge 
Po 
Ge 



Charleston .... 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte 

Charlotte's 

Charlotte*s 

Charlton 

Charot 

Chase's 

Chatham 

Chatham 

Chatham 

Chatham 

Chatham 

Chatham 

Chatirka 

Chattahoochee . 
Chaugalaghnoy 

Chaumont 

Chayboudirskaya 
Chazura .... 
Chcduba .... 
Checsadawd . 
Cheisinaki . . 
Chekeang .. . 
Chelekhof^. 
Cbelekhof ... 
Chelenco. . . . 
Chelicut .... 

Chelm 

Chehnsford . . 
Chelonikowa 
Chemokova . 
Chenaub .... 
Chcen Mahomed 
Chensilesskaya 

Chcpy 

Cheraf 

Cheraw 

Cherbaniani . .. 
Cherbourg .... 

Chercpe 

Cheribon 

Chernoosof ... 
Cherokees .... 

Cherry 

Chesapeake . . . 
Chessboard .... 

Chester 

Chester 

Chesterfield . . . 
Chesterfield . . . 
Chesterfield . . . 
Chcsuncook . . . 



ChML 



T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Har 

Pt 

Rk. 

Bk. 

Ft 

I. 

Bk. 

L 

T. 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Sir. 

Bay 

R. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

Bay 

R. 

I. 

L. 

C. 

Pr. 

Str. 

L. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

I. 

Bay 

Is. 

5f 

In. 
Ha 



Virginia 

North Carolina 

Pr. Edward's I. 

Brit America . 

Isle of Georgia 

Florida....... 

Mantchooria . . 

Malayan Sea . . 

Malayan Sea • . 

North America 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Mantchooria . . 

Polynesia 

Gallapagos .... 

Patjigonia .... 

S. Pacific Oc. . 

New Holland. . 

North America 

Florida 

Asiatic Russia. 

United States.. 

Asiatic Russia. 

France 

Russia 

Bolivia 

Bay of Bengtd. 

Brit America . 

Japan 

China 

North America 

North America 

Patagonia 

Abyssinia , 

Russia . . . 

England . . 

Asiatic Russiit . 

Asiatic Russia 

Hindoostan . . 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia 

Brit America 

Asiatic Turkey 

South Carolina. 

Asia 

Franco 

Peru 

Java 

Asiatic Russia. 

Western Ter.. . 

Australasia... . 

United Sutes. . 

Australasia.. . . 

England 

Nova Scotia .. . 

Brit America . 

Brit America . 
Bk. Australasia... . 
L. [Maine 



Chctsein {C^. China . 



Ge 
Ge 
Hd 
Ga 
Ji^ 
Gf 
Ue 
Th 
Th 
Fd 

J 
Gc I 
Td I 
Xi i 
Gi I 
Hn I 
Am I 
Tl 
Dc 
Gf 
Xb 
Ge 
Vi 
Md 

b 
Hj 
Sg 
Eb 
Ue 
Uf 
Be 
Be 
Hm 
Og 
Nc 
Mc 
Wb 
Vb 
Qe 
Pe 
Vb 
Gc 
Nd 
Ge 

Q(r 

Ld 

Gi 

Ti 

Wb 

Fe 

Xj 

Ge 

Vi 

Lc 

Hd 

Fb 

Fc 

Wj 

Hii 

Tf 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Ibaai of Ffami, te. 



Chetskoe 

Chevalaoo 

Chevaroff ..... 

Chevvat 

Cheye 

Chiapa 

Chiapa 

Chicago 

Chicken 

Chidlej 

Chidley 

Chidley 

Chieti 

Chihle 

Chihuahua .... 
Chihiiahoa .... 

Chikotan 

Chilcotina 

Chilcotin 

Chili 

Chilian 

Chillicothe 

Chiloe 

Chibk... 

Chilpanzingo . . . 
Chilnlan Cuni . > 

Chimaro > 

Chimborazo . . . < 

China 

Chinchilla 

Chinese Empire 
Chinese Turkea- 

tan 

Chiniakkoy .... 

Chinkun 

Chinnoor 

Chin-tan 

Chinyang 

Chipewyan ..... 
Chipewyana .... 

Chippeway 

Chippewaya .... 

Chiquitoa 

Chiricote 

Chitpore 

Chitral 

Chitral 

Chittagong 

Chitteldroog .... 

Chittore 

Chiu 

Ch. Kamennoi . . 
Choctaw hatchie . 
Choctaw Land . . 

Choctaws 

Choiseuil ....... 

Cholseuil Port . . 

Cholom 

Chonoe 

Choorwaur 

3» 



T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

St 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Is. 

C. 

C. 

Cy. 

Sta. 

Pr. 

St 

T. 

I. 

Tr. 

Ft 

Rep 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

Po. 

Mt 

Sea 

T. 

Cty. 

Cty. 

Vil. 
T. 

5f 

Ft 

Tr. 

R. 

Tr. 

Dep 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

Dis. 

Tr. 

Bay 

T. 

R. 

Arc. 

T. 



Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 

TarUry 

Africa 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Illinois 

Java 

Brit AmeriiSa . 
Brit America . 
Greenland .... 

Naples 

Nubia 

China 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Japan 

Oregon Ter. .. . 
Oregon Ter... . 
South America 

Chili 

Ohio 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Patagonia .... 
New Grenada . 

Equador 

Asia 

Spain 

Asia 



Asia 

North America 
Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 

China 

Mantchooria . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Wisconsin Tor. 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Bolivia 

Mexico 

Hindoostan . . . 
Kaiferistan. .. . 

Kaschgur 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Uruguay .... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Florida Ter.... 
Western Ter... 
Western Ter... 
East Island . . . 
Madagascar. . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Patagonia 

Hindoostan . . . 



Sb 
Va 
Ve 
Pd 

Nk 

Fg 

Gd 

Ti 

Hb 

Hb 

lb 

Md 

Of 

Te 

Ef 

Ef 

Vd 

Dc 

Dc 

HI 

HI 

Ge 

Hm 

|Tc 

Hm 

Gi 

L e 

Sd 

Rd 
Be 
Ab 
Rg 

vr 

Ud 
Ec 
Eb 
Fd 
Fd 

'r\ 

Qf 
Qo 

Qe 

Sf 

fl^ 

Pc 
Ge 
Fe 
Fe 
In 

Pj 
Xb 
Hm 
Qf 



Raoei of Fbeai, ftc. 



Chorikha 

Cliorillofl ....... 

Chororacus 

Chores 

Choshotes ... 

Choubar 

Choudau 

Choupatou 

Chourskoi ... . . 
Chow-niman.. . . 

Christian , 

Christian 

Christiania 

Christiansand. . . 
Christiansand. . . 
Chrisliansburg ., 
Christionstadt.. . 
Christiansund.. . 

Christie^s 

Christinestad . . . 

Christmas 

Christmas 

Christmas 

Christmas 

Chrystal 

Chuapa 

Chudutina 

Chule 

Chuluwan 

Chumbull 

Chumcrah , 

Chunar 

Chun-ning . . . . , 
Chuqnisaca . • 1 . 
Chuquisaca . . . . 

Church 

Church 

Churchill 

Churchill 

Churchill 

Churchill 

Chusan ■ 

Chutchcoskoie .. 
Chutilaukni . . . . 
Chwanfirshan . . . 

Cicacole < 

Cilimiti 

Cillebar 

Cimbebas ...... 

Cincinnati . . . . . 

Cinto 

Cintra 

Cinuchkinnia . . . 

Circars 

Circassia 

Circular 

Cis&idskoi 

Ciudad Real./. , 
Civita Vecchia . , 
Clagcnfurt . . . . . 
Clamet 



T. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

Tr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

Cy. 

Div. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

So. 

MU. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

'Dep 

Cy. 

Mt 

Mt 

Dis. 

C. 

R. 

Ft 

I. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

|T. 

'Cty 

C 



Bay 
T. 
Pr. 
Ct,. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 



Asiatic Russia . 

Peru 

Bolivia 

Chili 

Mongolia 

Beloochistan . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Thibet 

Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 
S. Pacific Oc,.. 
Brit America . 

Norway 

Norway 

Norway 

Africa ....... 

Sweden 

Norway 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Malaysia 

Polynesia 

Southern Ocean 

Patagonia 

Borneo 

ChiH. 

Asiatic Russia. 
South Peru.... 
Mozambique . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Siam 

Hindoostan . . . 

China 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

New Guinea . . 
Scorcsby*s Ld. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 
Patagonia .... 

Corea 

Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Sumatra 

Africa , 

Ohio 

New Grenada 

Azanaga 

Asiatic Russia 
Hindoostan . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Australasia . . 

Russia 

Spain 

Tuscany 

Austria 

Oregon Ter. . 



29 



ReC 



S b 

Hk 

Se. 

Qf 

Va 

Se 

Vb 

Ud 

Gn 

Ha 

Mc 

Mc 

Mc 

Lh 

Mc 

Mb 

Eb 

Nb 

U 

Kn 
Hm 
Th 
HI 
Wb 

^) 
Ok 

Rf 
Sg 
Rf 
Sf 
Hj 

Vi 

Ka 

Fb 

Fc 

Fc 

Fc 

Ue 

Tc 

Hm 

Ue 

Si 
Mj 
Ge 

K? 
Tc 

Rg 
Od 

Vi 

Pb 

Le 
Md 

Md| 
Ed 



33 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Nanm of Fbco, &c ' Ciaa. 



Clamet R. Oregon Ter. .. 

Oape Colooy . 



Clan William. 

Clappe*8 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence 

Clarence. ..<•• 

Clark's ., 

Clark's 

Clark> 

Clark's 

Clarkston 

Clarkston 

Clarksville 

Clausenburg. .. 

Clear 

Clear 

Clear Water... 
CIcavcland ^ . . . 

Clerke's 

Clermont 

Clermont Toonere 
Cleveland ... . 

Clew 

Clicsa 

Clifton 

Clinton 

Clinton Colden. 

Clipperton 

Clinche 

Cloatca 

Clodius 

Clonard 

Closterbaj . . . 

Cloud 

Clowey 

Clowey 

Clyde 

Coahuila 

Coangfo 

Coanza 

Coava 

Cobal 

Cobbe 

Cobi 

Cobija 

Coblentz 

Coburg 

Coborg 

Coburg 

Coburg 

Cocasai Douane. 

Cocavi 

Cochabamba. .2. 
Cochabamba.... 
Cochilla Grande. 



r. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Mt 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Str. 

Mt9. 

I. 

Rf. 

Fk. 

Fk. 

Pt 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

L. 

T. 

Rks 

"i' 

Bay 

Bay 

T. 

PL 

T. 

L. 

Rk. 

T. 

Pt 

I. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

R. 

St. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Des. 

T. 

Cy. 

?^- 

Bay 

Pen. 

Sta. 

T. 

Dep 

T. 



Milaysia 
Brit America . 
South SheUand 
Fernando Po . . 
Australasia . . . 
New Holland. . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Holland . . 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Missouri Ter. . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Mozambique . . 

Cafiraria. 

Tennessee . . . . 

Austria 

Ireland 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Ohio 

Isle of Georgia 

France 

Polynesia 

New S. Wales. 

Ireland 

South Peru . . . 
Brit America . 
Mississippi. .. . 
Brit America . 
S. Pacific Oc. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
New Holland. . 

Polynesia 

Corea 

Iceland 

S. Pacific Oc.. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Mexico 

Afirica 

Benguela . . . . . 

Afirica 

Benguela 

Darfiir 

Mongolia . . . . , 

Bolivia 

Prussia 

Saxe Coburg . . 
Upper Canada 
Brit America . 
New Holland.. 

Thibet , 

Venezuela . . . , 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 



Mts. Uruguay 



Pd 

Nl 

Sh 

Fb 

lo 

Mh 

Vi 

Ti 

Fa 

Ga 

^j 
Ga 

Bi 

Bi 

Ed 

Ed 

Ok 

Nl 

Ge 

Nd 

Lc 

Ec 

He 

Gd 

Jn 

Md 

Cj 

li 

Ff 
Eb 

Egr 

Wc 

Tk 

Ag 

Ue 

Kb 

Eg 

Eb 

Eb 

Ha 

Ff 

Ni 

Mi 

Oi 

Mj 

?l 

Hk 
Mc 
Mc 
Gd 
Ga 

?j 

Se 

Hh 
Hi 

?1^ 



■ of Fbfli^te. 



Claa. 



Cochin . . ; 

Cochin China... 

Cochrane 

Cockburn < 

Cockbum < 

Cockburn 

Cockbum 

Cockbum ..... 

Cocken 

Cocoa Nut .... 

Coeorto 

Cocofl 

Coooe 

COCOB 

Cooospera 

Cod 

Codaya 

Codera 

Codinska 

Codoso 

Codrington. ... 

Coen 

Coepang 

Coetivi 

Coffee 

Coffee's Post... 

Coffin 

Coffin 

Coffin's 

Coffin's 

Coffin's 

Cogevnicova. . . 
Co^haica ..... 
Coimbatore.... 

Coimbra 

Coires 

Coke Mount... 

Colan 

Colberg 

Colding 

Colican 

Colima 

Colivanakoi .... 

Coll 

Collegia 

Collomandous A- 

tollon.. . 
Colnett . . . 
Colnett . . . 
Cologne . . . 
Colombia . 
Colombo . . 
Coloni .... 
Colonne . . 
Colorado.. 
Colorado .. 
Colter's... 
Coluguape 
Columbia . 
Columbia . 
Columbia . 



T. 

Cty. 
C. 
I. 
I. 

c. 
c. 

Mt 

So. 

I. 

T. 

K 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Ft 

su. 
I. 
I. 
I. 

Bay 

Har 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^- 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 



Hin( 



I. 
C. 
C. 
Cy 

ay. 

T. 
T. 
C. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
L. 

^: 



Japan 

Brit America . 
Polynesia. . . . 
Bffit America . 
Brit America . 
Mozambique . . 
Greenland .... 

Polynesia 

Mongolia 

Malaysia 

N. Pacific Oc 
Bay of Bengal . 

Mexico 

Massachusetts 

Brazil 

Venezuela .... 
Asiatic Russia 
Buenos Ayres 
Enderby's Ld. 
New S. Wales 

Timor 

Indian Ocean 
Western Ter. 
Western Ter.. 
Indian Ocean 
North America 

Polynesia 

New S. Wales. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Hindoostan . . . 

Portugal 

Brazil 

Cafiraria 

Pern 

Prussia 

Denmark 

Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 

Scotland 

Brazil 



Maldives 

Mexico 

N. Caledonia . . 

Prussia 

South America 

Ceylon 

Africa 

Naples 

Buenos Ayres . 

Texas 

Oregon Ter... . 
Patagonia . . . . 
South Carolina 

Alabama 

Arkansas 



iTg 
Ue 
Ga 
Ck 
Fa 
Ga 
Oi 
lb 

^j 
Se 

Ch 

£e 
Hd 
Hi 
Hg 
Sc 
HI 
Po 
Vj 

Pi 
Fe 
Fe 
Oj 
Hd 
Dl 
VI 
Vf 
Sc 
Tb 

li 

L^ 

Gi 

Nc 

Mc 

Tb 

Eg 

Re 

Lc 

Jj 

Qh 
Ef 
Xk 
Mc 
Hh 
Rh 

Lg 
Ne 
HI 
Ff 
Ed 
Hm 
Ge 
Ge 
Fe 



CX)NSULTING INDEX. 



311 



HwriNornMiikto 



Columbia 

Colombia 

Columbia ..... 
CoiumhretM... 
Columbus..... 

Columbus 

Columbus 

Columpi 

Colville 

CdvUle 

Comaoches.... 
Comaya^fua . . . 

Comb*B 

Comfidah 

Comfort 

Comfort 

Comfort 

Comillah 

Comino 

Committee .... 

CWDO 

Comobo 

Comol 

Comorin 

Comoro 

Comoro, Great 
CompoBteUa . . . 

Comptah 

Compion , 

Comprida ..... 
Comptroller*« . 
Conceicao. .... 
CoDoeption .... 
Conception .... 
Conception .. . 
ConceptioQ .... 

Conchofl 

Concord 

Condamine .... 
Condatcby .... 
Condendas .... 

Conejos 

Confoso 

Congo 

Congo , 

Congoon 

ConFress 

Coni 

Coninskoi 

Conitz 

Connecticut . . . 
Connecticut . . . 

Conolly 

Conomamas . . . 

Constance 

Constance 

Constantine ... 
ConstantiiM^. 
Conthcoudsoog . . 
Contrarieties*. .. 
Contway 



T. 

T. 

B. 

I* 

Cy. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

Tr. 

T. 

HL 

T. 

C. 

a 

Bay 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

L. 

i. 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

Is. 

^- 

Rks 
T. 
Bay 
T. 

^- 

T. 

Bay 

R. 

Rf- 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

^ 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

St. 

R. 

Ft 

Mia 

^• 
9- 
^- 

I. 
L. 



Tennessee . 

Texas 

Oregon Ter. 
Mcditerran. Sea 

Greorgia 

Ohio........ 

Mississippi. .. 
Cambodia. ... 

BriL America 
New Zealand. 

Texas 

Guatemala .... 
Brit America . 

Arabia 

Brit America . 
Greenland .... 

Labrador 

Hindoostan . . . 

Sardinia 

Brit America . 

Italy... 

Maiaysia 

Nubia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Indian Ocean.. 

Spain 

Hindoostan . . . 
Indian Ocean.. 

Brazil 

Brit America . 
Brazil........ 

ChiU 

Paraguay .... 
Venezuela .... 
Newfoundland. 

Mexico 

N. Hampshire . 
New a Wales . 

Ceylon 

BrazU 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayies . 

Africa 

Congo 

Pwsia 



Polynesia 

Sardinia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Prussia 

United States.. 
United States.. 
Brit America . 

Peru 

Baden 

Europe 

Algiers 

Turkey 

Thibet 

Australasia... . 
BeH. America . 



Ge 
Ff 
Dd 
Le 
Ge 
Ge 
Ge 

Sg 
Cb 
Xi 
Fo 
Gg 
Gc 

u 

lb 

He 

Sf 

Md 

Gc 

Md 

ti 

Of 

Rh 

Si 

Oj 

Ld 

Rf 

Ri 

II 

Cb 

Ik 

HI 

Ik 

Hn 

Id 

Ff 

Hd 

Wk 

Rh 

L^e 

Ik 

Ni 

Mi 

Pf 

Vf 

Md 

Tb 

Nc 

Hd 

[Hd 

Dc 

Hi 

Md 

Md 

Me 

Nd 

Se 

Wi 

Eb 



Conventos.. 
Conway . . . 
Conway boro 
Conybeare . 
Coots... . 

Cook's 

Cook's 

Cook's 

Cook's 

Cook's..... 

Coomassie 

Cooper • 

Cooper's 

Coopischegaw .. 

Coordoo 

Coosa 

Coosa Combang. 

Coosy 

Copenhagen .... 

Copiapo 

Copiapo ........ 

Copimescaw... . 

Copland Hutcli- 

inson < 

Copleston 

Copororo 

Copper 

Copper Indians . 
Coppermine .... 

Coqoin 

Cora 

Coral 

Coralline ... . 

Corannas 

Corantine 

Corbet's 

Corcfaounooskaya 
Cordillera Geral. 

Cordova 

Cordova 

Cordova 

Cordova 

Corea 

Corea 

Corean < 

Corfa 

Corinth 

Corjadoe 

Cork 

Com 

Comer.. 

Comom 

Comwallis .... 
ComwalUs .... 
Comwallis .... 
Comwallis .... 

Coro 

Corolcova 

Coromandel ... 
Coron ........ 

Coronadoe.. ... 



T. 

C. 

T. 

Mt 

I. 

I. 

Str. 

L. 

In. 

R. 

?'■ 

I. 

L. 

Pt 

R. 

I. 

R. 

5^- 

Bay 
U 

Bay 

Mt 

R. 

I. 

Tr. 

R. 

So. 

T. 

Sea 

I. 

Tr. 

R. 

In. 

T. 

Mts. 

Pr. 

^: 

Pt 

Cty 

Str. 

Arc. 

I. 

Cy 

Rks 

^'- 

In. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

1. 

T. 

T. 

Cat 

G. 

Is. 



Brazil 

New S. Wales . 
South Carolina 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

New Zealand. . 
Brit America . 
North America 
Brit America . 

Ashantee 

N. Pacific Oc . 
Southern Qeean 
Brit America . 
New Guinea 1^. 

Alabama 

Malaysia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Denmark 

chui *;. 

ChUi 

Brit America . 



Brit America . 
North America 

Benguela 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Greenland .... 

Soudan 

Australasia... . 

Asia 

Africa 

Guiana 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Buenos Ayres . 

Spain 

Buenos Ayres . 
North America 

Asia 

Corea 

Yellow Sea . . . 
Ionian Isles. . . 

Greece 

Indian Ocean.. 

Ireland 

Guatemala .. .. 
News. Wales. 
Gulf of Siam 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

S. Pacific Oc. . 
South Shetland 
Venezuela • • • • 
Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 

Greece 

Mexico 



Ik 
Vk 
Ge 
Cb 
Bk 
Xh 
Xm 
Eb 
Bb 
Dc 
Lh 
Df 
|Jn 
He 
Vi 
Ge 
Ti 
Rf 
Mc 
Hk 
Hk 
He 

Db 

Cb 

X c 

Eb 
Eb 
lb 

Lg 

Wj 
Qh 
Nk 
Ih 
Fb 
Tc 

1^, 

Le 
HI 
Cb 
Ue 
Ue 
Ue 
Ne 
Ne 

Pj 
Lc 

Off 

VI 

Sfa 

Fa 

Xg 

Am 

lo 

Hg 

Tb 

Ne 
Ee 



32 



CX)NSULTING INDEX. 



■ ofFlaeMifte- 



Coronation . . . 
Coronation . . . 
Coroumilla . . 
Coroveodoi . . . 
Correntes . . . 
Corrcntes . . * 
CorrientCB. h . 
Corrientefl. .. 
Corrientes. .. 
CorrientCB. .. 
Corrientes. . . 
CorrientCB. . . 

Corrou 

Corsica 

Corte 

Commba. • . . 
Coronna .... 

Corury 

Corvo 

Corvoeiro . . . 

Cosenza 

Cosigirachui . 
Cosrooledo . . 

Cospore 

Coesacaof theDon 

Cosseir 

Costa 

Costa Rica . . . 

Costine 

Cotagayta .... 

Coti 

Cottah 

Cottayam .... 

Couchny 

Coucou » 

Coudrianskoe . 
Coudro^skaia . 

Coufiraiia 

Coulumb 

Coulunda .... 

Council 

Counien 

Courban Tamir . 

Coureica 

Couriand....3d 

Coutcba 

Contreki 

Coutskoic 

Coutts' 

Couzoan Coum . 

CK)veir8 

Coventry • 

Covinska 

Coxe's 

Coxo 

Coy 

Crab 

Craeow 

Cracow 

Cradock , 

Cradock , 



I. 

C. 

PL 

R. 

R. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

C 

C. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

£^- 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

R. 

St 

Str. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

Bis. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

Pr. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

In. 

Defl. 

Gr. 

S^' 
T. 

Str. 

I. 

In. 

Ib. 

Rep 

T. 
R. 



Sontb Shetland 
New Caledonia 

ChiU 

'Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil . « 

Para|^y 

Buenos Ayres . 
Btienos Ayres . 
BnenoB Ayres . 

Mexico 

Mozambique . . 
New Grenada . 
Mantchooria . . 
Mediterran. Sea 

Corsica., 

Brazil 

Spain 

Hindoostaa . . . 

Azores 

Africa 

Naples 

Mexico 

Indian Ocean . 

Birmah 

Russia 

Egypt 

Gninea 

Guatemala .... 
Nova Zcmbla. . 
Buenos Ayres . 

Borneo 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Nova Zembla. . 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia* 
Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

New Holland. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Mantchooria . . 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Thibet 

Arabia 

Afliatic Russia. 
Brit America . 

Tm-tary 

Polynesia 

England ...... 

Asiatic Russia. 
Oregon Ter.,. . 
Archipelago. . . 
Patagonia*... . 

Indian Ocean 

Europe 

Cracow 

Cape Colony . 
Africa. 



lo 
Xk 
Hh 
Wb 

Ik 

HI 

II 

Ef 

Ok 

Gh 

Ud 

Md 

Md 

L^a 

Rf 
Je 
Lf 
Ne 
Ef 
Pi 
Sf 
Od 
Of 
Lh 
Gg 
Pa 
Hk 
Ti 

5^ 
Rff 
Pb 
Td 
Re 
Pc 
Lg 

^J 
Re 

Fd 

Vc 

Sd 
Sb 
Nc 
Se 
Pf 
Tc 
Ha 
Qd 
Xh 
Lc 
Sc 
Dc 
Ne 
Hn 
Ok 
Nc 
Nc 
Nl 
Nl 



NuBM of IbeM^ftc. 



Cradoo 

Craig's 

Cranberry 

Cranganore . . . 

Cranston 

Crato 

Crato 

Craufurd 

Cree 

Creeks 

Crees 

Crescent ....«• 

Cresswell 

Crestovskoie . . . 

CriUon 

Crimea 53 

Crimson 

Crixas 

Crixas 

Croatia 

Croker 

Croker's 

Cronstadt 

Crooked 

Cross 

Cross 

Cross * 

Cross 

Cross 

Cross 

Crown 

Crow Wing . . . 

Crozet's 

Cruz 

Cruz 

Cuama 

Cuba 

Cubbabish Arabs 

Cubcabea 

Cucao 

Cucno 

Caddalore 

Cuddapah 

Cuenca 

Cuenca 

Cuiaba 

Cuiaba 

Culebra 

Culican 

Cullcn 

Culloo 

Culm 

Cu]peper*s .... 

Culver 

Cumana 

Cumberica .... 
Cumberland . . . 
Cumberland . . . 
Cumberland . . . 
Cumberland . . . 
Cumberland . . . 



T. 

I. 

L. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

C. 

Pr. 

Cls. 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Bay 

It, 

So. 

I. 

R. 

Is. 

C. 

C. 

R. 

I. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

Bay 

Dis. 

Ld. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 



Benin 

Scoresby's Ld. 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Greenland .... 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Western Ter... 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Seghalien 

Russia 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Austria 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Bahamas 

Nova Zembla .. 

Russia 

Africa 

Nova Zembla .. 
Brit America . 
North America 
Eastern Sea. 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Indian Ocean.. 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Mozambique . . 
West Indies. . . 

Nubia 

Darfur 

Chili 

Thibet 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Equador 

Spain 

Brazil 

Brazil 

West Indies.. . 

Mexico 

Scotland 

Africa 

Prussia 

Gallapagos .... 
New Holland.. 

Venezuela 

Brazil 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
News. Wales. 

Polynesia 

Isle of Georgia 



Ref. , 
LeiiL 



Mh 
Ka 
Ec 

Rg 

I a 

Ji 

Hi 

Ga 

Eb 

Fe 

Ec 

Dk 

Fa 

Tb 

Vd 

Od 

Ha. 

■i 

Ga 
Nc 
Hf 
Pa 
Ob 

Pa 
Fc 
Cc 
Uf 
Fd 
Pm 

De 

Oj 

Gf 

Og 

Ng 

Hm 

Sf 

5^ 

Rg 

Gi 
Le 

'J. 

Ef 
Lc 

Nc 
Fh 
Ui 

Hg 
Ik 
Fc 
Hb 

Vk 

J n 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



33 



mamoiTkamtkA 



Cumberland .... 
Cumberland .. . . 
Cumberland .. . . 
Cumberland .. . . 
Cumberland .... 
Cumbriahamn . . 

Cunda 

Cundinamarca .. 

Cunene 

Cang ies 

Cunning 

Cunningham . . . 
Cunningham . . . 
Cuimingham . . . 
Cunningham . . . 

Cupacas 

Cup^chee. 

Cupico 

Curanaris ...... 

Curazao ... . . 

Curiamuria 

Curiamuria 

Curituba 

Curituba 

Current 

Curroyenos 

Curtis 

Curtis*! 

Curucu 

Cuniguatty .... 
Ciuu LOQTU . . . 

Cutambela 

CuUto 

Cutato 

Cutch 

Cutch 

Cutchevelly . . . . 
Cutler Ferguson 

Cuttack 

Cutwa 

Cuvier 

Cuvier 

Cuvo ..../..... 

Cuxhaven 

Cuxuru , 

Cuyo 

Cuzco 

Cuzco 

Cyldkoiskoi . . . . 

Cymska 

Cyprus 

Cyrene 

Czcrsk 

Czugliak 

Daalosken 

Dabat 

Daben 

Dabo 

Dabrympl^ 

Dacca • . , 



Sir. 

Bk. 

R. 

Ho. 

Mts. 

T. 

T. 

Dep 

R. 

Tr. 

Pt 
In. 
Mts. 
Tr. 

S^' 
Pt 

Tr. 

I. 

Is. 

G. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

Po. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Pr. 
G. 
T. 
I. 

e- 

I. 

C. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
L 
Dep 

^- 

T. 

I. 

Rns 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L, 

Po. 

Cy. 



Brit America 
Australasia . . 
United States . 
Brit America 
United State*. 

Sweden 

Benguela .... 
New Grenada 

Africa 

Eqoador 

Afirica 

Biit America 
New Holland. . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Mexico 

China..; 

New Grenada . 
South America 
Caribbean Sea 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Polynesia 

Bolivia ....... 

NewS-Walw. 

Polynesia 

Bmzil 

Paraguay 

Buenos Ayrea . 

Benguela 

Africa 

Benguela 

Hindooetan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Ceylon 

Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
New Holland.. 

Benguela 

Germany 

Brazil 

Malaysia 

Soutli Peru . . . 
South Peru . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia* 
Mediterraiu Sea 
Barca . . . 
Russia . . 
Soongaria 



Sweden 

Arabia 

Russia 

Africa 

V.Diemdn'sLd. 
Hindoostan . . . 



Hb 

Wk 

Ge 

Fc 

Ge 

Mc 

Ni 

Hh 

Nj 

Hi 

?j 
Ga 

^j 
Fa 

Ga 

Eo 

Tf 

Gh 

11 

Hg 

l« 

Ik 
Ik 

Uh 

Hk 

Wk 

Al 

Hi 

Ik 

HI 

Mj 

Nj 

SJ 
Qf 

Gf 

Rh 

Fa 

Rf 

Rf 

Fb 

Tk 

Mj 

Mc 

U^. 
Hj 
Hj 
Tb 
So 
Oe 
No 
Nc 
Rd 

Nb 
Of 
Ob 

Vm 
Sf 



NuM arrboB^ac 



Dacres 

Dadazi 

Dagana.. .i^. 

Dagee 

Dagelet 

Dageou 

Doghestan . . . 

Dago 

Dagwumba*. . 
Dahadiny • . . « 

Dahl 

DaUonega . . . 
Dahomey . . . . 

Dahra 

Da Ines 

Daker 

Dala ........ 

Dalai 

Dalcahuo . . . . 
Dulhousie . . . . 

Dairs 

Dalrymple . . . 

Damar 

Damaras 

Damaresq . . . . 

Damaun 

Damascus* . . • 
Dambarasi ... 

Doraer 

Damietta . . . . 

Damloy 

Dampier's.... 
Dampier^s . . . . 
Dampicr*s . . . . 
Dampier*8 . . . . 

Dana 

Danoali 

Dande 

Dande 

Dandur 

Danes' 

Danger 

Danger 

Danger 

Danger 

Danger 

Dangerous . . . 
Dangerous . . . 
Dan^rqus . . . 

DaniUoo 

Dantzic 

Danu^. . • . . . 

Danvillo 

Daoaus 

Daouria 

Dapitan . • . . . 
Da Polvora... 

Darail 

Darbeta 

Darby 

1 DarCooka... 



C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Pr. 

h 

Cty. 

R. 

R. 

T, 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

s^- 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ld. 

Str. 



Brit America . H b 
Asiatic Russia. U b 
Senegambia ...Kg 

Cabul Q e 

Corea U e 

Bergoo. ..?,,, Ng 
Asiatic Russia P d 

Russia N c 

Soudan M h 

Brit America . D b 
Sweden ...... N b 

Greorgia G e 

Guinea !M h 

Arabia P f 



Gr. 

I. 

Dis. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Pt 

I. 

R. 

Pt 

Is. 

R£ 

R£ 

Sh. 

I. 

Cy. 

R. 

C. 

T. 

Cty. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C 

Dis. 



Chili 
Senegambia .. . 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

ChUi 

N. Brunswick . 
Newfoundland. 

Seghalien 

Arabia 

Africa 

New S. Wales . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Syria 

Motapa 

Nubia 

Egypt 

Russia 

New HoUand. . 
New Guinea . . 
Australasia.. .. 
Australasia... . 

Malaysia 

Abyssinia 

Congo 

Congo 

Beloochistan . . 
Spitsbero^n . . . 
Cape Colony . . 
Indian Ocean . 

Africa 

New S. Wales . 

Polynesia 

Australasia... . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Russia 

Prussia* 

Europe 

Japan 

Asiatic Turkey 

Asia 

Mindanao . . • 
Indian Ocean 

Arabia 

Nubia 

North America 
Soudan 



Hk 

s^l 

Td 
Hm 
Hd 
Id 

Vd 

Pg 

Nk 
VI 

Q6 

Oe 

Nj 
Og 
Oe 
Oe 
Uj 
Vi 
Tk 
Vi 

Ml 
Mi 
Qf 
Ma 

Nl 
Qi 
Mh 
Wk 

^i 

Ai 
Oh 
Ob 
Nc 
Nd 
Ue 
No 
Te 
Uh 
Ri 
Pf 

2^ 

Bb 

Nh 



34 



CONSULTING INDEX, 



■ ornwaiite. 



Darftir 

Darien y 

Darien T. 

Dorinskaya . . . . 

Dark 

Dar Kinnana .. . 

Darkulla 

Darling 

Darlington 

Dar Mahass .. . . 
Dar Misse Lad . 
Dor Miflse Lad . 

Damley 

Daroca 

Dar Runga 

Dar Tumurki .. . 

Daruigin 

Darvel 

Dos ContaB .... 

Das Rda^ 

Datilliboo 

Daumat 

Dauphin 

Ddnphin 

Dauphiti 

Davey 

David 

Da vies Gilbert . / 

Davis's 

Davy's 

Day 

Dsyfen 

Dead . 

Dead ' 

Dead 

De Algodones . . 

Dean's 

Dease's ........ 

Dease'a 

Deas Thompson 

Dcbai 

Debrera 

Dcbrctzin 

Deceit 

Deception 

DeOeux 

Dedalus 

Dcde Faadgnei . 

Deer 

Deer 

Deer 

Deer 

Deer Lake 

De Gata 

Dchast 

Dchi Noa ....:. 
Deh Koondee. . . 
Deh Zungee .. • . 

Deicrows 

Deikote 

Deir 



Cty. 

T. 

G. 

T. 

Hd. 

Dis. 

^^ 

T. 
Dis. 
Dis. 
«. 

^' 

Dis. 

Dis. 

IC. 

Bay 

R. 

L 

T. 

T. 

Po. 

L. 

Ho. 

Po. 

Sh. 

x\ft. 

In. 

So. 

R. 

Pt 

Sea 

Sea 

G. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 

R. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

g^- 

I. 

C. 

Rks 

T^ 

L. 

So. 

R. 

R. 

Ho. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

So. 

T. 

T. 



Airica 

Georgia 

New Grenada 
Asiatic Russia 
Greenland . . . 

Africa 

Soudan 

New S. Wales 
England . . . ; . 

Nubia 

Bergoo 

Bcrgoo 

Brit. America 

Spain I 

Bergoo 

Bergoo 

Asiatic Russia. 

Borneo 

Brazil 

Atlantic Ocean 

Africa* 

Arabia 

Madagascar . . • 
Brit. America • 
Brit. America . 
V. Diemen'sLd. 

Africa 

Brit. America . 

Labrador 

Scoresby 's Ld. . 
Oregon Ter. . . . 
New & Wales. 

Russia 

Syria 

Tartary 

Mexico 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Arabia 

Africa 

Austria 

Nortli America 
South Shetland 

Spain 

Africa 

Arabia ....... 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Spain 

Tartary 

Great Bucharia 

Cabul 

Tartary 

Spitsbergen . 
Ilindoostan . 
Kordofan . . . 



Ng 

Ge 

Gh 

Tc 

la 

Off 

Nh 

Vi 

Lc 

Og 

Ng 

Ng 

Db 

Ld 

Ng 

Ng 

Wc 

Th 

hi 

Pk 

Fc 

Fc 

Vm 

Oj 

C b 

Ic 

Ka 

Ea 

Vj 
Od 
Oe 
Pd 
Ee 
Cj 
Eb 
Eb 
Db 
Pf 

Bb 

Hh 

Md 

Oi 

Of 

Fc 

Gb 

Fc 

Fb 

Fc 

Le 

Qe 

Qd 

Qe 

Qe 

Na 

Qf 

Og 



■ of Fbcai, ac. 



De lUta 

De Juen ... . 

DeKays 

De la Aguja .. 

Delagoa 

Del Aned .... 
De Langle . . . 
De la Vela . . . 
Delaware .... 
Delaware .... 
Del Carbon. . . 
Del Carmen .. 
Del Choco . • . 
Delf Haven . . 

Delhi 

Delhi 

Dcli 

Delibaba 

De Limite . . . 

Delisld 

Deliverance . . 
Deliverance . . 
Deliverance . . 
De Lobos .... 
De los Reyes . 

De Loss 

Del Padre.... 
Del Peregrine 

Del Rey 

Delta 

Del Toro .... 
Del Valle .... 
De Madre de Dios 

Demarara 

Demarcation . . . 

DeMata 

Demavend 

Dembea 

Dembo 

Dcmbo Kiala ... 
Dcmyanska .... 
Demyanska .... 
De Nahuelhuapi 

Denbigh 

Dender 

Deneschino .... 

Denial 

Deny's 

Dcnka 

Denmark 

D'Entrecastedux 

De Palo 

De Paxaros 

De Penas 

Depeyster's .... 

De Piedras 

De Piedras 

De Principe de 

Beira 

Der j 

Dera Ismacl Khan 



R. 

Bay 

Bay 

Pt 

Bay 

Sta. 

Bay 

C. 

St 

R. 

L. 

I. 

Bay 

Po. 

Pr. 

s^- 

T. 

T. 

L. 

C. 

Is. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

Pt 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

Pt 

Dis. 

Bay 

L. 

Arc. 

Col. 

Pt 

C. 

Pk. 

L. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

Cty. 

Kro^ 

Pt 

C. 

I. 

G. 

Gr. 

Pt 

Pt 

Ft 

IT. 

It. 



Chili 

Brazil 

New Guinea . 

Peru 

Africa 

Nubia 

Mantchooria . 
New Grenada 
United States. 
United States. 
Buenos Ayres 

Mexico 

New Grenada 
Greenland . . . 
Hindoostan . . 
Hindoostan . . 

Sumatra 

Asiatic Turkey 
Buenos Ayres 
Seghalien .... 
Australasia .. 
Australasia .. 
Louisiade ..*. 
Buenos Ayres 

Bolivia 

Afirica 

Mexico 

Polynesia .... 
Patagonia . . . 

Egypt 

New Grenada 
Patagonia . . . 
Patagonia . . . 

~uiana 

Brit America 

Luzon 

Persia 

Abyssinia .... 

Congo 

Congo 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 
Pataffonia 
North America 

Africa 

Russia 

New Holland . . 
Indian Ocean . . 

Africa 

Europe 

New Holland . . 

Spain 

N. Pacific Oc. . 

Patagonia 

Polynesia 

Brazil 

Patagonia 

Brazil 

Asiatic Turkey 
Cabul 



nut 

Lete. 



HI 
Jk 
Vi 
Gi 
Ok 
Of 
Vd 

S^ 
Gc 

Go 

II 

Ef 
Gh 
lb 
Rf 
Rf 
Sh 
Od 
HI 
Vc 

Hk 
Lh 
Ff 

Bj 

Hm 

Oe 

Gh 

Hfa 

Hm 

Ih 

Cb 

S^ 
Po 

Og 

Ni 

Ni 

Qc 

Qc 

Hm 

Bb 

Og 

Sb 

Ui 

Pi 

Oh 

Mc 

Ti 

Le 

Cf 

Hm 

Xi 

Ji 

Hm 

Hj 
Oe 
Qe 



CONSULTING INDE^. 



Zi 



Naia«(irFkcM,*& 



DeraGazeoKhanT. 

Dcras C. 

Derbeiil.. ...*.. 

Der Bund 

Deme 

I Derpt 

I Dcrr 

I Deraon 

Dcrvazeh 

Dcsagxiadcro • . 

Do Santa Clara 

Dcs Aves 

Dcsbrowe |C. 

Desconocida. . . < 

Deseada < 

Descngfano ..... 

Desert 

I>c8erta9 

Deserted 

Des Fran^ais . . 

Dcsful 

Deshkia 

Desicrta 

Desire 

Des Moines ... 

Desolada.*. .. . 

Desolation ..... 

Desolation 

Deslructum ... 

Detkina 

DeTouro 

Dctfoit 

Deoz Fonts . . . 

Devil's 

Devil's 

DcYil's Thumb. 

Dc Vries 

Do Vries 

De Witt Clinton 

De Witt's 

Dcxter's 

D^erbinskoi .. . 

Dhabi 

Dhalac 

Dhawalagiri . . . 

Dholporc 

Diainantino . . . 
I Diamond 

Diana's 

Diarbekir .... 

Dibbah 

Dibbic 

Diedde 

Diego Alvarez . . 
. Dieg-o Garcia . . . 

Diego Ramirez . 

Diely 

Dieppe 

Dicu 

Digby 

jDigby 



T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Ls. 
.'C. 
. I. 



Pt 

I. 

Bay 

l! 

Is. 

Po. 

r. 

T. 

I. 

Po. 

R. 

Pt 

C. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Pt 

97- 

I'- 

R. 

C. 

Str. 

Bay 

Pt 

Ld. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

Pt. 

Sh. 

5^- 

L. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

C. 



Sinde 

Egypt 

Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 

Barca 

Russia 

Nubia.. 

Mongolia 

Tartary 

Buenos Ayres . 

Mexico 

Venezuela .... 
Scoresby's Ld. . 

Mexico 

West Indies.. . 
Patagonia .... 
Indian Ocean.. 
Madcrias ..... 

Patagonia 

North America 

Persia 

Russi* 

Polynesia 

Patagonia .... 
Wiscbnsin Ter. 
Guatemala .... 

Patagonia 

Indian Ocean . . 
Oregon Ter.. . . 

Russia' 

Brazil 

Michigan 

Bavaria 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Greenland 
Kurllc Islands. 

Java 

Brit America 
New Holland. 
Polynesia .... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Arabia • . . 
Red Sea . . . 
Hindoostan 
Hindoostan 

Brazil 

Sumatra. 

Australasia... . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Arabia 

Africa 

Senegambia .. . 
Southern Ocean 
Indian Ocean.. 

Patagonia 

Timor 

France 

France 

Nova Scolia .. . 
Kerguclcn's Ld. 



Qe 
Ne 
Pd 
Qe 
Ne 
Nc 
Of 
Td 
Qe 
Hi 
Ee 

H« 

Ka 

Ff 

Hg 

Hm 

Pm 

Ke 

Hm 

Cc 

Pe 

Oc 

Wf 

Hm 

Fd 

Gg 

Hn 

Qm 

Dd 

Sb 

Ji 

Gd 

Md 

Fd 

Fd 

lla 

Vd 

Ti 

Db 

Tk 

Wf 

Tb 

Pf 

Og 

Rf 

Rf 

li 

Pf 

Lg 

Kg 

Lm 

Qi 

II n 

Ui 

Md 

Ld 

Hd 

Qm 



M aaH of riaoa * 



^^ggea' 

Dijon 

Diknau Emjot 

Dil/ 

Dllheo 

Diligence .... 

Dimitrovsk. . . 

Dimon 

Dimokea 

11 Dinagepore . . . 
j, Dinaporc 



Dindigul 

Dindory 

Dingle 

Dinquitos ..... 
Dirloudskoi . . . 
Disappointment 
Disappointment 
Disappointment 

Disco 

Disco , . 

Dittean 

Diu >. 

Diu 

Dium 

DivRud 

Dixan 

Dixon's 

Djar 

Djem 

Djisaliah 

Djof 

D'Luiz 

Dnieper 

Dniester 

Dobbs' 

Doce 

Doctrina 

Dofar 

Dofreficld 

Dog 

Dog 

Dogdsa 

Dog Rib Indians 
Dolganova 
Dolgoi .... 
Dolmatov . 
Dolonskoi 
Dolphin . . 
Dolphin . . 
Dolstcad.. 
Domboo . . 
Domboo . . 
Domel .... 
Domelans . 
Domet's . . 
Domges .. 
Dommica 

Don 

Donna Maria .. . 
DonCo68ac8.40. 



i. 

5?: 

T. 

Po. 

L- 

T. 

I. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

C. 

I. 

I. 



Bay 

I. 

Hk. 

T. 

I. 

Hd. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

Ent 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Dis. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Mts. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Stt. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

Tr. 

I. 

R. 

I. 

Pr. 



Brit America . 

France 

Sahara 

Arabia 

Afirica. ...... 

Patagonia 

Russia 

Faroe Islands . 

Nubia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . 
Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan .. 
Irdand ...... 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia 
Australasia . . 
Polynesia. . . . 
Patagonia.... 
Greenland ... 
Sftitsbergen .. 
Hindoostan . . 
Hindoostan • . 
Hindoostan •. 

J^pan 

Persia 

Abyssinia.... 
North America! 
Arabia . . 



Gb 
Mc 
Lf 
Pf 
Mil 
II u 
Oc 
Lb 

Rf 

lig 
Rf 
Lc 
Hli 
W< 
Xn 
Cj 
Hi 
lb 
Na 
Rf 
Qf 
Qf 

Ve 
Pf 

Og 
Dc 
Of 



Tartary . . 
Great Bucharia < 

Arabia 

Brazil 

Russia 

Russia 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

Buenos Ayres . 

Arabia 

Norway 

Greenland .... 

Polynesia C j 

Asiatic Russia. V h 
Brit America . D d 
Asiatic Russia. T h 
Asiatic Russia. |T I 
Asiatic Russia. Q c 
Asiatic Russia. 
Falkland Is.. . . 
Brit America . 

Norway 

Africa 

Africa 

Bay of Bengal. 

Borneo 

New Holland. . ' 

Africa 

West Indies .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
N. Pacific Oc . 
Russia 



Pd 
Qd 
Og 
Ik 
O c 
Nd 
Gb 

u 

Pg 

Ml 
Tb 



Re 
In 
Eb 
M i 

Ni 
N< 
Sg 
Til 

^} 
Oi 

H« 
Oc 
Di 
Oc 



36 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



■ orPbeaste. C1m.| 



DoDda 

Dondra Head .. 

Donegral 

Donetsk 

Donga 

Dongola 

Dongoia 

Dongda 

Donian 

Donkin 

Doninase 

Donnai 

Doobaunt 

Doobaont 

Doorasama .... 

Dooshak 

Dorak 

Dorchester .... 
Dorchester .... 

Dornoch 

Doroiskoi 

Doroninsk .... 

Dorre 

Dorset 

Dos Forcados. . 
Dos Montes . . . 

DosPatos 

DoSul 

Dotames ..,. .. 

Douasso 

Doable 

Double Island . 

Donbno 

Doubtcherskaya 

Doabtful 

Doubtihl 

Donda 

Doudinskoi ... 

Doaditta 

Doughty 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douives 

Doulagoulack. . 

Donlga 

Douma 

Douro 

Dove 

Dover 

Dover 

Dover 

Dow 

Dowlatabad . . . . 

Downes 

Drah , 

Draha 

Draha 

Dragon's , 

Dram 

Dranki 



PL 
C. 
T. 
T. 

Cty. 

T. 

Bay 

Dis. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

Des. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

R. 

R. 

L. 

L. 

Tr. 

T. 

Pt 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

Har 

R. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

Har 

Bay 

R. 

T. 

Sta. 

R. 

Bay 

T. 

Pt. 

Str. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

Dis. 

R. 

Mth 

T. 

T. 



Celebes 

Ceylon 

Ireland 

Russia 

Africa 

Nubia 

Africa 

Nubia 

Bei^goela .... 

Africa 

Norway 

Cambodia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Asiatic Turkey 
Cabul . . . 
Persia. . . 
Lower Canada. 
Brit America 

Scotland 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Australasia... 
Brit. America 

Benin 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Missouri Ter. 

Africa 

News. Wales 
News. Wales 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
Australasia.. . 
New Zealand. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
North America 
Lower Canada. 
North America 
Brit America . 
Greenland .... 
Asiatic Russia. 

Nubia 

Kordosan 

Portugal 

Spitsl^rgren . . . 

England 

New Holland. . 

Europe 

Red Sea 

Hindoostan . . . 
S. Pacific Oc... 

Barbary 

Suse 

Barbary 

New Grrenada . 

Norway , 

I Asiatic Russia. 



Uh 
Rh 
Lc 
Od 
Nh 
Og 

Mb 

Jl 

Fb 
Oe 
Qe 
Pe 
Hd 
Gb 
Lc 
Td 
Tc 
Tk 
Gh 
Mh 

7/ 

Ji 
Pd 

Vj 

Wk 

Nc 

Sb 

Tl 

Xm 

Sb 

Rb 

Sa 

Dc 

Hd 

Be 

Fb 

la 

Ub 

Off 

Og 

Ld 

Na 

Mc 

Ui 

Mc 

S? 

Gh 
Le 
Lf 
Lf 
Gh 
Mc 
Wc 



Drave 

Dresden 

Dresich 

Drewyer's 

D. Roderigues . 

Drogheda 

Dromera 

Dronthcim .... 
Drontheim .... 
Drummond.. .. 
Drummond.. .. 
Drummond*s . . 
Drummondton . 

Dry 

Dry 

Dry Fork . . . 
Dsake Toupson 
Dsanlarkeng . . 

Dsatchou 

Dschabckan . . . 

Dublin 

Dubuque 

Ducburo 

Duche 

Ducies 

Duck 

Dudley Diggs . 

Duff 

Duff's 

Duida 

Duillican 

Duke of Clarence 
Duke of Kent's. 
Duke of York's. 
Duke of York's. 
Duke of York's. 
Duke of York's. 

Dukla 

Dulce 

Dulce 

Dulwich 

Dumaran 

Dumfries 

Dunaburg 

Duncan 

Duncan's 

Duncansby's . . . 
Dundas 



Dundas 

Dundas 

Dundas 

Dundee 

Duneira 

Duncira 

Dungui 

Dunlop's Range. 

Dunrora 

Dim vegan 

Duralde 

Durando 

Durango 



R. 

Cv. 

T, 

R. 

BL 

T. 

T. 

Div. 

?'• 

Pt 

I. 

T. 

Bk. 

Fd. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

Ls. 

C. 

I. 

Gr. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

Arc. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

G. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Hd. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

Bay 

MU. 

R. 

Mts. 

T. 

Ho. 

T. 

Rf. 

St 



Austria 

Saxony 

Egypt- •• 

Oregon Ter. . . 
South America 

Ireland 

Guinea 

Norway 

Norway 

Michigan 

New S. Wales. 

Polynesia 

Virginia 

Australasia.... 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Mexico 

Thibet 

Thibet 

Thibet 

Mongolia 

Ireland 

Wisconsin Ter. 

Africa 

Mantchooria . 
Polynesia. . . . 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Polynesia. . . . 
Australasia... 

Africa 

Luzon 

Polynesia .... 
Brit America 
Brit America 
North America 
Polynesia .... 
Brit America 

Austria 

Guatemala .. . 
Buenos Ayies 
New S. Wales 
Malaysia .... 

Scotland 

Russia 

S. Pacific Oc. 
S. Pacific Oc. 

Scotland 

Africa 

Oregon Ter... 
Polynesia .... 
Brit America 

Scotland 

Greenland . . . 
Brit America 

Africa 

New S. Wales 

Soudan 

Brit America 
Buenos Ajres 
Australasia .v 
Mexico 



Nd 
Mc 

Ne 
Ec 

L c 

Lh 

Mb 

M b 

Gd 

VI 

Xi 

Ge 

Vj 

Ma 

Fe 

Re 

Sf 

Se 

Sd 

Lc 

Fd 

LfiT 
Vc 
Dk 

Fi 

Ha 

Ck 

Xi 

Ng 

I^ 
Ai 

Fb 

Eb 

Dc 

Ai 

Gb 

Nd 

Gh 

Ek 

Wi 

L c 

Nc 

Eh 

Gi 

Lc 

Oi 

Dc 

Xi 

Ea 

Lc 

la 

Ha 

Ni 

Vi 

Mh 

Ec 

Hk 

Xk 

Ff 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



37 



Darango « 

DiirazzD 

Darham 

DumfoTd 

Durnftrd 

Durnfbrd Noes. 

Da Roi 

Dusky.; 

Dusseldorf . . . . 

Dutch 

Dutcheri 

Da¥our*8 

Dwabin 

Dwi 

Dwight 

Dwina 

D'WoITb 

Dyer's 

Dyer's 

Dyjr 



Eagle 

Eagle 

Eagle 

Eahei Nomauwe 
EardlcyWilmot 

Elaro 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East Andaman's 
East Bothnia . . . 
East Branch.... 

Easter 

Easter 

Eastern 

Eastern 6rFv.p. . 
East Greea'^Tid . 
East India Oa's. 

East Main 

East Main . . . . 

East Main 

East Mt l^/fpn 

Easton 

EastPeoj 

£a&tpor( 

ESast Voagen. . . 

Ebeloi 

Eboc 

Ebon 

Ebro 

Ebsamba] 

Eclipse 

Eddy S*j»je . . . . 
Edcl's 



T. 

T. 

T. 

PU 

Pt 

C. 

I. 

Bay 

Cy, 

Sh. 

Tr. 

Is. 

T. 

L. 

Sta. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Dis. 

I. 

Is. 

HI. 

I. 

C. 

R. 

Sea 

I. 

I. 

C. 

c. 
c. 
Pt 
Pt. 
Pt. 

Is. 

Dis. 

ft. 

I. 

Cls. 

Sea 

Is. 

Cty. 

Cty. 

Ho. 

R. 

Mts.New 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

L. 

S- 

R. 
T. 
Is. 



Mexico 

Turkey 

England 

Africa 

CafTraria 

Madagascar .. . 
Oregon Ter. . . . 
New Zealand. . 

Prussia 

Indian Ocean.. 
Mantchooria . . 
Australasia . . 
Ashantee .... 

Soudan 

Western Ter.. 

Russia 

Polynesia .... 
Cape Colony . 
Brit America 
Bergoo 



I. 
lA, 



Indian Ocean 
Indian Ocean . 
Brit. America . 
New Zealand. . 
Brit America . 
Madagascar. . . 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Falkland Is.... 

Malaysia 

Asiatic Russia 
Madagascar . . . 
New Zealand. . 
Anticosti Island 

Java 

New Guinea . . 
Bay of Bengal. 

Russia 

Brit. America . 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Asia 

Australasia .... 
Greenland .... 
Persian Gulf . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Prit America . 
Holland. . 
Pennsylvania. . 
Brit America . 

Maine 

Lofibden Isles . 

Tartary 

Benin 

Polynesia 

Spain 

Nubia 

Australasia... . 
Australasia... . 
New Holland .. 



HeC 



Nd 
Lc 
Oi 
Ok 

Pj 

Dc 

Xm 

Mc 

Oi 

Ud 

Vi 

Lh 

Fe 
Ob 
Xi 
Nl 
Hb 
Nl 

Pi 

Qi 
Ec 

XI 
Fa 

Pj 

Na 
In 

l\ 
l\ 

Hd 
Ti 
Vi 

1% 

Dc 

Ek 

Nk 

Uf 

Ul 

Ja 

Pf 

Gc 

Gc 

Gc 

Tl 

Gd 

Gc 

Hd 

Mb 

Qc 

Mh 

Xh 

Lh 

Of 

Tl 

Vm 

Tk 



NunM of Fben, ac 



Eden , 

Ekienton ..... 

Edfou 

Edgar 

Edgecombe . 
Edgocumbe . 
Edgecumbe . 

Edina 

Edinburg.. . . 

Edir 

Edmonton . . 

Edson 

Eelah 

Eclah 

Eelah 

Egatche 

Egedesminde 
Egeroe 

Effg 

Egg 

Egga 

Egina 

Eglinton ..... 
Egniont .... 
Egmont .... 
Egmont .... 
Egmont . > • • . 
Egmont ..... 
Egmont .... 

Egoy 

Eguan 

Egypt 

Ei 

Eia 

Eiford 

Eight Degree 

Eimeo 

Eiallfio 

Ekarma .... 
Ekasitach . . . 
Ekaterinburg 
Ekaterinofilav 50 
Ekatcrinoslav . . 
Ekathcrinipol . 
Ekatherinodar . 
Ekatherinograd 

Ekchtagh 

Ekcsio 

Eknas 

Ekrostrov 

Elaghoui 

Elance 

El Araich 

El Ared 

ElArish 

Elas 

Elatom 

Elba - 

Elbasson T. 

Elbe 

EI Biddah . 



Pt 

C. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

%^' 
T. 

Ho. 

R. 

Cty. 

Cy. 

R. 

R. 

Dis. 

I. 

Har 

R. 

T. 

G. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

Is. 

C. 

Po. 

Mt 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Ch. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

Cy. 

Pr. 

s^- 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 



Syria 

North Carolina 

Egypt 

Falkland Is.. . . 
North America 
Australasia . . 
News. Wales 

Liberia 

Scotland 

Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Asia 

Soongaria 

Soongaria 

Asiatic Russia . 
Greenland .... 

Norway 

New Jersey . . . 
Brit America . 

Soudan 

Greece 

Brit America . 
Australasia . . . 
Indian Ocean . . 

Polynesia 

New Zealand. . 
West Indies. . . 
New Zealand . . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Norway 

Maldive Is. . . . 

Polynesia 

Sweden 

Kurile Islands. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Oregon Ter — 

Morocco 

Arabia 

Egypt 

Sweden 

Russia 

Mediterran. Sea 
Turkey .. 
Germany . 
Arabia . . . 



Rflf. 



Oe 
Ge 
Qf 
In 
Cc 

^i 

Lh 

Lc 

Oe 

Ec 

Ub 

Rd 

Qd 

Qd 

Wb 

lb 

Mc 

He 

Fb 

Mh 

Ne 

Ha 

Xj 

Qi 

Cj 

x-1 

In 

XI 

Vg 

Gc 

Of 

Tb 

Od 

Mb 

Qh 

Bi 

Nb 

Wd 

Ub 

Pc 

Od 

Od 

Od 

Od 

Od 

Ub 

Nc 

Nb 

Ob 

Rb 

Ed 

Le 

Pf 

Oe 

Nb 

Oc 

Md 

Nd 

Mc 

Pf 



38 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NUBH of FbtOM, ftc. 



Elbin^r 

El Broken 

Elborus 

El Comboy . . . . 
El Compacto . . . 

Eldborg 

Ele 

Elephant 

Elephant 

Elephant 

Eletz 

Eleuthera • 

Eleve 

Eleven 

El Fern 

ElFow 

Elfwcdal 

ElGanka 

El Gazie 

ElHamid 

El Hammer ... 

Elim 

Elimane 

Eliza 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabethgrad . 

Elizabeth^B 

Elizabeth Town 

ElJem 

El Jmical 

El Kaoul 

El Kazar 

ElKhatiff 

Elk Horn 

El Lamdou . . . 
El Laughmoot . 

Ellefsens 

Ellice 

Ellice's Group . 

Ellichpore 

Elliott 

Ellore 

EI Makkarif. . . 
El Mensoria. . . . 

Elmina < 

Elmore 

ElmoBseguem . . 

El Obispo 

El Paposo 

ElRefugrio 

El Shatt 

Elsincur 

Eluths 

Elvas 



T. 

Tr. 

Mt 

I. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

Shs. 

ML 

T. 

I. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

Rks 

I. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

Bay 

Pt 

Har 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

'^ 

T. 

T. 

Har 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ft. 

Is. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

Peo. 

T. 



Prussia 

lAfrica 

I Asiatic Russia. 
{Caribbean Sea. 
Bolivia ....... 

Iceland 

Mantchooria . . 
South SheUand 
Mozambique . . 
New Guinea • . 

Russia 

Bahamas 

Asiatic Russia. 
Indian Ocean . 

Tibesty 

Fezzan 

Sweden 

Arabia 

Africa 

Barbary 

Africa 

Cape Colony . . 

Africa 

Australasia... . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

North America 

Seghalien 

Afrioa 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Russia 

Australasia . . 
V. Diemen*s Ld. 

Tunis 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia. 

Morocco 

Arabia 

Missouri Ter. . 

Soudan 

Fezzan 

PowePs Group. 
Brit America . 

Poljmcsia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Mississippix . . . 
Hindoofltan . . . 

Nubia 

Morocco 

Ashantco 

Polynesia 

Sahara 

ChUi 

Chili 

Mexico 

Algiers 

New Zealand. . 

Mongolia 

Portugal 



Rer. 



Nc 
Lg 
Od 

Gg 
Hk 
Kb 
Vd 
lo 

Vi 

Oc 

Gf 

Va 

Qi 

Nf 

Mf 

Mb 

Pf 

Kf 

Lf 

Mf 

Nl 

Lg 

Wk 
Ak 

Si 

Be 

Vc 

Nk 

Gb 

Fa 

Od 

Vi 

Vm 

Me 

Hk 

Xb 

Le 

Pf 

Fd 

Lg 

Mf 

Jo 

Cb 

Xi 

Rf 

Ge 

S« 
Og 

L e 

Lh 

Xh 

Mf 

Hk 

Hk 

Ff 

Me 

Mc 

Sd 

Le 



I dlhettfkc 



El Wah el Bah. 

El WaU* ".".!!! 1 

Elwend 

ElWinega 

Elythia 

Emba 

Emba 

Embacca 

Embdcn 

Embomma 

Emboque 

Emerald 

Emerald 

Emfras 

Emicale 

Emil , 

Ems 

Emuaen 

Enangen 

Enara 

Enara 

Enarca 

Encarnacion.. . . 
Encounter ..... 
Encounter ..... 
Endeavour ..... 

Enderby*s , 

Enderby's 

Endcrrao 

Endian 

Endracht's . ... 
Endurman ..... 
Enfante Perdu .. 
Engano 

&.-.:.. 

ElL^ITI^. 

En-U., 

Ei.-hirjd 

Eii-tiiiold 

&i-u.^h 

Eii-h^h 

EiM'lt..J 

Erii-ii-^lj 

Er ii^l! 

E River . . 

E I 

El 

Enkasy 

Enkuysen 

Ennves 

Eno 

Enon 

Ensenada de San 

Borombon 
Ensonc .... 
Enterprize . 
Entre Rios . 
Enzelli .... 
Eooa 



Os. 

Sta. 

Mt 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

G. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Str. 

R. 

R. 

Pt 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Dis. 

I. 

Bay 

Pt 

R. 

Ld. 

I. 

liar 

T. 

Ld. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

Km. 

C. 

Ch- 

Sh. 

Har 

R. 

R, 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
Ft 
Pr. 
T. 
I. 



E^t 

Africa 

Persia 

Fezzan 

England 

Egypt 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Angola 

Hanover 

Loango 

Changamera . 
Arabian Gulf. 
Southern Ocean 

Abyssinia 

Russia 

Soongaria 

Germany 

Asiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Russia 

Russia 

Abyssinia. .... 

Polynesia 

New S. Wales . 
Brit America . 
News. Wales. 
Southern Ocean 
Southern Ocean 

Japan 

Persia 

New Holland. 

Nubia 

Polynesia .... 
Malaysia .... 

Hayti 

Luzon 

Norway 

Great Britain . 
Brit America 

Europe 

Southern Ocean 
Guatemala ... 

Africa 

Brit America 
Brit America 

Barbary 

Asiatic Russia 
Ashanteo .... 

Iceland 

Norway 

Russia 

Cape Colony . 

Buenos Ayres 

Egypt 

Brit America 
Buenos Ayres 

Persia 

Polynesia. ... 



N** 

Mf 

Pe 

Mf 

Mc 

Of 

Pd 

Pd 

Ni 

Mc 

Mi 

Oj 

Of 

Wn 

Og 

Od 

Rd 

Mc 

Ab 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Oh 

Dk 

VI 

Db 

Po 
Xn 
Vd 
Pe 
Tk 
Og 

^.J 
Si 

Hg 

Ug 

M b 

Lc 

Gb 

Lc 

Ki 

Gh 

Ok 

Fc 

Ec 

Me 

Sc 

Lh 

Kb 

Mc 

Ob 

Nl 

II 

Of 

Eb 

li 

Pe 

Ak 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



39 



NainMornac«,fte. 



Epkromov 
Epiph&ne . 

Epworth 

Equador 

I Equador 

Erbinska 

Eregup 

Erekli 

Erekli 

Erfiirth 

Er^ta 

Erghi 

Erie 

Erie 

Erivaxi 

Erivan 

Erlau 

Eroubeia« 

Erromango 

Erronan 

Erzeram 

Erzi 

I Escandon 

Eschchollz 

Elschholtz 

EskiShehr 

Esmeraldas . . . . 
Esmcraldas . . . . 

Esneh 

Espenberg .... 
Espcranoe .... 
E^pirito Santo . 
EBpirito Santo . > 
E^spirito Santo . 
Espirito Santo . 
Esqnimaoz. .. . 
Esquimaox. ... 
Esquimaax. . . . 
Esquimaux. • . . 

Esscno 

Esacqacbo .... 
E^saequebo .... 

Esthonia 18 

E^iremoz 

Elsatla 

Eszok 

Etawney 

Etehin 

Ethiopian 

Etna 

EtonGol 

I Eunice's 

Euphrates 

Euroen 

Europa 

Eufltis 

{ Evans 

Evening 

Evrasheehey . . 

Evora 

I Evreux 



T, 
C. 
Pt 

Rep 
Dep 
T. 

Cy. 
Bay 
T. 
R. 

r. 

T. 
L. 

T. 
R. 
I. 

?: 



Russia 

Cyprus 

Brit America . 
South America 

Equador 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Turkey 
IVussia. .... 
Soongaria. .. 
Mongolia . . . 
Pennsylvania 
North America 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia . 

Austria 

Asiatic Russia 
Australasia . . . 
Australasia . . 
tVsiatic Turkey 



T. 
I. 

^y 
T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

'Bay 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Tr. 

I. 

C. 

Vil. 

T. 

CoL 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L- 

R. 

Arc. 

Mt 

T. 

I. 

R-. 

C. 

Rks 

L. 

In. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 



Mexico 
Polynesia 
North America 



Leta. 



O c 
Oo 
Eb 
Hi 
G i 
Ub 
Xh 
Od 
Od 
Mc 
Qd 
Td 
Gd 
Gd 
Od 
Od 
Nd 
Qb 
Xj 
Xj 
Od 



Asiatic Turkey O e 



E^f 
Xg 
Bb 



I of FUen,*e. 



Asiatic Turkcy^O e 



Equador 

Venezuela .... 

Egypt 

Nortli America 

New Holland. . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Labrador 

Labrador 

Brit America . 

Scoresby's Ld. . 

Africa 

Guiana 

Guhma 

Russia 

Brazil 

Mexico 

Austria 

Brit America . 

Mongolia S d 

Indian Ocean.. |P j 

Sicily 'Me 

Sooneroria R d 

-• • Ak 
Pe 
Vd 
Ok 
'Ed 
Gb 



Gh 

Hh' 

Of 

Bh 

Ul 

'A 

Gf 

Gg 

He 

He 

Fb 

Ka 

Ni 

Ih 

Ih 

Nc 

Ji 

Fff 

nS 

Fc 



Ewert . . . . 
Exeter . . . . 
Exeter.. . 
Elxmouth 
Exploits . 
Eydal . . . 
Eyeo .... 
Eylau . . . 



C. 

Cy. 

Bay 

G. 

Bay 

T. 

C 



Polynesia 

Asia 

Japan 

Indian Ocean 
Missouri Ter. 
Brit America 

Polynesia lU h 

North America B c 

Portugal L c 

France Md 



Fadefskoy.... 
Faden-Hotun . 

Fadish 

Fttdla 

Fagcrlmlt .... 

Fahlun 

Fahucoo 

Faillec 

Fair 

FairBcld 

Fair Foreland 
Fairweather .. 
Fairwealher . . 
Fairweather . . 

Fairy 

Falaba 

Falalep 

Falcon 

Falcon 

Falcon's 

Faleme . . . . .^ 

Falkland 

Fall Indians . . 

FaUs 

Falls 

Falmouth .... 

Faloo 

False 

False 

False Cape Horn 
False Washita . 

Falso 

Falster 

Famagusta ^ . . 

Family 

Fanado 

Fang-ming. . .. 
Fang-tsiaog . . . 

Fanhoa 

Fanimboo 

Fonlingtao .... 

Fanning's 

Fanshawe 

Fantee 

Faraday 

Farafanghane . 
Farohabad .... 

Faralis 

Farallono 

Farcol 

Farewell 

Farewell 



^- 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I- 

Pt 

L 

Sta. 

C. 

c. 
c. 

Mt 

I. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

In. 

I. 

R. 

Is. 

Tr. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

L 

Bay 

Buy 

C. 

R. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

^' 

T. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Dis. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

C. 



Scoresby's Ld. . 

England 

Brit America . 
New Holland. . 
Newfoundland . 

Iceland 

Soudan > 

Prussia 



Kh 

L c 

Hb 

Tk 

Id 

Kb 

Mh 

Nc 



Asiatic Russia. 

Corea 

Africa. ...... 

Arabia 

Sweden 

Sweden.. .. .,. 
Polynesia. ... 

Borneo 

Scotland 

Western Ter., 



Ret: 

IjCtS. 



Va 
Ud 
Oh 
O f 

Nc 
Nb 
Vg 
Ti 
Lc 
Fe 



Spitiiber|ren ...Ma 

Patagonia JH n 

Nortli America C c 
North America C c 
Brit America . |E b 
Scncgambia .. 
Polynesia. . .. 

Algiers 

Patagonia.... 
Polynesia. . .. 
Senegambja. . 
Southern Ocean 
Brit America . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Oregon Ter... . 

England 

Polynesia .... 
New Zealand. . 

Africa 

Patagonia .... 
Western Ter. . 
Uruguay .... 

Denmark 

Cyprus 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

Mantchooria . . 

China 

Corea 

Africa 

Corea 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Ashantcc 

South Shetland 

Africa 

Persia 

Polynesia 

Mexico 

Asia 

Polynesia 

Greenland .... 



Lh 

L e 
Hn 
Bk 

Lff 

In 

Ec 

Ed 

Dd 

Le 

Wh 

XI 

Nl 

H n 

Fe 

II 

Mc 

Oe 

Fc 

Jj 
Ud 
Te 
Ue 

Lg 

Ue 

Bh 

G a 

Lh 

J 

Pk 

Pe 

Vh 

De 

Qh 

Aj 

Ic 



40 



CONSULTING INLEX. 



KuDM of FlaoM, ftc. 



Farewell 

Faribe 

Faro 

Faroe 

Farquhar 

Farreri 

P^arroilep 

Faia 

Fartash 

Fartash 

Fatchio 

Fatsisio 

Fattaconda 

Faltooha 

Fatuiva 

Favorite 

Faxe 

Fayal 

Fayette 

Fayettevillo .... 
Fayetteville .... 

Fear 

Fcarnall 

Fedja 

Fedoticha 

Fecjee 

Feid 

Feig 

Feis 

Fcldkirch 

Fcledy AtoUoa. . 

Felix 

Felix....' 

Fellatas 

Fellfoot 

Feloflicu 

Fenatica 

Fengue 

Fcnuara 

Fcrbanna 

Fermo 

Fernandina .... 
Fernando Noron- 

ha 

Fernando Po . . . 

Ferrato 

Ferokabad 

Ferro 

Fcrrol 

Ferrol 

Ferrol 

Fertit 

Fcrvinskoy Nosb 

Fcthaland 

Fetigo 

Fetlar 

Fetunha 

Feysarah Arabs. 

Fez 

Fezzan 

Field 



C. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Pr. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 



New Zealand 

Scnegambia . 

Portugal .... 

Northern Ocean 

New Holland . . 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Persia 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Ck>rea 

Polynesia 

Scnegambia .. . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Iceland 

Azores 

Oregon Tcr. . . 

Nortli Carolina 

Arkansas 

North Carolina 
Bay iBrit. America . 
Bay Nubia 
R. 
Is. 
T. 
I. 
I. 
T. 
I. 

Mt 
C. 
Pco. 
C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Is. 
T. 
Cy. 
T. 



Asiatic Russia 
Polynesia .... 

Arabia 

Polynesia .... 
Polynesia .... 

Austria 

Maldives .... 

Africa ...... 

Brit America 

Soudan 

Brit America 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Mantchooria 
Polynesia . . . 
Scnegambia 

Italy 

Cuba 



I. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Dis. 

C. 

Pt 

Dis. 

I. 

I. 

Tr. 

Cy. 

Cty. 

R. 



Brazil 

Africa 

Sardinia 

Ilindoostan . . . 
Canary Islands 

Peru V 

Spain 

Peru 

Africa 

Nova Zemhla. . 

Scotland 

Africa 

Scotland 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Morocco 

Africa 

New S. Wales. 



Xm 
Lg 
Lc 
Lb 
Tk 
Lg 

?f 
Ef 

Ue 
Ve 

Lg 
Ci 

Cj 

Aj 

Kb 

Ke 

Ed 

Ge 

Fe 

Ge 

Fa 

Of 

Wb 

Xj 

Of 

Vh 

Vg 

Md 

Qh 

Fb 

Mg 

G a 

Sa 

Ff 

Ud 

Bj 

Lg 

Md 

Gf 

Ji 

Mh 

Me 

Gi 
Ld 
Gi 
Nh 
Ra 
Lc 
Nh 
Lc 
Ci 
Oh 
Lc 
Nf 
VI 



NaBM of FlaMi, Ice. 



Fierro 

Fighi^ 

Figurm 

FUdcs 

Filek 

Filning-chow .. . 

Finisterrc 

Finland 

Finlay 

Finley 

Finmark 

Firando 

Fire 

Firouzabad 

First 

Firth of Forth.. 
First Volcano .. . 

Fish 

Fish 

Fisher 

Fisher's 

Fisher's 

Fisher's 

Fishing 

Fiskeroe 

Fister 

Fitats 

Fittrc 

Fitzgerald 

Fiumc 

Five 

Five 

Fizen 

Flamboro 

Flannan 

Flagstadoe 

Flat 

Flat 

Flat 

Flat 

Flat Bow 

Flat Bow 

Flat Bows 

Flat Heads 

Flat Heads 

Flattery 

Flattery 

Flaxman 

Fleming 

Flinder's Wreck 

Flint 

Flint's 

Flora 

Florence 

Florence 

Flores 

Flores 

Flores 

Flores 

Florida 

Florida 



C. 

T. 

Is. 

Str. 

T. 

Cy. 

C. 

Cty. 

Ho. 

R. 

Div. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

R. 

Bay 

C. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

L. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

Bay 

T. 

Is. 

Is. 

T. 

Hd. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Pt 

L. 

Ho. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

Ho. 

C. 

C. 

Is. 

In. 

Rf. 

HI. 

I. 

I. 

T. 
T. 
I. 
I. 
R, 



Algiers 

Barbary 

Asiatic Russia. 
South Shetland 

Nubia 

China 

Spain 

Europe 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Norway 

Japan 

Iceland 

Persia 

Madagascar.. . 

Scotland 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Greenland .... 

Africa 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Russia 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Norway 

Japan 

Soudan 

Brit America . 

Austria 

Polynesia. .... 

Malaysia 

Mantchooria . . 

England 

Scotland 

Loffoden Isles . 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Bay of Bengal . 
Asiatic Russia . 

Borneo 

Oregon Ter. .. . 
Oregon Ter.... 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Oregon Ter. . . 
New S. Wales. 
North America 



Scoresby's Ld. 

Australasia . . 

Guiana 

Polynesia. ». . 

Iceland 

Tuscany 

Alabama .... 

Mexico 

Azores 

Uruguay .... 

Bolivia 

Ter. United States. 
C. Florida 



M e 

Le 
V a 
I o 

^5 
U f 

Ld 

Nb 

F c 

Do 

Nb 

Ue 

Kb 

Pf 

Ok 

Lc 

Vf 

Nk 

lb 

Ok 

Ka 

Vf 

Nb 

Fe 

Nb 

Mc 

Ve 

G a 
M d 

Xh 
Uh 
Vc 
Mc 
Lc 
Mb 
Na 

\ a 

Ti 

Ed 

Ed 

Ed 

Ed 

Ed 

Dd 

Vj 

Ca 

Ka 

Wk 

Ih 

Bj 

Kb 

Md 

Ge 

Fg 

J e 

II 

Hj 

Gf 

Gf I 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



41 



Ibmn flf flMH, fee. 



Florida 

Florida 

Floris 

Fludst 

Foemund 

FoePetoune.... 

Fog^ • 

Fogo 

Fog«ry 

Foggy 

I'^gy 

Fouc 

Fokina 

Folderied . . . 
Folger's .... 

Folinge 

Fond du Lie 
Fong.yang. . 
FoDseca .... 
Fontenoy . . . 
Foota Jallon. 
FootaToro.. 

Forbes 

Ford 

Foreland.... 

For&p 

Forks 

Formentera. . 
Formigaa . . . 
Formigas . . . 
Formosa .... 
Formosa .... 
Fonnosa .... 
Formosa.*.. 
Formosa .... 
Foro Lma. . . 
Forrestiers .. 

Ferster 

Forster's.... 
FortaTSDtmm 

Fortune 

Fortmie.. .. . 

Fortone 

Fortone 

Fort Wayne. 
Forty Foot De- 

gree 

Foster's 

Foting 

Fool 

Fool 

Fool 

Foola 

Fooladougou 
Foulweather. 
Foalwind . . . 

Foarda 

Four 
Fourth 
Foveauz 
Fowler's 



T. 

Rfs. 

Is. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 

L 

L 

Is. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



I. 
T. 
Ft 

g!- 

T. 

Cty. 
Ct,. 

c. 

Fd. 

T. 

Ft 

L 

Is. 

I. 

Ch. 

Str. 

R. 

I. 

C. 

Bay 

Mt. 

Har 

L. 

L 

Ld. 

Bay 

Bk. 

T. 

Is. 

Bay 
So. 
Pt 
L 
T. 
C. 
C. 
T. 
r Island Point Fac. 
I. 

Str. 
Bay 



Mexico 

Florida 

Malaysia 

Denmark 

Sweden 

Mantchooria . . 
Newfoundland. 
Cape Verd Is. . 
North America 
North America 
North America 

France 

Asiatic Russia . 

Norway 

Polynesia 

Sweden 

Brit America . 

China 

Guatemala 
France .. . 
Afiica .. . . 

Africa 

Polynesia 

New Holland.. 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Scotland 

Oregon Ter. . . 

Spain 

Peru 

Azores 

Intern Sea. . . 
Elastem Sea .. . 

Africa 

Eastern Sea. . . 

Africa 

Brit America . 
Australasia... . 
New S. Wales . 
Brit America . 
Canary Isles . . 
Indian Ocean . 
Brit America . 
Newfoundland . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Indiana 



S. Pacific Oc. 
Scoresby*sLd.. 

Sweden 

Nubia 

Spitsbergen . . . 

Africa 

Scotland 

Afiica 

Oregon Tor.. .. 
New. Zealand. . 
Mantchooria . . 
Greenland . . . . 
Madagascar .. . 
New Zealand. . 
Brit America . 



Ff 

Gf 

Uh 

Mc 

M b 

Ud 

Id 

Kg 

Ca 

Be 

Be 

Md 

Sb 

Mb 

Wg 

Nb 

Ec 

Te 

Ld 

^? 

Uj 

Ma 

Lc 

Dc 

Me 

Gj 

Ke 

Uf 

Uf 

Mh 

Uf 

Mh 

Fb 

Tk 

VI 

Hb 

Lf 

Qm 

Hb 

Id 

Pi 

Gd 

Am 
Ka 

Mb 
Of 

Na 

l{ 

Lh 

Dd 

Xm 

Ud 

la 

Ok 

Xm 

£b 



NuMt of Phfoai^fte. 



Bay 

Is. 

R. 

Ch. 

Tr. 

C. 

^- 

I. 
C. 
R, 
T. 
R. 
Cy. 

^• 



Fowler's 

Fox 

Fox 

Fox 

Foxes 

Foxness 

France 

France 

Francis 

Francis 

Fran9ais 

Fnigoso 

Fragua 

Frankfort, Free 

Frankfort 

Frankfort . : . . . 

Franklin 

Franklin 

Franklin Bay 

Franklin 

Franklin 

Franklin 

Frazer 

Frazer's 

Fredenburg .... 
Fredensburg... . 

Frederick 

Frederick 

Fredericksburg . 
Fredericksburg . 
Fredericksburg . 
Frederickshall . . 
Fredcricksham.. 
Frederickstadt . . 
Fredericksthal . . 
Frederickton . . . 



L. 

C. 

Ft 

Ft 

R, 

T. 

T. 

Ho. 

Rf. 

T. 

T. 

Ft 

T- 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

Cy. 



Freel's C. 



Freestone > 

Free Town 

Free will's 

Frejus , 

Fremantle 

Fremona 

French , 

French , 

Fresnillo , 

Freycinet's . . . . . 

Friedland , 

Friendly *, 

Friesland 

Frigid , 

Frio 

Frio 

Frisco 

Frisker-naer. .. . 
Frobisher's... . . 

Frooeme 

Froyen ■ 

Frozen 

Frozen 

Fry 



Is. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Sh. 

T. 

Har 

T. 

Is. 

Pk. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

R. 

Dis. 

Str. 

L 

I. 

Is. 

Str. 

C. 



New Holland. . 
North America 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Europe 

Indian Ocean . 

Polynesia 

Kerguelen's Ld. 
Upper Canada . 

Brazil 

New Grenada . 

Germany 

Kentucky 

Prussia 

Missouri 

Pennsylvania. . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Oregon Ter... . 

Guiana 

Africa 

Brit America . 
Australasia . . 

Virginia 

Cape Colony . . 

Africa 

Sweden 

Russia 

Norway 

Greenland .... 
N. Brunswick . 
Newfoundland. 

Labrador 

Aijrica 

Polynesia 

France 

New Holland.. 

Abyssinia 

Polynesia 

Atlantic Ocean 

Mexico 

NewHoUond.. 

Prussia 

Polynesia 

Sandwich Land 
Brit America 

Afirica 

Brazil 

Guinea 

Greenland .... 
Brit America . 

Norway 

Norway. . . ... 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 



Ul 
Ac 
Fc 
Gb 
Fd 
Na 
Md 

Bi 

Qm 

Gd 

li 

Hh 

Mc 

Ge 

Nc 

Fe 

Gd 

Db 

Fb 

Ga 

Db 

Dc 

Dc 

Ih 

Mh 

Gd 

Wk 

Ge 

Nl 

Lh 

Mc 

Nb 

Mc 

Id 

Hd 

Id 

He 

Lh 

Uh 

Md 

Tl 

Og 

li 

Ff 

Tk 

Nc 

Aj 

Kn 

Gb 

Mj 

Jk 

Lh 

lb 

Hb 

Mb 

Mb 

Na 

Gb 

Hb 



4* 



F 



42 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Namea of FbMi, Ac 

Fshoot 

Fucrte 

Fuga 

Fugleoe 

Full-chow 

Fuhkeen ■ 

Fulda 

Fulda 

Fullerton 

Fulton 

Funchal 

Funchol 

Funda 

Fundy. .' 

Funcn ........ 

Fungaro 

Funii 

Funing-chow . . 
Funt-chow .... 

Fura 

Furncauz 

Furneaux 

Furo 

Furrah 

Furrali 

Furrackabad . . 

Fury 

Futtehpore .... 

Gabida 

Gabooa ....... 

Gaboon 

Gad 

Gadamis 

Gaol ftaznkes . 

Gaeta 

GafFa 

Gago 

Gago 

Gagolflki 

(iraih 

Gaines 

Galapagos Kay 

Galatz 

Galega 

Galena 

Galeta 

Galicia 

Galissioniera . . 

Galla 

Gallapagos . . . . 

Gallatin's 

Gallogo 

Gallegos 

Gralleons 

Gallinas 

Gallipoli 

Galloon 

GaWeston 

Gal way 

Galway 



Dis. 

I. 

I. 

Cy. 
Fr. 
Cy. 
Cy. 
C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Bay 
I. 
T. 
T. 
Cy. 
Cy. 
Mts. 
I. 
I. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

, Str. 
T. 

, T. 
. Cty. 

R. 
, Pr. 

Cy. 

Bay 
. T. 
. T. 
. Km. 
. T. 
. T. 
. T. 
.Ft 
. I. 
. T. 
. I. 

:^'- 

. Pr. 
. Rk 
. Tr. 
.Is. 
.R, 
.Is. 
. R. 
. Bk. 
.Pt 
. T. 
. Bay 
. Bay 

'•ky 



Magadoxa . . . 
New Grenada 
Malaysia .... 
Faroe Islands 

China 

China 

Brit America 
Hesse Cassel . 
Brit America 
Arkansas .... 

Madeira 

Denmark 

Africa 

North America 

Denmark 

Darfur 

Brazil 

China 

China 

Africa 

Australasia... . 

Polynesia 

Brazil 

Cabul 

Cabul 

Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
Ilindoostan . . . 



Ret 

Leu. 



Ph 

Gh 

Lb 
Tf 
Tf 
Gb 
Mc 
Gb 
Fe 
Kc 
Mc 
Mh 
Hd 
Mc 

Uf 
Te 

?/ 
I'' 

Qe 
Qe 
Rf 
Gb 
Rf 



NtxDfli of Fhoes, fee. 



Soudan 

Africa 

Africa 

Arabia 

Tripoli 

Scoresby^s Ld.. 

Italy 

Russia 

Africa 

Soudan 

Asiatic Russia. 
Beloochistan . . 

Georgia 

Bahamas 

Turkey 

Indian Ocean.. 
Illinois ....... 

Mediterran. Sea 
Austria.. . 



Mi 

Mh 

Pff 
Me 
Ka 
Md 
Od 
Mg 
Mg 
Qb 
Pf 
Ge 
Gf 
Nd 

'A 

Me 
Nd 



Atlantic Ocean I g 

Afi-ica On 

Eh 
Ed 
Gh 
Hh 

Iff 
Hg 
Nd 



S. Pacific Oc. 
Missouri Ter. . 
S. Pacific Oc... 
Patagonia .... 
Atlantic Ocean 
New Grenada . 

Turkey 

China 

Texas 

Ireland 

Ireland 



If 

Lc 
Lc 



Gamaley 

Gambia 

Gambia 

Gambicr*s. .... 

Gamble , 

Gamboes ..... 
Gamla Carleby 

I Gan 

Ganatn 

Ganges 

Gangpore .... 
Ganhwuy .... 

Ganjam • 

Gannct 

Ganthcaume's 

Gapsel 

Garajaos 

Gardaiiii 

Garde 

Gardcia 

Gardiner 

Gardner's .... 

Gardner's 

Gardner's 

Gardner's 

Garjam 

Garnet's 

Garnicr 

Garonne 

Garrett 

Garry 

Garry 

Garry 

Garry Pelly . . . . 

Gartube 

Caspar Ricoii . . . 

Gaspe 

Gasper 

Gatel 

Gatincau 

Gatrone 

Gau el Kebir . . . 

Gauritz 

Gau Shenkien . . 

Gavala 

Gavarea 

Gavenki 

Gaza 

Gaze 

Gdov 

Gcba 

Gebel el Kumri . 

Gebraken 

Grcclvinks 

Geesh 

G^eza 

Gefle 

Geip 

Grelesninskaya . . 
Gelle Damga .. . 
Gelliyar 



C. 

Col. 

R. 

I. 

Bay 

Tr. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Bay 

Bay 

R. 

I. 

C. 

Ft 

L. 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

Str. 

T. 

R. 

§^- 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Mts. 

I. 

Bay 

Cy. 

'^ 
T. 
T. 
T. 



iTapan 

Africa 

Sencgambia .. 
Polynesia .... 
Brit America 

Africa 

Russia 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan ... 

China 

Hindoostan . . . 
New Zealand. . 
New Holland. . 

Russia 

Indian Ocean.. 

Africa 

Iceland 

Barbary 



Vd 
Kg 

Lff 
Dk 
Ga 
Nj 
Nb 
Td 
Uc 
Rf 
Rf 
Tc 

XI 
Tk 

Nc 

V 
Pg 

Kb 
Me 

Maine Hd 

An 

Fi 

Wi 

Af 

Mn 

Lf 

Fa 

Ld 

Fa 

Fa 

Fc 

Fb 

Cb 

Rd 

Xff 

Hd 

Ti 

Uh 

Gd 

Nf 

Of 

Nl 

Of 

Oe 

Wc 

Wc 

Oc 

Fb 

Nc 

Oh 
Vd 
Ui 

R« 

Oe 
Nb 
Nk 
Re 

Lg 

Nb 



Polynesia 
Gallapagos .... 
Australasia . . . 
N. Pacific Oc . 

Africa 

Azanaga 

Brit America . 

France 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America . 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Mongolia .... 
Polynesia. ... 
Lower Canada 
Malaysia .... 
Mindanao.. ... 
Lower Canada 
Fezzan 

Egypt 

Cape Colony . 

Egypt 

Cyprus 

Asiatic RliMia 
Asiatic Russia 

Syria 

Brit America 

Russia 

Senegambia . . 

Africa 

Japan 

New Guinea . 
Abyssinia. . . . 
Egypt 

Sweden 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Senegambia 
Sweden.. .. 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



43 



Gelova 

Genater 

Geneva 

Geneva 

Genii 

Genoa 

GreogTapher*8 . . . 

George 

George 

George 

Geotge 

George 

George 

George 

George 

George 

George 

George 

George III 

George IV.»8 Co. 

ronation 

Georgetown .. .. 
Georgetown .. .. 
Georgetown ... . 
Georgetown .. .. 

Georgia 

Georgia ........ 

Georgia 

Georgia 

Georgian 

Greorgievsk 

Grerma 

Germanj 

Crerona 

Greuvetlan 

Ghad 

Ghandjgha .... 

Ghauts 

Ghelintchik 

Gher^onge .... . 

Ghena 

Gherri 

Ghezan 

Ghilan 

GhiUaka 

Ghinmies 

Ghir 

Ghirisk 

Ghiznee 

Ghofan 

Ghoor 

Ghoraut 

Ghow 

Ghraat 

Ghroodwa . . . . 

Ghyda 

Giadroniasi 

Gibeh 

Gibraltar.. 
Gibraltor.. 
Gibraltar.. 



T. 
Sta. 

R. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

L. 

Fl 

Ft 

I. 

I. 

Mt 

Arc. 

G. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

St. 

Pr. 

G. 

I. 

Cy. 

Cty. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Mts. 

T. 



Russia 

Kordofan 

Switzerland . . . 
New York.... 

Spain 

Sardinia 

New Holland . . 

Tobago 

V. Dieoien'sLd. 
Cape Q>lony 
Kerguelen*sLd. 
Brit. America 
New S. Wales 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter. . 
SouUiern Ocean 
Indian Ocean . 
Enderby*B Ld.. 
North America C 



T. 

T. 

Fr. 

Tr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

S?' 
Dis. 

Mt 

Pr. 

T. 

5^- 

R. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Str. 



Pb 

Og 

Md 

Gd 

Le 

Md 

Tl 

Hg 

Vm 

Nl 

Qm 

He 

VI 

Ec 

Dd 

r^j 
Qi 

Po 



Brit America . 
Ascension I... . 
South Carolina 

Guiana 

Bermuda 

United States. . 
Asiatic Russia 
Oregon Ter... . 
Southern Ocean 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Fezzan 

Europe 

Spain 

Guatemala .... 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Nubia 

Arabia 

Persia 

Mantchooria . . 

Barca 

Barbary 

Cabul 

Cabul 

Ashantee 

Persia 

Tartary , . 

Beloocbistan . . 

Fezzan 

Fezzan 

Asiatic Russia. 

Candia 

Arabia 



enezoela. 



Eb 

LI 

Ge 

Ih 

He 

Ge 

Pd 

Dd 

Jn 

Cj 

Od 

Mf 

Mc 

Md 

Fg 

Nf 
Vb 

Od 

f 
^^ 

2^ 

Pe 
Uc 
Ne 
Le 
Qe 
Qe 
Lh 
Qe 
Qe 
Qf 
Mf 
Nf 
Ra 
Ne 
Of 
Le 
Hh 
Le 



Gibson C. 



Gibson . 

Gidid 

Giesvar 

Gifford , 

Gifford , 

Gigansk . . . . . 

Gigeri 

Gijon 

Gila 

Gilbert's .... 
Gilbert's.. . 
Gileva ...... 

Gil|rit 

Gihon 

Gilliskaal . . . 

Gilolo 

Ginga 

Gingiro 

Girana 

Girge 

Girgenti . . . . , 

Girlau 

Gisma 

Givet 

Giatsk 

Gladstone ... 
Glasgow .... 
Glasgow . . . . . 

Glazov 

Glocester . . . , 
Glocestcr . . . 

Glogau 

Glommen . . . 
Gloriosa .... 
Gloucester . . 
Gloucester .. 
Gloucester . . 
Gloucester . . 
Gloukhov . . . < 
Gluckstodt . . 
Gnadenthal.. 

Gnarp 

Gnaungrue. . 

Gnesen 

Goa 

Goa-Choung. 
G^hattee ... 

Goat 

Goat Pen . . . . 
Godavery . . . , 
Goderich .... 

Godin 

Grodt-haab... . 
Grod's Mercy 
Grod's Mercy 

Grogra 

Grolconda . . • 
Grolconda ... 

Gold 

Gioldingen . . . 



Ft 
T. 
T. 
R. 
Mt 

I': 

I. 

Arc. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Pr. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
C. 

S^' 
T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Cy. 

R. 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Ho. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

5^- 

T. 

L 

R. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Sta. 

C. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

L 

Cst. 

T. 



Brit America . 
Missouri Ter. . 

Nuhia 

Norway 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia . 

Algiers 

Spain ........ 

Mexico 

Polynesia 

Polynesia. . .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Kaschgur 

Malaysia 

Sweden 

Malaysia 

Congo 

Africa 

Abyssinia 

Egypt 

Sicily 

Turkey 

Japan 

France 

Russia 

Scoresby's Ld. 

Scotland 

Kentucky.. .. . 

Russia 

Patagonia 

News. Wales. 

Prussia 

Sweden > 

Indian Ocean . 
England... . . . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Denmark 

Cape Colony . . 

Sweden 

Birmah 

Prussia 

Hindoostan . . . 

Birmah 

Hindoostan . . . 
S. Pacific Oc. . 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Upper Canada . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Greenland . . . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Polynesia 

Gmnea 

Russia 



Leta. 



Gc 
Fe 
Og 
Na 
Ga 
Cb 
Ub 
Me 
Ld 
Ee 
Xh 
Xh 
Sb 
Qe 
Ti 
Mb 
Uh 
Ni 
Oh 

8? 

Me 

Nd 
Y6 
Mc 
Oc 
Ka 
Lc 
Ge 
Pc 
Hn 
Vk 
Nc 
Mb|l 

li 
8i 

Gc 
Oc 

Mc 
Nl 
Nb 
Sf 
Nc 

?^ 

'I 
Gl 
Fd 

if 

Ed 
lb 
Hb 
Gb 
Rf 

S« 
Dh 

Lh 



44 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NuM of Phooa, 4e. 



Goliad 

Golovin 

Golovnin 

GolowatBcheff.. . 

Golza 

Gomberoon 

Gromciu 

Gromul 

Gonave 

Gondar 

Gonea 

Gonieh 

GoDzales 

Groober 

Goodenough .... 

Gooderoo 

Gooderoo 

Good Fortune . . 

Good Hope 

Good Hope 

Good Success. .. 

Goofs 

GooDiah 

Goonong Telia. . 

Goos 

Gooty 

Goram ........ 

Gordon 

Gordon^s 

Gore 

Gk)ree ..- 

Gore*s 

Gore*8 

Gror^ona 

Gron Karaumet . 

Grorizia 

Gorodetz 

Gorodetzk 

Grorodislebe . . . . 

GoroUoi 

Groroo 

Goroo 

Grorruckpore. . . . 

Grortope 

Gosir 

Gotha 

Gothem 

Gothland 

Gothland 

Gotoiiege 

Got Sands 

Grottenburg... .. 

Gottingen 

Gotto 

Gouffh's 

Groulbum 

Gtoulbum 

Goulburn*s 

Gouriev 

Gourmon 

Gousinay, North 



T. 

Mt 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

I. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

Mt 

Dis. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

Bay 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Mt 

Bay 

Bay 

I. 

I. 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^- 

Div: 
L 
T. 
I. 

5f 

I. 
I. 
T. 
R. 
I. 



Texas 

Nova Zembla. . 
North America 



jSeghalien 

Soongaria 

Persia 

Canary Isles . . 

Cabul 

West Indies... 
Abyssinia, .... 

Abyssinia 

Asiatic Turkey 

Texas 

Africa 

Brit America 
Abyssinia. . .. 
Abyssinia .... 
Malaysia .... 
Cape Colony . 

Japan 

Patagonia .... 

Arabia 

Hindoostan . . 

Celebes 

Nubia 

Hindoostan . . 
Australasia . . 
Enderby*s Ld. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Senegambia . . . 
North America 
New Zealand. . 
New Grenada . 

Tartary 

Austria 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

North America 
Polynesia. . 
Polynesia.. 
Hindoostan 
Thibet .... 
Arabia .... 
Saxe Gotha 
Gothland .. 
Sweden .... 
Baltic Sea . 
Soudan. . . . 
Baltic Sea . 
Sweden . . . 
Hanover . . . 

Japan 

Southern Ocean 
News. Wales . 
New a Wales. 
Australasia... . 

Tartary 

Soudan 

Nova Zembla .. 



Ff 
Pa 
Be 
Vc 
Rd 
Pf 
Kf 
Qe 
Hg 

eg 

Od 

Ff 

Mg 

Cb 

Oh 

Oh 

Si 

Nl 

Vd 

Hn 

Of 

Rf 

Uh 

Og 

Rg 

Ui 

Po 

Eb 

Gb 

Kg 

Ab 

Xm 

Gh 

Pd 

Md 

Oc 

Ob 

Pc 

Ac 

Y^- 

Xj 
Rf 
Re 

Pg 

Mc 

Nc 

Mc 

Nc 

Mg 

Nc 

Me 

Mc 

Ue 

L m 

VI 

VI 

Uj 

Pd 

Mg 
Pa 



NaniM olFlMcm,ke. 



Gousinay, South 
Gov. Farquhar*s 

Grower's 

Groyanna 

Goyaz 

Grozzo 

GrOZZO 

Graaf Reynet . . 
Gracias a Dies. . 

Graciosa 

Graciosa 

Gradiska 

Grallon 

Graham Moore's 
Graham Moore . 

Graham's 

Graham's 

Grampus 

Granada 

Granada 

Granard 

Grand 



Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand 

Grand Canary . 

Grande 



Grande . . . 
Grande . . . 
Grande • . . 
Grande . . . 
Grande ... 
Grande del Norte 
Grand Port... 
Grand Sesters 

Grane 

Granger's .... 

Grant 

GrantleT 

Granvilto .... 

Grass 

Gratiot 

Gratz 

Gravesend . . . 

Gray 

Gray's 

Greasy 

Great 

Great 

Great 

Great 

Great 

Great 

Great ....... 

Great 

I Great Aloai . . 



Bay 

L 

I. 

L, 

Key 

R. 



Nova Zembla 
Australasia . 
Australasia.. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Candia 

Mediterran. Sea 
Cape Colony 
Guatemala .. 

Azores 

Canary Isles . . 

Turkey 

News. Wales . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Cape Colony . . 
South Shetland 

Polynesia 

Spain 

Guatemala .... 
New S. Wales . 
Buenos Ayres . 
Missouri Ter. . 

Michigan 

Paraguay 

Lower Canada. 
Missouri Ter. . 

Michigan 

N. Brunswick . 

Guinea 

Canary Isles . . 
Senegambi^ .. . 
South America. 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Bolivia 

Buenos Ayres . 

Mexico 

Isle of France . 

Liberia 

Arabia 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
North America 
Brit America . 

Prance 

Michigan 

Austria 

England 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Oregon Ter.. . . 
Brit America . 
Africa 



Africa 

Australasia . . . 
Australasia.... 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Brit America . 
Austsalasia... . 
Asiatic Russia. 



Pa 
Wj 
Wi 
Ji 

l,K 

Me 
Nl 
Gg 
Kc 
Lf 
Nd 

l^ 
Fa 

Ga 

Nl 

Ho 

Vf 

Le 

?f 

Hk 
Fe 
Gd 
Ik 
Gd 
Fd 
Gd 
Hd 
Lh 
Kf 

Lg 

Ik 

Ef 

Ji 

Ik 

HI 

Ff 

Pk 

Lh 

Pf 

Ab 

Fc 

Md 

Gd 

Nd 

Me 

Ml 

Dd 

Db 

Mf 

Vi 

Kf 

Vm 

Vj 

Na 

Db 

Ui 

Wb 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



45 



MaBHari^M^Ac 



Qmt, 



Great Altai .... 

Great American 

Great Andaman. 

Great Bahama . . 

I Great Bear 

. Great Bear 

! Great Bocharia . 

Great Cayman .. 

Great Comoro . . 

Great Doorn.... 

Great Natonaa .. 

Great Flah 

Great Fish 

Great Fwh 

Great Ganges... 

Great Indian . . . 

Great Kooropar 
tachia 

Great Nioobar . . 

Great Ouzen... . 

Great Pearl 

Great Portage . . 

Great Saline .... 

Great Salt 

(vreat Sandy .... 

Great Slave .... 

Great Swan .... 

Great Talba.... 

Great Volcano . . 

Great Wardein . 

Great Whale . . . 

Greece ••••.... 

Green ..... 

Green 

Green 

Green 

Green 

Green 

Green 

Green Lake 



Des. 

I. 

I. 

L. 

Mt 

Cty. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

I. 

R. 

R. 

Des. 

R. 

I. 

R. 

Bk. 

L. 

Fk. 

Des. 

Des. 

L. 

Pt 

R. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

Cty 

C. 

I. 

, I. 

I. 

I. 

Ha 



Greenland Cty 



i 



Greenoogh ML 

Greensboro T. 

GreenviUe...*..;T 

Greenville |C. 

Greenville 

Greenwich 

Gregory . . 

Greiga |a 

Grenada I. 

Grenadines >Is. 

Grenua ISta. 

Grcnnae JT. 

Grenoble jT. 

Gret-chakovka. . ]T. 
jGriazovits iT. 

Griffin Pt 

■Griffith <J. 



Mongolia 

Missouri Ter. . 
Bay of Bengal. 

Baliamas 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Asia 

West Indies .. . 
Indian Ocean . 
Cape Colony . . 

Malaysia 

Brit America . 
Cape Colony . . 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Hindoostan . . . 

Asiatic Rossia. 
Ba^ of Bengal. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Persian Gulf . . 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Missouri Ter. . 

Persia 

Mongolia 

Brit America . 
V. Diemen*8 Ld. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Austria 

Brit America . 

Europe 

News. Wales. 
United States .. 
Cape Colony . . 
Australasia . . . 

Labrador 

Polynesia .... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
North America 
North America C b 
North Carolina JG e 
South Carolina. G e 
New S. Wales . Vj 

Asia {Rh 

South Shcthmd I o 



Rd 
Fe 

Sf 

Db 
Db 
Qe 

sf 

Nl 
Th 
Fb 
Nl 

Bj 
Qf 

Wa 

Sh 

Pd 

Pf 

Fd 

Fc 

Pe 

Re 

Eb 

Vm 

Ub 

ll 

Gc 
Ne 
Wl 
Gd 
Nl 
Wi 
He 
Ch 
Hb 
Ec 
Ja 



I of Fhee^kfc 



I Griffith's. 
Griffith's. 
Grigan 



. Pt 

. I. 

L 



Oregon Ter... . 

Cyprus 

West Indies. . . 
West Indies.. . 

Barca 

Denmark 

France 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

North America 
Brit America . 
Brit Agnerica . 
Brit America . 
Polynesia 



Dd 
Oc 
Hg 
Hg 
Ne 
Mc 
Md 
Pb 
Oc 
Cb 
Gb 
Ea 
Fa 
Vg 



Grillon 

Grim 

Grimble 

Grimington . . 

Grimsey 

Grimstodt. ... 

Griqua 

Grissclhamn . 

GriU 

Griwhee 

Grodno 30. 

Grodno 

Groenkloof 

Gromiezicha.. . . 

Groningen 

Group 

Grousnyklo .... 

Gr«wa 

Guachipas 

Guadalazara . . . 
Guadalcona . . . . 
Guada loupe .... 
Guadalquiver . . . 

Guadalupe 

Guadalupe 

Guadel 

Guadiona 

Guadigmata .* • . 

Guafc 

Guahan 

Guaitcca 

Gualata 

Goanachuco . . 
Guanacache . « • 
Guanahoni .... 
Guanazuato ... 
Guanaxuato ... 

Guanchaco 

Guapindayes . . 
Guapi Quilan. . 

Guapore 

Guardd 

I Guardian 

Guaria 

Guarmcy 

Guascama .... 
Guatemala .... 
Guatemala .... 
Guatemala .... 
Guatemala .... 

Guaviare 

' Guaxam ...... 

I Guaxiniquilapa . 
. Guayancco .... 

Guayaquil .... 

Guayaquil .... 

Guayaquil .... 

Guaycurus. .. . 

Guaymas 

Guazacoaco . . . 
Guazumiri .... 



T. 

C. 

Is. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

Pr. 

^- 

C. 

?^- 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Cy. 

1. 

L 

R. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

G. 

Dis. 

T. 

Ls. 

Is. 

St 

^- 

Tr. 

L 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

Rep 

St 

Bay 

R. 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

Dep 

Cy. 

G. 

Tr. 

^- 

L. 



Sencgambia 
V. Diemen'sLd. 
Brit America . 

Labrador 

Iceland 

Iceland 

Africa 

Sweden 

Venezuela .... 
Dahomey .... 

Russia 

Russia 

Cape Colony . 

Russia 

Holland 

Polynesia. ... 
Asiatic Russia 

Guinea 

Bueno0 Ayres 

Mexico 

Australosiia . . 
West Indies.. 

Spain 

Polynesia 

Mexico ....... 

Bcloochistan.. . 

Portugal 

Tripoli 

Chili 

Polynesia 

Patagonia .... 

Africa 

Peru 

Buenos Ayres . 

Bahamas 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Peru 

South America 

Chili 

Bolivia 

Portugal 

Polynesia 

Soudan 

Peru 

New Grenada . 
North America 
Guatemala .. . . 
Guatemala . . . 



Vin 

Fa 

He 

Kb 

Kb 

Nk 

Nc 

Hh 

Mh 

Nc 

Nc 

Nl 

Pb 

Mc 

Dl 

Tc 

Lh 

Hk 

Ff 

Wi 

Hg 

Le 

Vf 

Ef 

Qf 

Le 

Ne 

Hm 

Vg 

Hm 

Lf 

Gi 

HI 

Gf 

Ff 

Ff 

Gi 

li 

Hm 

Hj 
Ld 
Dk 

Mg 

«j 
Gh 

Fg 



Guatemala . . . . :G g 



New Grenada 

Polynesia 

Mexico 

Patagonia 

Equador 

Equador 

Elquador 

South America 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Bolivia 



Hh 

Vg 

Fg 

G 111 

Gi 

Gi 

Gi 

Ik 

Ef 

Ef 

Hj 



46 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Guberlinsk . . 
Gubraich . . . 

Guelph 

Gueret ... . 
Guernsey . . . 
Gup^uan . . . . . 

Guiana 

Guielop 

Guilford . . . . 

Guinak 

Guinea 

Guinea 

Guiriri 

Guitivas . . . . 

Guizara 

Gujerat 

Gull 

Gulskin 

Gumma 

Gumsoor. . . . 
GundaYa. .. . 
Gunduck . . . 
Gundwana . . 
Gundy *s . . . . 
Guntoor . . . . 
Guraray . . . . 

Gureru 

Guria 

Gurlen 

Gurrah 

Guruguea .. . 
GurumBkach 
Gurumskach 
Gurupaluba . 

Gurupu 

Gumpy 

Gnrwal 

Guysboro . . . 

Guzina 

Gwalior.... . 

Gwuttur 

Gwydir 

Gydros 

Gydyr ...... 

Ha 

Ha.... 

Hoabai 

Haarlem . . . . 
Haarlem . . . . 
Hadadtd . . . . 
Hadji Caleb . 
Hadramaui. . 
Hadramaut.' 
Hagedis . . . . 

Hague 

Hagus 

Haher 

Hai-chow . . . 

Hainan 

Haitan 



T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
I. 

T. 
Cy. 

R, 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

R, 

Pr. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

In. 

Sta. 

T. 

Pr. 

?' 

Cy. 
Rks 
Des. 

^' 

I. 





R«f 1 


ToMoL 


l1 


Asiatic Russia 


Pc 


Beloochistan . . 


Pf 


Upper Canada . 


Gd 


France 


Md 


English Chan.. 


Ld 


Polynesia 


"^3 


South America 


Ih 


Polynesia 


Vh 


NewHoUand.. 


Tl 


Mongolia 


Re 


Africa 


Lh 


Africa 


Lh 


Brazil 


li 


Mexico 


Ef 


Barca 


Nf 


Hindoostan . . . 


Qf 


beloochistan . . 


Qf 


Tartary 

Little Bucharia 


Qd 


Rd 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rff 


Beloochistan . . 


Qf 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rf 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rf 


New Zealand. . 


Xm 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rff 

Hi 


Equador 


Brazil 


li 


Buenos Ayres . 


Hk 


Tartary 


Pd 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rf 


Brazil 


Ji 


Little Bucharia 


Re 


Little Bucharia 


Rd 


Brazil 


11 


Brazil 


li 


Brazil 


li 


Hindoostan . . . 


Re 


Nova Scotia .. . 


Hd 


Russia 


Pb 


Hindoostan . . . 


Rf 


Beloochistan . . 


Qf 


New S. Wales . 


Vk 


Asiatic Turkey 


Od 


North America 


Ca 


Africa 


Mi 


Laos 




Polynesia 


Holland 


Mc 


New Guinea . . 


Vi 


Africa 


Nf 


Tartary 


Qd 


Arabia 


P? 


Arabia 


P^ 


Malaysia 


Uh 


HoUand 


Mc 


Indian Ocean.. 


Ok 


Africa 


Mf 


China 


Te 


China Sea 


Tff 


China 


Uf 



Hajar 

Hajar 

Ilaiatou 

Hakluyt^s 

Halcyon 

Haldane's 

Hale 

Halfaia 

Halfmoon 

Hali 

Halibut 

Halifax 

Halifax 

Halifax 

Halkett 

Hall 

Hallanga 

Halleit Alleis.. 

Halloweli 

Hairs 

Hairs 

Hairs 

Halmoe 

Halmstad 

HuIouPatou.. . 

Hals 

Halsoe 

Hamad 

Hamadan 

Hamah 

Haman 

Hamburg 

Hamburg 

Hamelin's 

Hami 

Hamilton 

Hamilton 

Hamm 

Hammamet . . . 

Hammaii 

Hammerfest . . . 
Hammet^s.. .'. . 

Hamskar 

Han.chong .... 

Han-chow 

Handech 

Handle 

Hang-chow .... 

Hango 

Hango 

Hankey 

Han Kiang ... 
Hannah Bay . . 

Hanover 5 

Hanover 

Hanover 

Haoechil 

Hapta 

Hara 

Harasher 

Haratel.. 



Pr. 

s^- 

T. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Is. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Is. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

Gr. 

In. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Is. 

L. 

T. 

S^- 
Bay 

Har 

Sy- 

Bay 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Ho. 

Km. 

^!- 

T. 
T. . 
L. 
Cy. 
R. 



Arabia 

Arabia 

Mantchooria . . 
Baffin's Bay... 

Polynesia 

Brit. America . 
Brit. America . 

Nubia 

Spitsbergen . . . 

Arabia 

North America 
Nortli Carolina 
Nova Scotia. . . 
New S. Wales . 
Brit America . 
Wirtemburg . . 

Nubia 

Nubia 

Brit. America . 

Polynesia 

Corea 

Scoresby's Ld. 

Norway 

Sweden 

Mongolia 

Iceland 

Norway 

Soudan 

Persia. ....... 

Syria 

Asiatic Turkey 

Germany 

Spitsbergen . . . 
New Holland.-. 

Mongolia 

Brit America . 
Atlantic Ocean 

Prussia 

Tunis 

Algiers 

Norway 

Australasia... . 

Sweden 

China 

Corea 

Nubia 

Arabia 

China 

Russia 

Matemba 

Cape Colony . . 

China 

Brit America . 

Germany 

Hanover 

Patagonia 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

Little Bucharia 
Mongolia 



Pf 

Of 
Ud 
Ha 
VVg 
Db 
Hb 
Og 
Na 

2^ 

Be 

Ge 

Hd 

Vj 

Cb 

Md 

Og 

Og 

Ga 

Xh 

Ue 

Ka 

Mb 

Mc 

Se 

Kb 

M b 

?^ 
P e 

Oe 

Od 

Mc 

Ma 

Tk 

Sd 

Ha 

He 

Mc 

Me 

Me 

Na 

VI 

Nc 

Te 

Ue 

Og 

Of 

Tf 

N< 



Nl 
Te 
Gc 
Mc 
Mc 
Hn 
Td 
Sd 
Sd 
Rd 
Sd 



CONSULTING INDEX 



47 



NaMflfltaHftc* 



Harbagi ..... 
Harcuh ..... 
Hardwick .... 

Hardy , 

Hardy's 

Hare 

Hare 

Hare Indians 
Hargiah .... 
Harlech .... 

Harmin 

Harmin 

Harmony . . . 

Harper 

Harran 

Harriet 

Harrisburg . . 
Harrisborg . . 

Hartag*8 

Hartebeeste . 

Hartford 

Has 

Haser 

Hassela 

Hassi-farsil. . 
Hastings ..... 
Hastings... .. 

Hat..: 

Hatabool.... 

Hatchet 

Hatteras .... 
Hatfion's Headland 

Hayanna 

Havre 

Hawau 

Haweis 

Hawkes 

Hawkesbury . 
HawkinsviUe . 

Hawash 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Haycock .... 
Hay.oock .... 
Haydon's .... 

Hayes 

Hays 

Haystack .... 

Hayti 

I Hazey 

Hean 

Heame 

Hoath 

Heberawol . . . 

Hebrides 

Hebron 

Hechosoa .... 
Heda 



T. 

T. 

C. 

Pen. 

I. 

Bay 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

5f 

I. 
R. 

?^- 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

R. 

Arc. 

I. 

R. 

L. 

C. 

C. 

9? 
Cy 

I. 

Is. 

Bay 

f. 

R. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

R. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Pk. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

:8'- 

Pt. 
Tr. 
Is. 

SU. 

T. 

, Str. 



Nubia.. 

Soongaria.. .. .. 

Brit. America . 

Patagonia 

New S. Wales . 
Newfoundland. 
Greenland .... 
Brit America . 

Arabia 

Wales 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Missouri 

Liberia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America . 
Pennsylvania 

Texas 

New Holland.. 

Airica 

Connecticut .. . 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Sweden 

Africa 

New S. Wales. 
Gulf of Siam . 

Malaysia 

Mantchooria . . 
Brit America . 
North Carolina 
Brit America . 

Cuba 

France 

Polynesia .... 

Polynesia 

New Zealand . . 
Oregon Ter... . 

Georgia 

Abyssinia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Malaysia 

Malaysia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New S. Wales. 

Polynesia 

West Indies.. . 
Mongolia .... 

Tonquin 

Brit. America 
Anticostils... 

Africa 

Scotland 

Labrador .... 

Mexico 

Brit America 



Ga 
Hn 

I c 
I a 
Eb 

L c 

Fe 
Lh 
Oe 
Fb 
Gd 
Ff 
Tk 
Nk 
Hd 

Pg 
Nb 
Mf 
Wl 
Sh 
Th 
Uc 
Fc 
Go 
Hb 
Gf 
Md 

Bg 

Vh 
XI 
Dc 
Ge 

2^ 
Ea 

Ga 

Fb 

Ec 

Fc 

Uh 

Th 

Hb 

Fc 

Wk 

Vf 

1^1 

Tf 
Eb 
Hd 
Ph 
Lc 
He 
Ef 
Gb 



I ofFbfioiike. 



Hede 

Hedemora.... 
Hedgehog. . . . 
Hedjaz ....<. 

Hcdra 

Heibuck 

Hekla 

Helena 

Helen's 

Helicon's .... 
Heligoland . . . 

Hclis 

Helmund .... 
Helsingborg .. 
Helsin^fors . . 

Helveli^n 

Hems « . 

Henderson . . . 
Henderson . . . 
Henderson's . . 
Henkon ...... 

Henkon 

Henkonni Sekim 

Henley 

Henlopen 

Henning 

Henry 

Henry 

Henry 

Henry 

Henry 

Henslow 

Herat 

Hercules 

Hereford 

Hergest's 

Hermanstadt . . . 

Hermit 

Hermit's 

Hermoso 

Hermoso 

Hern 

Hernosand 

Herschel. 

Hervey's 

Hervey's 

Hervey's ....... 

Hesn Dharie . . . 
Hesse Cassel .8. 
Hesse Darmstadt 9 

Hetoo 

Heane 

Hewett 

Heymaey 

Heywood Range 

Hey wood's 

Hiau 

liibernia. ...... 

Hicks's 

High 

High 



ClHk 



T. 

T. 

Mt 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

T. 

Sb. 

I. 

Is. 

Sd. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Mt 

R. 

Ho. 

C. 

T. 

C. 

Pt 

Ho. 

R. 

I. 

C. 

Cy. 

Rk. 

Cy. 

Rks 

i'- 

Is. 
T. 
Mt 

L 

I. 

Is. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

£1. 

G.D 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

Mta. 

I. 

I. 

Ft 

Bay 

l! 



Sweden 

Sweden 

Spitsbergen . . . 

Arabia 

Tunis 

TarUry 

Iceland 

Arkansas ..*... 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

North Sea ... . 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Cabul 

Sweden 

Russia 

News. Wales. 

Syria 

Kentucky. .. .. 
N. Pacific Oc. . 
Polynesia .... 
Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . 
Mantchooria . 
Brit America 
Delaware .... 

Norway 

Virginia 

Brit. America 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter... 
Scoresby's Ld. . 
Solomon's Arc. 



ML 



Cabul Qe 



Mb 

Nb 

Ma 

Of 

Me 

Qe 

Kb 

Fc 

Uh 

Xf 

Mc 

Na 

Qe 

Mc 

Nb 

VI 

Oe 

Ge 

Df 

Dk 

Vc 

Uc 

Uc 

Gc 

Ge 

Mb 

Ge 

Fc 

Ec 

Ed 

Kb 

Wi 



Peru 

England 

Polynesia 

Austria 

Patagonia .... 
Australasia . . . 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayres . 

Africa 

Sweden 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

New S. Wales. 
Arabia 



Lc 
Ci 

Nd 
Hn 
Vi 

Kf 
Nb 
Cb 

li 

Wk 
Of 



Germany |M c 

Germany 

Mantchooria . . 
Norway ...... 

Brit Ainerica . 

Iceland 

Brit America . 
South Shetland 

Polynesia 

Brit. America . 
New Zealand. . 

Polynesia 

Australasia... . 



Mc 

Ud 

Mb 

Ha 

Kb 

Eb 

lo 

Ci 

Fc 

XI 

Ck 

Vi 



48 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NuMiorFlaeai,iee. Oam. 



High I. 

High I. 

Hill R. 

HiUah Cy. 

HilUl Arabs ....Tr. 

Himmaleh Mis. 

Hinchinbfook . . C. 

Hindia T. 

Hindoen I. 

Hindoo Koosh . . Mte. 

Hindoostan Cty. 

ningan-chow .• . Cy. 
Hing-chow ,. . . . Cy. 

Hing.hoa Cy. 

Hinka L. 

Hin-kiang R. 

Hinloopen Str. 

Hinskoi C. 

Hioring T. 

Hippa I. 

Hirsova T. 

Hissar Cy. 

Hissar T. 

Hit T. 

Hitch T. 

Hitteren I. 

Hivasa I. 

Hoa-chow Cy. 

Hoai Ho R. 

Hoa-king Cy. 

Hoang Hai Sea 

Hoang Ho R. 

Hoatsiang T. 

Hobart T. 

Hobhouse In. 

Hochland I. 

Ho-chow Cy. 

Ilocingaupuo .. . Cy. 

Ilodcida T. 

Hoden Sta. 

Hoci-chow Cy. 

Hof T. 

Hog I. 

Hog I. 

Hog Pt 

Hogan's Is. 

Hogoleu I. 

Iloin-gnan Cy. 

Hojoe T. 

Hola T. 

Holey L. 

Holin Cy. 

Holkham Bay 

Holland Km 

HollamsBird... I. 

Holloway Bay 

Holmcn I. 

Holouan T. 

Holpotchi T. 

Holstcinburg . . . Sta. 



Bay of Bengal 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Asiatic Turkey 
Azanaga. 
Asia .... 
North America 
Hindoostan .. 

Norway 

Cabul 

Asia 

China 

China 

China 

Mantchooria . 

China 

Spitsbergen . . 
AHiatic Russia 
Denmark .... 
Oregon Ter... 

Turkey 

Hindoostan .. 

Tartary 

Arabia 

Russia 

Norway 

Polynesia. . . . 

China 

China 

China 

Asia 

China 



Mongolia . . . 
V. Diemcn*s Ld. 
Brit America . 
Russia .... 



China 

China , 

Arabia .... 

Africa 

China 

Iceland 

Malaysia . . . 
Malaysia . . 
Sumatra .... 
Australasia . 
Polynesia . . , 

China 

Mexico 

Iceland 

Brit America . 
Mongolia . . . 
North America 

Europe 

Africa 

Scoresby's Ld. 

Norway 

Asiatic Turkey 
Mongolia . . . 
Greenland . . 



£ JHuataotnatm,te. Cliik 



Hb 

Fc 

Oe 

Lf 

Re 

Cb 

Rf 

Nb 

Qe 

Rf 

Tc 

Te 

Tf 

Ud 

Tf 

Na 

Xb 

Mc 

Dc 

Nd 

Rf 

Qe 

Oe 

Pb 

Mb 

Ci 

Te 

Te 

Tc 

Ue 

Tc 

Sd 

Vm 

Ga 

Nc 

Te 

Tc 

Og 

Lff 

Tf 

Kb 

Ui 

Sh 

Ti 

Xj 

Wh 

Te 

Ff 

Kb 

Fc 

Td 

Dc 

Mc 

Mk 

Ka 

Nb 

Oe 

Sd 

lb 



Holstein &, Lau- 

enborg 

Holt's 

Holum 

Holy 

Homant^a ... . 

Home 

Home 

Honan 

Honan 

Honda 

Honda 

Hondon 

Hondurus 

Honduras 

Honduras 

Honduras Kays 
Hong-tse Hou . 

HongTcn 

Honinoso 

Hood 

Hood 

Hood's 



Hood's 

Hood's 

Hood's 

Hooker 

Hoon 

Hoonan 

Hooper 

Hooper 

Hoopih 

Hoorniara 

Hooshu 

Hope 

Hope 

Hope 

Hope 

Hope 

Hopedale 

Hope's Advance . 
Hope's Monumen: 

Hopewell 

Hopewell Head . 

Hopkins' 

IIopo-so 

Hoppner 

Horcb 

Horeul 

Hori 

Horn 

Horn 

Horn 

Horn 

Horn 

Horn 

Home 

Horn (False) . 
Horsburg .... 
Horse's Head. 



D. 
I. 
T. 
Mt 

T. 
C. 
Bay 
Pr. 

s.y- 

T. 

T. 

I. 

St 

G. 

C. 

Is. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Mt 

I. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Mt 

T. 

Pr. 

C. 

In. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Pt 

Sta. 

C. 

Mt 

Ch. 

C. 

Po. 

T. 

C. 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

So. 

Mts. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

C. 



Germany 

Polynesia. .... 

Iceland 

Mongolia 

Russia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

China 

China 

Cuba 

New Grenada . 

Polynesia 

Guatemala .... 
North America 
Guatemala .... 
Caribbean Sea. 

China 

Corea 

Mongolia 

New Guinea . . 
Oregon Ter. . . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Gallapagos .... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Tripoli 

China 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

China ' 

Beloochistan . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Spitsbergen . . . 
South Shetland 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

North America 

Labrador 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Oregon Ter.. .. 

China 

Brit America . 

Arabia 

Mantchooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Patagonia 

Austria 

Brit America . 

Sweden 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Terra del Fuego 
Brit America 
Greenland . . . 



Mc 

Kb 

Sd 

Ob 

Ga 

Hb 

Te 

Te I 

Gf 

Hh 

Cj 

««: 

«&: 

Te 

Ud 

Sd 

Vi 

Dd 

Ci 

Ck 

Gi 

Eb 

Ec 

Nf 

Tf 

Hb 

Gb 

Tc 

Qf 

Ud 

Na 

lo 

Xn 

Xi 

Ab 

He 

Hb 

Ga 

Gc 

Gc 

Dc 

Tg 

Ha 

Of 

Ud 

Od 

Hn 

Md 

Eb 

Nb 

Ma 

Eb 

Aj 

Hn 

Ga 

la 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



49 



Naaai of Phooa, fte. 



CbM. 



Horse Shoe .... 

Hoseasons 

Hotham 

HotocoBsa 

Hottentotfl .... 

Hoa-chow 

Houdoii 

Houghton ..... 

HougoQ 

Houiar 

Hooinor 

Houpater 

Houraki 

Hoarha 

Hourha Douane 

Houasa 

HouBsa 

Hout 

Hottting 

Houtnianfl Abrol- 

hOB . . . . 
Howe .... 
Howea . . . 
Howe's Foreland|C. 

Hoy 

Hrohuigs.. .. 

Huacho 

Huahine .... 
Huakuha . . . 
Huallaga . . . 
Huamanga . . 
Huanaco.. .. 
Haarare .... 

Huaraa 

Huari 

Huasacualoo . 

Huasco 

Hubetta ... 
Huchuetan . . 
Hudeeana . . . 
Hudiksvall . . 

Hudson 

Hudson's ... 
Hudson's ... 

Hue 

Huekion .... 

Haesca 

HuesGar .... 
Hughes' .... 
Huiqui ..... 

HuU 

Hull 

Humaree . . . 

Humbe 

Humber .... 
HumboUt... 

Hume 

Hummock . . 
Humphrey . . 
Humphrey Davy's 
Hungary.. 



Bk. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

Peo. 

I': 

Pt 
T. 
R, 
R. 

Bay 

R. 

Sta. 

Cty. 

T. 



T. 

Rks 
C. 

ay. 



I. 
I. 
T. 
I. 
I. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
L. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

^^ 
Sir. 

97' 

T. 
T. 
Bay 
R. 

^' 
T. 

Tr. 

Cty. 

R. 

C. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Cty. 



Australasia . • . 
South Shetland 
Brit America . 
Mongolia .... 

Africa 

China 

Mongolia 

North America 

Mongolia 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Mongolia 

New Zealand. . 
Mantchooria . . 

Thibet 

Soudan 

Abyssinia 

Cape Colony . . 
Mongolia 



Australasia... . 
News. Wales. 

Africa 

Kerguelen's Ld. 

Scotland 

Iceland 

Peru 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Peru 

South Peru . . . 

Peru 

Elquador 

Peru 

Peru 

Mexico 

Chih. 

Africa 

Mexico 

Hindoostan . . . 

Sweden 

New York.... 
Brit America . 
Brit. America . 
Cochin China . 

China 

Spain 

Spain 

Palmer's Land. 

Mexico 

England 

Lower Canada. 
Mantchooria . . 

Africa 

England 

Scoresby's Ld. 
New a Wales. 
Kurile Islands. 
Polynesia .. ... 
Brit America . 
Europe 



Wk 

Ho 

Fa 

Rd 

Nk 

Ue 

Td 

Dc 

Sd 

Ud 

Uc 

Sd 

XI 

Ud 

Se 

Mg 

oi 

Nl 
Se 

Tk 
Wl 
Ph 
Qm 
Lc 
Kb 

^} 
Bj 
Ci 
Gi 

G 1 
Hi 
Gi 
Gi 

ll 

Oh 

Fg 
Rf 
Nb 
Hd 
Gc 
Hb 

Iff 
Te 

Md 

Le 

Ho 

Ef 

Lc 

Gd 

Uc 

Nj 

L c 

Ka 

VI 

Wd 

l{ 

Nd 



NuBto of Fheii, ac 



Hunsteen . . . 

Hunter 

Hunter's .... 
Hunter's .... 
Huntington . 
Huntington . 
Huntsville . . 

Huon 

Huon 

Hurd 

Hurd 

Hurd's 

Hurdwar . . 

Humee 

Huron 

Hurricanaw . 
Hurrispore . . 
Hurrund .... 

Hurrur 

Hurry's 

Huskisson . . 
Husseinabad . 

Hustad 

Huaum 

Huszt 

Hntton's .... 

Hvaloe 

Hvidsalen . . . 

Hycatu 

Hyderabad .. 
Hydrabad . . . 
Hydrabad. .. 

Hyeres 

Hyguarrassn 
Hyllestad . . . 
Hyryusolmi . 

lakono Sima 

lamba 

larmongha . . 
lartsovskoie . 

larvi 

'Ibagua 

Ibarra 

Ibbe 

Ibbe 

Ibbetson's .. . 

Ibeit 

Ibera 

Ibex 

Ibitayas . . . . 

Ibo 

Ibo 

Ibrahim . . . . 

Ibraila 

Ibrim 

lea 

lea 

Ice 

Ice 

Ice 



L. 

I. 

Ch. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Cy. 

I. 

Sh. 

c. 
c. 
I. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

In. 

Mt. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

I. 
T. 
t. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

So. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

So. 

Hav 



Brit America 
Australasia . . . 
Australasia .. 
V. Diemen's Ld. 

Indiana 

Labrador 

Alabama 

Australasia . . . 
Australasia... . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
North America 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Sinde 

Africa 

Scoresby's Ld.. 
North America 
Hindoostan . . . 

Norway 

Denmark 

Austria 

Corea 

Norway 

Greenland .... 

Brazil 

Sinde 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

France 

Brazil 

Norway 

Russia 



Japan 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia . 

Russia 

New Grenada . 

Equador 

Aft>ica 

Africa 

Oregon Tor. . . . 

Kordofan 

Buenos Ayres . 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Bolivia 

Mozambique . . 

Ibo Island 

Arabia 

Turkey 

Nubia 

Peru 

Equador 

Asiatic Russia. 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Nova Zembla .. 



Leta. 



Fb 
Xk 

Vm 

Vm 

Gd 

lc 

Ge 

Wj 

G a 
Fa 
XI 
Rf 

Qg 

Gd 

Gc 

Sf 

Qf 

Oh 

Ka 

Cb 

Rf 

M b 

Mc 

Nd" 

Ue 

Na 

Jb 

Ji 

Qf 

Rg 
Md 
Ji 
M b 
Nb 

Ue 

Ob 

Ub 

Sc 

Ob 

Gh I 

Gh 

Nh 

Ng 

Dc 

Og 

Ik 

Fd 

Ik 

Oj 

^i 

Of 

Nd 

Of 

Gj 

Hi 

Wa 

Ma 

Ra 



50 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Vamm of Flaco, *c. 



Iceland .... 
Ichaboe .... 
Icinskoi . . . 

Ico 

Icy 

Icy 

Icy 

Idanovo . . . 
IdanoTO . . . 

Idre 

Idri 

leceiska . . . 
lerema . . . • 
lerema . • • • 

Igar 

Igatimy . . , 
Igififhinsk . 
Igighinsk . . 

Igil 

Iglau 

Iglesiaa .... 
Ignacio.. . . 
Ignam .... 
Ignatieva . . 

Ikanki 

Ikearal .... 
Ikermiut. . 
Ikimda ... 
Ikovska.... 
Iktiagik . . 

Dek , 

Iletakaia Zaschita 
Ilhaa do Arco.. . 

Ilheos 

Hi 

Ilia 

Uiaaova 

Ilima 

Illahabad 

Illimani 

Illinois 

Illinois 

lUyrian 

Ilraen 

Ilo 

Ilongotos 

Imandra 

Imba .'. . 

Imbachinskoi. . . 

Imbro 

Imerina 

Imniach 

Irouris 

Inaccessible .... 
Inaccessible .... 

Inagua «... 

Inbatskaya 

Independence . . . 
Independence.. . 
Independence.. . 
India 



I. 

I. 

T. 

T 

C. 

L. 

PL 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

G. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

L. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

Mt 

St. 

R. 

Is. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Km. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

R. 



Northern Ocean 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia 

Brazil 

North America 
Brit America . 
Nova Zenibla. . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Fezzan 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 



Asiatic Kuraia. 
Asiatic Russia 

Mexico 

Austria 

Sardinia 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mongolia .... 
Greenland . . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 
Tartary 
Tarlary 
Indian Ocean.. 
Brazil .... 
Soongaria 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 

Persia 

Bolivia 

United States . 

Illinois 

Austria 

Russia 

South Peru . . 

Luzon 

Russia 

Japan 

Asiatic Russia 
Archipelago. . . 
Madagascar .. 
Asiatic Russia 

Mexico 

Southern Ocean 
South Shetland 
Bahamas .... 
Asiatic Russia 
Polynesia. . . . 
Polynesia . . . 

Missouri 

Russia 



Kb 

Mk 

Ub 

Ji 

Ba 

£b 

Qa 

Sa 

Tb 

xMb 

Mf 

Sb 

Tb 

Tb 

Uc 

Ik 

Wb 

Wb 

Gf 

Nd 

Me 

Ee 

Wc 

Tc 

Pb 

Rd 

Jb 

Uc 

Qo 

Be 

Pc 

Pc 

Pi 

Jj 

Rd 

Se 

Qc 

Be 

Pe 

Ik 

Gd 

Gd 

Nd 

Oc 

Hi 

ll 

Ve 
Ub 
Nd 

Pj 

Qb 

Ee 

Li 

Lo 

Hf 

Sb 

Ci 

SJ 
Fe 

Nb 



■ flf Fbcsi, ftc 



Indian 

Indian 

Indiana 

Indianapolis ... 
Indian River . . 
Indies, West . . 
Indighirca .... 

Indirsk 

Indispensable .. 

Indore 

Indrapore 

Indsche 

Indus 

Indus 

Ineboli 

Infanta 

Ingale 

Ingenoe 

Inghe 

Ingoda 

Infaambane.. .. 
Inhambane... . 
Inhambane .... 
Inhampura.. .. 

Inichi 

Inichi 

Inigrin 

Inmelick..^. .. 

Inn 

Inner Vigten . . 

Insara 

Inspruck 

Insua 

Intermedios (the) 
Inverness . . . 
Investigator's 
Investigator's 
Group .. . . 
Invisible .... 

Inyak 

logen 

logenskoi .. . 

lona 

Ionian 

Ionian Isles . 

lowas 

Ipane 

Ipswich .... 

Iquape 

Iqnique 

Irak Ajemi . . 
Irak Arabi .. 

Irbit 

Irbit 

Ireland 

Ir^hiz 

Irish 

Irkoutsk ..... 

Irkoutsk ..... 

Irkoutsk ..... 

it Irmenskoe . . 



Bay 

L. 

St 

Cy. 

In. 

I. 

R. 

L. 

Rf. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

Mts. 

I. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

Vil. 

^' 

I. 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

Str. 

Is. 

Pt 

C. 

R. 

L. 

I. 

Sea 

Rep. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

R. 

Sea 

Gov 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 



New Gergia. . . 
Brit America . 
United States. . 

Indiana 

Florida Ter.. . . 
North America 
Asiatic Russia. 

Tartary 

Australasia . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Sumatra 

Asiatic Turkey 
LitUe Thibet 

Asia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Cape Colony . . 

Africa 

Norway 

Mongolia .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Inhambane... 
Inhambane.. . 
Inhambane... 
Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Turkey 
North America 
Brit. America . 

Austria 

Norway 

Russia 

Austria 

Brazil 

South Peru . . . 

Scotland 

New S. Wales. 

Australasia... 
Oregon Ter... 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Scotland 

Mediterran. Sea 
Mediterran. Sea 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Paraguay ., 
England . . . 

Brazil 

South Peru 

Persia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
Great Britain . 

Tartary 

Europe 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 



Rcf. 



Wi 

Fc 

Gd 

Go 

Gf 

Hg 

Vb 

Pd 

Wj 

Rf 

Si 

Od 

Re 

Qf 

Od 

Nl 

Nk 

Na 

Se 

Tc 

Ok 

Ok 

Ok 

Ok 

Od 

Od 

Ab 

Ha 

Md 

Mb 

Oc 

Md 

•j> 

Lc 
Vi 

Ui 
Dc 
Ok 
Qc 
Qc 
Lc 
Ne 
Ne 
Fd 
Ik 
Mc 
J k 

gj 
Pe 

Oe 

Pc 

Qc 

Lc 

Qd 

Lc 

Uc 

Sc 

Sc 

Re 



CONSULTING INDEX- 



51 



VMMamott1mm,kc 



Iro 

Iron 

Irrawaddy 

Irrawaddj 

Irtyeh 

Irwinton 

laa 

Isa 

Isaaco 

Isabal 

Isabella 

Iscbia 

Iselook 

Isgaour 

Ishaun 

Iskimps 

UlaniatMid 

Island 

Island Head .... 

Ilaphanie 

Islay 

Isle of Man . . . . 
Isle of Wight... 

Ismail 

Isnikmid 

Isolette 

Ispahan 

Issana 

Isaete 

Issim 

Issim 

Issim 

Istabel Anton. . . 

Istmo 

Itabagua 

Itagwira 

Itajuba 

Italy 

Itamaraca 

Itapicara 

Itapoa 

Itasca 

lUU 

Itcha 

Itcha 

Ithaca 

Ithaca 

Itona < 

Itu 

Itze-hadae . . . , 
lanoksa ..... 

luriera 

Ivanoochkova 
Ivaschkin .... 

Ivashno 

Ivi 

Ivica 

Ivimiut 

Ivo 

Ivory 

Ivuckloke .... 



R. 
Mts. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Sta. 

Fd. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

T. 

Dis. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

L 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I': 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Stc. 

T. 

Dep 

R. 

R, 

T. 

Cty. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

R, 

I. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



T. 

L. 

C. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

Cst 

In. 



Mongolia 

Brit America . 

Birmah 

Thibet 

Asiatic Russia. 

Alabama 

Tripoli 

Iceland 

Soudan 

GuateraoJa .... 
Brit America . 

Naples 

Polynesia 

Aniatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
New S. Wales . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Scotland 

England 

England 

Russia 

Asiatic Turkey 

Arabia 

Persia 

Venezuela .... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Tartary 

Arabia 

New Grenada . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Europe 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Paraguay 

Wisconsin Tcr. 
Buenos Ayres . 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

Ionian Isles. . . 
New York.... 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brit America . 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Algiers 

Mcditerran. Sea 
Greenland . . . 
Asiatic Russia 

(Guinea 

Labrador .... 



Sd 
Ha 

Sg 
Se 

Qc 

Gc 

No 
Kb 

h« 
Gg 

Ga 

Md 

Vh 

Od 

Xb 

Fb 

Sf 

Fc 

Wk 

Od 

Lc 

Lc 

Lc 

Nd 

Nd 

Pff 
Pe 
Hh 
Qc 
Qc 
Qc 
Qc 
Of 
Gh 
li 

\i 

Md 
Ji 

li 

Fd 
Ik 



d 
Ne 
Gd 
li 
Ik 
Dc 
Ob 
Tb 
Tc 
Wc 
Xb 
Le 
Me 
Jb 
Qb 
Lh 
lc 



Iza . . . 
Ixer . . . 
Izium . 



Jacca 

Jack 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jacksonville .. . 
Jacksonville .. . 
Jacksonville .. . 

Jacoba 

Jacobina 

Jacob's 

Jacobshaven . . . 

Jacome 

Jacques 

Jacunia 

Jacn 

Jacn 

Jaffa ; 

Jaffa 

Jafferabad 

Jafnapatam.. .. 

Jaik 

Jakan 

Jakan OaTaian 

Jalapa 

Jalisco 

Jallindcr 

Jallonkadoo . . . 

Jalmd 

Jalotfs 

Jamaica 

Jambara 

Jambi 



James 

James 

James 

James 

James 

James 

Jameson 

Jameson 

Janari 

Jangada 

Janghur 

Jan Maycn . . . . 

Jannah 

.Japan 

Japan 

Japara 

Japomsk 

Jaquemel 

Jaquesila 

Jaquct 

Jaravinskoie... 

Jardine's 

Jari 



T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 
Ho. 

T. 
T. 

Po. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Dis. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Cy. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

St 

T. 

Cty 

C. 

Peo. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Bay 

R. 

Pk. 

C. 

Ld. 

R. 

R. 

T. 



I. 
T. 

Sea 

T. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

R. 



Mantcbooria . 

Africa 

Russia 



Spain 

Brit America . 
Mississippi. .. . 

Missouri 

Arkansas 

New S. Wales . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Soudan 

Brazil 

Greenland . . . . 
Greenland . . . . 

Mexico 

Wisconsin Ter. 

Bolivia 

Peru 

Spain 

Syria 

News. Wales . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Ceylon 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Hindoostan . . . 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Sencgambia .. . 
West Indies . . . 

Africa 

Sumatra 

St Helena 

Patagonia 

Scorcsby*s Ld.. 
Brit America . 

Virginia 

Western Tcr. . 
Brit America . 
Scoresby*8 Ld.. 

Brazil 

Brfftil 

Hindoostan . . . 
Northern Ocean 

Dahomey 

Asia 

rVsia 

Java 

Russia 

Hiyti 

Mexico 

Atlantic Ocean 
Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 



Ud 

Nf 
Od 

Ld 
Fc 
Fe 
Ge 
Fe 
Wi 
Gc 
Ge 
Fe 
Mb 

I a 
I b 
Ee 
Fd 
Hj 
Gi 
Le 
Oe 
VI 
Qf 
Rh 
Pc 
X b 
Xb 

Fff 
Ff 
Re 

Qa 

Oj 

Si 

Hn 
Ka 
Gc 
Ge 
Ee 
Ha 
Ka 
Hi 

?^ 

li a 

M h 

Ve 

Ve 

Ti 

Ub 

Eo 
Jd 
Tc 
Wf 
Ra I 



52 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Namn cT nuet, Jtc 



Jarjaksai 

Jarra 

Jarvis 

Jary 

JasK 

Jask 

Jassu 

Jassy 

Java 

Java 

Java 

Java 

Java Head .... 

Javarj 

Jayna 

Jaysulinere. . . . 
Jean Uamons.. 

Jcdburg 

Jeddo 

Jeddore 

Jedo 

Jeendana 

Jefferson 

Jefferson 

Jcffcrson*s .... 
Jefferson's . . . . 

Jerolah 

Jena 

Jenet 

Jeniken 

Jenne 

Jeno 

Jequcpa 

Jercmie 

Jerebovsk 

Jericoacoara. .. 

Jerniain 

Jersey 

Jervis 

Jervis 

Jervis 

Jcrvois 

Jerumenha .... 

Jerusalem 

Jesso 

Jesus 

Jesus Maria . . . 

Jcurire 

Jewnce 

Jeypoor 

Jidda 

Jidcnsalmi . . . . 
Jiga-gounggar , 

Jiffat 

Jilla 

Jjllip 

Jindinskoi . . • . 

Joal 

Joannes 

Joaquim 

Joazeiros 



R. 
T. 
I. 
R. 

r. 
c. 

T 

Sea 

T. 

I. 

Pt 

C. 

R. 

T. 

Cy. 

Rk. 

T. 

Hu 
Dis. 

iMt 

Cy. 

R- 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

:^- 

Pt 
T. 
T. 
R. 
C. 
. I. 
C. 
L 

:i. 

. T. 
.Cy. 
. T. 
. I. 
R. 
. T. 

;?: 
:?: 

T. 
, Pt. 
T. 
T. 
Ft 
T. 
I. 
Ft. 
T. 



Tartary 

Africa 

Polynesia .... 

Braxil 

Persia 

Persia 

Tartary 

Turkey 

Malaysia 

Africa 

Malaysia 

Bolivia 

Java 

Peru 

Mexico 

Hindoostan . . . 
Atlantic Ocean 

Scotland 

Japan 

Nova Scotia.. . 

Africa 

Malaysia 

Oregon Ter... . 

Missouri 

Missouri Ter. . 
N. Pacific Oc . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Germany 

Africa 

Suse 

Africa 

Austria 

Mexico 

Hayti 

Russia 

Brazil 

Brit America . 
English Chan.. 
New S. Wales. 
Gallapagos .... 
Australasia... . 
Brit America . 

Brazil 

Syria 

Japan 

Polynesia X i 

Mexico Do 



Qd 

Lg 
Bi 
Ih 
Pf 
Pf 
Qd 
Nd 
Ti 

Ti 
Hk 
Ti 
Hi 
Ff 
Qf 
Kc 
Lc 
Ve 
Hd 
Ph 
Ui 
Dd 
Ee 
Ed 

Mc 
Mf 
Lf 

Nd 

Fg 

Hg 

Pb 

Ji 

Gb 

Ld 

:vi 

Fi 
Wi 
Fb 
Ji 
Oe 
Vd 



Japan . 
Beloochistan . 
Hindoostan . . 

Arabia 

Russia 

Thibet , 

Hindoostan .. 
Arabia ...... 

Magadoxa . 



Vd 
Qf 

Rg 
Of 
Nb 

Sf 

Qf 
Pf 
Oh 



Asiatic Turkey T d 



Senegambia. 
Brazil . 
Brazil . 
Brazil . 



L 1 
Ih 
Jj 



■ of FlaMi,ac 



Jobic 

Jockmock 

Jodsumo 

Johanna 

Johannes 

John de Nova . . 
John Martin's . . 

Johnston's 

Jojo Karta 

Joliba 

Jones 

Jones' 

Jones' 

Jones' 

Jonesboro 

Jonga 

Jonkoping . . . . . 

Joodpore 

Joonaghur . . . . . 

Joonccr 

Jopyeo 

Jordon 

Jorhat 

Joros 

Josephine 

Josyna 

Jowar 

Juan de Fuca . . 
Juan de Lisboa 
Juan Fernandez 

Juba 

Juban 

Juby 

Judge's Clerk.., 
Judge (the) .. ,., 

Judith 

Judjang 

Juggernaut . « . . 

Jujui , 

Jukkas , 

Julia 

Julalabad 

Julian 

Julian as-haab.. . 
Julianas-haab .. . 

Julnaporc , 

Jumua 

Jungo 

Junin 

Junin < 

Jurien 

Juruay 

Jutay 

Jutland 

Jyepore 

Jykill 

Jylum 



Kaarta 

K. Abakainskoe. 
Kabanaya. . ■ . . , 



T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Is. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

So. 

Pk. 

Hs 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

r. 

T. 

Pr. 

H. 

T. 

C. 

Bay 

Rk. 

T. 

Str. 

I. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

Rf. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Sta. 

Dis. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Dep 

T 

Bay 

R. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

T. 
T. 



Vi 
Nb 
Ue 
Oj 
Uh 

Pj 
Oj 

Ti 

h« 
Gc 

Ga 

Vc 

VI 

Fe 

Tc 

Mc 

Qf 

Qf 

^f 

Ka 
Sf 
Od 



Australasia . . . 

Sweden 

Japan 

Indian Ocean . 

Polynesia 

Indian Ocean . 
Indian Ocean . 

Polynesia 

Java 

Africa 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 
News. Wales. 

Texas 

Asiatic Russia. 
Sweden . . . 
Hindoostan 
Hindoostan 
Hindoostan 
Birmah.... 
Scoresby's Ld.. 
Hindoostan 
Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America . 
Atlantic Ocean 
Senegambia .. . 
Oregon Ter... . 
Indian Ocean.. 
S. Pacific Oc. . 

Africa 

Formosa 

Africa 

Southern Ocean 
Southern Ocean iW n 
Missouri Ter. .'E d 

Java 

Hindoostan . . 
Buenos Ayres 

Sweden 

Russia 

Cabul 

Little Thibet . 
Greenland . . . 
Greenland . . . 
Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan .. 

Rtissia 

Peru 

Peru 

New Holland. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Denmark .... 
Hindoostan . . 
Brit America 
Hindoostan . . 



Fb 
Ke 

Lg 
Dd 
Pk 
Gl 
Oh 
U f 
Lf 
Wn 



Ti 

Rg 
Hk 
Nb 
Pb 
Qe 
Qe 
lb 
I b 
Rf 
Rf 
Nb 
Hj 
Gj 
TI 
Hi 
Hi 
Mc 
Rf 
Fb 
Qe 



Africa , 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 



Se 
Qc 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



53 



te. 



Kabanklak.... 

Kabardia 

Kabiji 

Kabra 

Kacunda 

Kacunda 

Kadhiy 

Kadnikon 

Kae-chow 

Kaffcriston.... 

Kaffo 

Kafio 

Kagalag • 

Kaggalwalla.. . 

Kahilcha 

Kahurawa .... 

Kaia 

Kaibobo 

Kai-chow 

Kain 

Kain*8 

Kaipara 

Kaipoadra .... 

Kairwan 

Kajachsba .... 

Kajachsar 

Kajana 

Kakissigan.... 

Kaktana 

Kakua 

KalaatEsteQ.. 

Kalabsho 

Kalar 

Kalatoa 

Kaleg 

Kalgan 

Kalguew 

Kalbat 

Kalinga 

Kalisch 

Kalitva 

KaUx 

Kalix 

Kalka 

Kalkas 

Kalkatargher .. 

Kalkol 

KalkoOM 

KaUa 

Kallunga 

Kalmikova .... 

Kalmuka 

Kalmysk 

Kaloaga....33 

Kaloaga 

Kalpee 

Kalpeni 

Kalwe 

Kalta 

Kama 

Kama 

S* 



L. 

Dia. 

T. 

^- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

^- 

I. 

Har 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

?'• 

T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
R. 
Tr. 

£'• 

Is. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

Ste. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 



Tartary 

Aaiatic Russia 

Japan 

Soudan 

Senegambia .. 

[Soudan 

'Russia 

iRussia ...... 

JMantchooria • 

Asia 

Soudan 

jTunis 

Little Bucharia 

Cabul 

Asiatic Russia 
Sandwich Is. . 
Scnegambia . . 
Ceram ...... 

China 

Tartary 

Southern Ocean 
New Zealand. . 

Russia 

Tunis .... 

Bergoo 

Bergoo 

Russia 

Lower Canada. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Sandwich Is.. . 

Arabia 

Nubia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Malaysia 

Bekiodiistan... 

China 

Russia 

Arabia 

Malaysia ..... 

Prussia 

Russia 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

Tartary 

Malaysia 

Russia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Asia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Hindoostan . . . 

Asia 

Hindoostan . . . 

A^bia 

Cabul 

Russia 



M. 


LOa. 


Qd 


Pd 


Ve 


lr 


Lff 


Mh 


Oc 


Oc 


Ud 


Qe 


Mg 


Me 


Qd 


Qe 


Ub 


Bf 


f^« 


Ui 


Se 


Qd 


In 


XI 


Pb 


Me 


Ng 


^K 


Nb 


Hd 


Wc 


Bg 


Of 


Of 


Vc 


Ui 


Pf 


Td 


Pb 


Pf 


Uh 


Nc 


Oc 


Nb 


Nb 


Td 


Td 


Td 


Qd 


Ti 


Nb 


Re 


Pd 


Rd 


Pd 


Oc 


Oc 


Rf 


Qr 


Re 


Of 


Qe 


Pb 



Kama ..... 
Kamafat . . . 
Kamalia ... 
Kamaranka , 
Kamaas.. . . 
Kambesk . . . 
Kamchang . 
Kamechlu. . 

Kamel 

Kamen .... 

I Kamenaya . 

Kamenietz ■ 



I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Sta. 

T. 

Pt 

L. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

C 



Kamini 

Kaminoi 

Kamisch 

Kamislov .... 
Kamourasca. . 
Kampatchai . . 

Karopioa O 

Kampur ~ 

Kamtie 

Kamtschatka . . . 
Kamtschatka . . . 
Kamtschatka,Up. 
Kamtschatka . . 
Kamtschatka . « 
Kamyshin .... 

Kan 

Kanadey 

Kanaga 

Kan^how 

Kan.chow 

Kandahar 

Kandalaskaya . 
Kandalaskaya . 

Ki^ndiz 

Kandy 

Kanem 

Kangaroo 

Kangelang .... 
Kangertluksoak 

Kanp^kao 

Kanm Noss . . . 

Kanjuljak 

Kan Kian^.... 
Kankiatchm . . . 

Kankoeyi 

Kankoakou . . . 
Kannazava . . . 

Kano 

Kansara 

Kanseli 

Kanskoi 

Kansuh 

Kansuh 

Kanzas 

Kao-chow 

Kaon-chow.. .> 

Kftotoasi 

Kao-yeou-chow 
Kapiteh.. ..... 



T. 
Ls. 
T. 
T. 
R. 

5^- 

T. 

Pr 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Mt 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

9?' 

s^- 

T. 

G. 

T. 

Cy. 

Cty. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

R. 



^- 

R. 
T. 

'^ 

C. 

??; 

Cy. 
Cy. 
Cy. 



Japan 

Siam 

Africa 

Senegambia. . . 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 

Java 

Tartary, 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Lower Canada. 
Asiatic Russia . 

China 

Iceland 

Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

North America 
China ........ 

China 

Cabul 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia . 

Ceybn 

Soudan 

News. Wales. 

Malaysia 

Labrador 

Cambodia 

Russia 

Soongaria 

China 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Rusaia. 

Japan 

Soudan 

Mongolia 

Arabia 

Asiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

Western Ter... 

China 

China 

China. 

Chma 

New Zealand . . 



Ref: 
Leu. 



Ve 

Sg 

Lh 

Nk 

Rb 

Ti 

Qe 

Pd 

Re 

Ob 

Nd 

Wc 

Wb 

Pd 

Qc 

Hd 

Ub 

Se 

Kb 

Od 

Wc 

Wc 

W( 

Wc 

Wc 

Pc 

Sc 

Pc 

Ac 

Tf 

Te 

Qe 

Ob 

Ob 

Pc 

Rh 

Ti 
He 

Sh 

Ob 

Qd 

Tf 

Tf 

Re 

Uc 

Ve 

Mg 

Sc 

Sc 
Se 
Se 
Fe 
Tf 
Uc 
Se 
Te 
XI 



54 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



MuiMS of Ibca^ tei 



Kapiti 

Kara 

Kara 

Karabogfas . . . 
Karagacva . . . 

Karagui 

Karah 

Karaiah 

Karak 

Karak 

Karakakua. .. 
Kardkisch . . . 
Kara Kooram 
Karakum . . • • 
Karakum .... 
Karakum .... 

Karan? 

Kara Scabaak 

Karasou 

Karatchey . . . 
Karateghin. • . 
Karbai^a .... 

Karchee 

Kardborinskoi 

Karefs 

Karempe .... 

Kargalik 

Karp^apol .... 
Kariatain .... 
Karin ...<•.. 

Karme 

Karolskaia . . . 

Karoma 

Karomskaia .. 

Karoon 

Karopa 

Karowa 

Karri Karri . . 

Karrion 

Karskakovska . . 
Karskaya . . 
Karskoe . . . 
Karvoune . . 
Kartchina . . 
Kartoon ... 
Kani^... . 
Kaaachey . . 
Kaschffor . . 
KaschUgir . 
KaBchaa . . . 
Kasfain .... 
KaBhna .... 
Kaskaskia . 
Kaskomenia 
Kaslov .... 
Kasson .... 
Kastamam .. 
Katagfoom.. 
Katchintzi . 
Kateerlaz . . 
Kater 



I. 

R. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

Mts. 

Cv. 

Des. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

T 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

^: 

I. 
T. 
R. 
G. 
L. 
R. 
Cy. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Sea 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

Ct, 

T. 
T. 

s^- 

T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

C. 



Greenland 
Russia . . . 
Mongolia 
Tartary . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Arabia 

Little Bucharia 

Syria 

Persian Gulf . . 
Sandwich Is. .. 
Little Bupharia 

Thibet 

Mongolia .... 
Mongolia .... 

Tartary 

Mongolia .... 

Syria 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia. 
Great Bucharia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Turkey 
Russia . 
Arabia . 
Russia . 
Norway 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 

Egypt 

Mongolia ..... 

Soudan 

Africa.... ... 

Hindoostan . . 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Asia 

Russia , 

Asiatic Russia. 

Nubia 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia 

Asia : . . 

Mongolia .... 
Austria 



Rusua 
Soudan 
Illinois 
Russia 
Russia 
Afiica. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Soudan 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America.. 



Jb 

Qb 

Td 

Pd 

Qc 

Wc 

Of 

Re 

Oe 

Pc 

S« 
Re 

Re 

Td 

Sd 

Qe 

Rd 

Oc 

Re 

Oc 

Qe 

Wb 

Qe 

Sc 

Od 

Od 

Nd 

Ob 

Of 

Nc 

Mc 

Re 

Va 

Va 

Of 

Sd 

Mh 

Nk 

Qf 

Ob 

Qb 

Qe 

Pc 

Wc 

Q§ 

Wb 

Qe 

Sc 

Nd 

Oc 

Mg 

Ob 
Od 

SI 

Re 
Ub 
Hb 



' NaaM of Fbea, fee. 



Kater 

Kater 

Kater 

Katherinar. . 
Katmandoo 
Katungwa . 

Kadai 

Kaua-Kana 
Kautokeino 

Kavio 

Kaw 

Kawar .... 
Kawaa .... 
Kawen .... 

Kay 

Kayaye .... 

Kayee 

Kayes 

Kay|rorod . . 
Kaynsk .... 
Kaypia .... 

Kazane 24. 

Keangse 

Keangsoo 

KeaU 

Keats 

Kcbskoi 

Kedjc 

Kceheetsa 

Keeling 

Keehva 

Keerchang 

Keerweer 

Keffing 

Kefoe 

Kegorha^en 

Kehl 

Kehoa 

Keil 

Kein-chow 

Kein-ning 

Kciskumma .. .. 

Keith's 

Kejmy 

Kekoumoy 

Keksglom. .. ... 

Kclangtow 

Kelat 

Kelat 

Kelegrave 

Kelmscott 

Kemar 

Kemi 2. 

Kemi 

Kemi 

Kemi 

Keminoom 

Kemitrask 

Kemmoo 

Kemp 

1 Kempendria .... 



C. 
R. 
Pt 
L. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Pt. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

Po. 

Pt 

T. 

5?: 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

I': 

Bay 

T. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

^- 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 



Brit America 
Scoresby's Ld. 
Brit America 
New Holland. 

Nepaul 

Soudan ...... 

Sandwich Is. . 
New Zealand. 

Norway 

Australasia . . 
Brit America 

Libya 

Hindoostan .. 
Polynesia .... 
Brit. America 

Africa 

Scnegambia.. 
North America 
Russia . . 



Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

China 

China 

New Holland. . 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Beloochistan . . 
Missouri Ter. . 

Malaysia 

Afi-ica 

Little Bucharia 
New S. Wales 
Malaysia .... 

Tonquin 

Russia 

Baden 

Tonquin 

Denmark .... 

China 

China 

CafTraria ..... 
Brit America 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Formosa 

Beloochistan . 

Persia 

Turkey , 

New Holland . 

Celebes 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Africa 

Russia ....... 

Africa 

S. Pacific Oc..'. 
Asiatic Russia. 



Ga 

Ka 

Eb 

Tl 

Rf 

Mg 

Bf 

XI 

Nb 

XI 

Fe 

Nf 

Qf 

Xh 

Cb 

Lg 

Cc 
Pc 
Re 
Xb 
Pc 
Tf 
To 

^j 
Db 

Sc 

Qf 

Fd 

Sj 
Ol 
Qd 

vj 

Ui 

f 

Ob 

Md 

Tg 

Me 

Te 

Tf 

Nl 

Db 

Sc 

Xb 

Ob 

Uf 

Qf 

Pe 

Nd 

Tl 

Uh 

Nb 

Ob 

Nb 

Nb 

Lg 
Nb 

Lg 
Ho 
Tb 



CX)NSULTING INDEX. 



=11 



55 



ICaaa or FbM, *«. 



Keraska . . . . 
Kenaittkaya . 
Ketibouloan . 

Kenddll 

KendaU 

KendaU 

Kendall 

Kendrick*8 . . 
Kenmare . . . 

Kenn 

Kennebeck .. 
Kennedj'g . 
Keneh. 



CbiB. 



T. 
In. 
T. 
T. 

C. 

c. 

In. 
L 
K. 
L 

I. 



Kennis , C 



Kenogummiiie . 
Kcn'oos ,.,..,. 

Kenpou 

Kent 

Kental 

Kenfs Group .. 
Kentucky ..... 

Keppel 

Keppcl ....... 

Keppcrs 

Kerdje ..... ^ * 
Kereguz ...... 

Keret 

Ker^iielen*B Ld. 

Kenn 

Kerkeni ...... 

Kerkbieh .... * 

Kerkook. .. .. . 

Kerlaja 

Kermady 



Dk. 

It 

T. 

R. 

L 

St 

?' 

L 

Die. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
iL 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Sta. 
Kerman Ft. 



Kerman .... 
Kerman .... 
Kermanahah 
Kermise .... 

Kemuk 

Kers 

Kerue 

Keruh 

Keahanao . . 
Keahin .... 
Keehin .... 
Ke-sho .... 
Kesnoe .... 

Ket 

Ketching . . . 
Ketian ..... 

Ketoy 

Ketshin 

Ketskoi 

Kewenaw . . . 
Kew-lunsr Kiaof 
KeyWcat.. 
Key West. . 

Khaff 

Khaibar . . . 
KJialanakoie 



Cy. 

DCE. 

Cy. 

T, 

T. 

HIa. 

1. 

R. 

Bay 

Dia. 

Cy. 

T. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

J. 

Cy. 

T. 

Pt 

R. 

Cy, 



Aaiatic Rosaia. 
North America 
Aaiatic Russia. 

England 

Brit America . 
!Brit. America . 
iBfit. Atuciica . 
i Polynesia .. . . . 

(Ireland 

Persian Gulf . • 
Maine ....... 

Austntlasla .-. • 
Egypt ,,,,.... 

Japaji .,,..-.. 
But Am erica . 
Nubia .-....,. 

Thibet . 

Micbi^an ,:. . . 
AfiatLc Russia. 
AuAt'.ibda... . 
Unllfd ^Utes. . 
New S. Wales . 
New S. Wales . 
Sandwich Is.. . 

Arabia 

Persia 

Russia ....... 

Indian Ocean.. 
MantchcKjria . . 
iMedilerran. Sea 
Syria . . * 
Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Kuflsia. 

Africa 

Persia. ....... 

Persia ..,,.... 

Feriiia ,....,.. 

Persia 

Arabia ... ... 

Soudan 

News. Wales . 
Australasia .. 
Persia. ....... 

China ........ 

Arabia . 

Arabia ....... 

Tonqtiiu 

Tonquiu 

Asiatic- iCusaia. 
Manlcljooria . . 
Little Bucharia 
Knrili: Ii^londs. 
Cliina ........ 

Asiatic Russia. 

Michigan 

China ,. 

FJoridn ....... 

Florida , 

Persia. ...«.., 
Arabia . . ... 
Afliatio Russia 



Sc 

Cb 

Tb 

Lc 

Eb 

Gb 

Cb 

Uf 

Lc 

Pf 

Hd 

XI 

Of 

Ve 

Ha 

Of 

6e 

Gd 

Ab 

VI 

Ge 

Wk 

Wk 

Aj 

Pf 

Pe 

Ob 

Qm 

Uc 

Me 

Oe 

Oe 

Xb 

?f 

Pe 
Pe 
Pe 
Pf 
Ng 
Vj 
Wi 
Pe 
Ue 

S^ 

Pg 

Tf 

Sf 

Sc 

Vd 

Rd 

Wd 

Te 

Re 

Gd 

Sf 

Gf 

Gf 

Pe 

Of 

Sa 



Khalnyrea . « • . 
Khamabad .... 
Khamrinskoi . . 

Khandesh 

Khantanskoie. . 

Khara 

Kharatologoi . . 
Kharasm«. .. .. 
Khatasm.... «.. 
Kharkov.... 49 

iPiarkov 

Kharraa 

Kharusova .... 

Khassa 

Khatanga 

Khatanska .... 
Khatanska .... 
Khatanakaya . . 

Kheeroo 

Kheressoun . . . 
Kherson . .. .52 

Kherson 

Khikata 

Khimni.^ 

Khingan 

Khirraov 

Khiva 

Khiva 

Khiva 

Khizariflk .... 

Khodon 

Khoi 

Khojend 

Khoiusalu 

Khokan 

Khokan 

Kholdom 

Khohn 

Kholmogori . . . 

Khoper 

Khorasan 

Khord 

Khotsim 

Khoutche 

Khozdar 

Khusistan 

Khvalynsk .... 

Khyrpore 

Kiachta 

Kia-Kiang .... 

Kialing 

Kiama 

Kiantheen 

Kiaokee 

Kiat 

Ki-chow 

KickapooB 

Kiddeekiddae.. 

Kidd's 

Kidnapper .... 
Kiemator 



R. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Cty, 

Des. 

Pr. 

S'- 

T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
G. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 

Mte. 
R. 
Mts. 
R. 

ay. 

Des. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

S^- 
T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

Tr. 

Sta. 

L 

C. 

Bay 



Asiatic Russia. 

Tartary 

Aaiatic Ruaaia. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mongolia 

Mantchooria . . 

Tartary 

TarUr^ 

Ru&<Ua 

Russia . . 

Soudan 

Asiatic Russia. 

Turkey 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Russia 

Russia 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Mongolia 

Russia 

TarUry 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia. 

Persia 

Tartary 

Great Bucharia 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia^ 

Persia 

Russia 

Russia 

Little Bucharia 
Beloochistan.. . 

Persia 

Russia 

Hindooatan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

Soudan 

Laos 

Corea 

Tartary 

China 

Western Ten. . 
New Zealand. . 
Polynesia .... 
New Zealand. . 
Brit America . 



Xb 
Qe 
Tb 
Rf 
Ra 
Td 
Td 
Pd 
Pd 
Od 
Oc 

Wc 

Nd 

Sa 

Rb 

Rb 

Sa 

Rf 

Od 

Od 

Od 

Vd 

Ud 

Td 

Pb 

Pd 

Pd 

Pe 

Qd 

Tc 

Pe 

Qd 

Qc 

Qd 

Qd 

Qe 

Oc 

Ob 

Oc 

Pe 

Od 

Nd 

Rd 

Qf 

Pe 

Pc 

Qf 

Tc 

Tf 

Te 

Mh 

Sf 

Ue 

Pd 

Te 

Fa 

XI 

Vf 

XI 

Ho 



56 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



NaflMorPbcMita. 



Kiesai 

Kien 47. 

Kifakertan 

Kikiai 

Kikich& ....... 

KikkerUxsoak . . 

Kllalla 

K ilaroatouevskoi 

Kildcmskoi 

Kildwia 

Kilkajarvi 

Killaloe 

Killeef 

Killion 

Kilon^ 

Kilonga 

Kilongo 

Kiltusova 

Kimbilaks 

Kitn-him 

Kimiklaya 

Kimilo 

Kimilo 

Kiaimeneirard 7 . 

Kin 

Kin Ho 

Kinacslakaya. . 
Kincha Kian^ . 
Kin-chingr .... 

Kin chow 

Kin chow .... 
Kinderiinsk . , . 

Kinelin 

Kinerbek 

Kineshma 

King 

Kingan 

King Charles' 

South 

King-chow .... 
King Greorge . . 
King Greorge*s . 
King George*8 . 
King George*8 . 
King Goorgo's . 

Kinghele 

King.ki-tao.... 
Kingleching. .. 

King*B 

King's 

King's 

King's 

King's 

Kingsmills .... 

Kingston 

Kingston 

King-tong 

King WiUiam . 
KingWiUiam's. 
King.yang 
Kinjan . . . 



T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Cy. 

'^: 

G. 
T. 
C. 
T. 
Ft. 
Cy. 

Ld. 

'^ 

Is. 

Is. 

I. 

So. 

T. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

Bay 

C. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Gr. 

^• 

Si 

c. 



Thibet 

Russia 

Greenland ... 

Japan 

Asiatic Russia 
Greenland . . . 

Ireland 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Ireland 

Africa 

Thibet 

Loango 

Loango 

Bcnguela .... 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Corea 

Russia 



Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Arabia ...... 

China 

Asiatic Russia 

Thibet 

China 

China 

Mantchooria . 

Tartary 

Mantchooria . 
Greenland . . . 

Russia 

Florida 

China 



Patagonia. . 

China 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
South SheUand 
New Holland.. 

Loango 

Corea 

China 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Brit America . 
North America 
Australasia.. . . 
Bay of Bengal. 

Polynesia 

Jamaica 

Upper Canada . 

China 

Brit America . 
New Guinea . . 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 



Bet 



Re 
Od 
Jb 
Uf 
Tb 
Jb 
Lc 
Td 
Ub 
Ob 
Nb 
Lc 

2J 

Re 
Mi 
Mi 
Mj 
Sa 
Ob 
Ud 
Nb 
Nc 
Nb 
Nb 
Of 
Te 
Vb 
Se 
Tf 
Uf 
Ud 
Pd 
Ud 
Jb 
Oc 
Gi 
Tf 

Hn 
Te 
Ok 
Cj 
Gc 
lo 
Tl 
Mi 
Ue 
Tf 
Ma 
Gb 
Ab 
VI 

I! 
%l 

Sf 
Fb 
VI 
Te 
Uc 



Zfimn of RaOH, ke. 



Claik 



Kinnaird's 

Kinsanov 

Kintan 

Kiobvig 

Kiolome 

Kiong-chow .. . . 

Kiragassi 

Kirensk 

Kirgius 

Kirin 

Kirin Oula 

Kirjatch 

KirkShehr 

Kirkwall 

Kirkwall 

Kirlou 

Kirrce 

Kiscligh 

Kisliin 

Kiska 

Kiskina 

Kistnah 

Kistrandt 

Kitchko 

Kites 

Kitka 

Kittan 

Kittila 

Kittis 

Kiusiu 

Kiva 

Kiyavalski 

Kiyavalski 

Kizal-agatch .. . . 

Kizil Coum 

Kizliar 

Kizzil Irmak . . . 

Klin 

Klutchefsky .... 
Kmelevinsk . . . . 

K. MoUah 

K. Nahal 

Knap's 

Knee 

Knighton 

Knight's 

Knight's 

Knight's 

Knisteneaux... . 
Knivaniemi . . . . 

Knob 

Knoxville 

Knoy's 

Koation 

Kodiachinifk..* • 

Kodiak 

Kodinskoi 

Koeena 

Koei.chow 

Koci Ho 

Koei-yang 



Hd. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

^: 

Cy. 
Cty. 
Pr. 

^- 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

Rk. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

Tr. 

L. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

G. 

Des. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

VoL 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

L. 

Bay 

L 

In. 

Tr. 

T. 

C. 

^'- 

T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 

i'- 

Cy. 



Scotland 

Russia 

Mongolia 

Norway 

Russia 

Hainan 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Tartaiy 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Russia 

Asiatic Turkey 

Scotland 

Brit America 

Russia 

Benin 

Asiatic Russia. 
Persian Gulf . 
Aleoutian Arc 
Asiatic Russia 
Ilindoostan .. 

Norway 

Russia 

Missouri Ter. 

Russia 

Asia 

Russia 

Russia 

Japan 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Tartory 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Turkey 
Russia . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Scoresby's Ld. . 
Australasia . . 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter.. . 



Russia 

New Holland. . 
Tennessee .... 

Polynesia 

Cochin China . 

Russia : 

North America 
Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

China 

China 

China 



Lc 
Oc 
Se 
Nb 
Nb 

Tgr 

Sc 

Tc 

Qc 

Ud 

Ud 

Oc 

Oo 

Lc 

Hb 

Oc 

Mh 

Va 

Pf 

Xc 

Wc 

Na ■ 
Ob 
Fd 
Nb 

Ql 

Nl 

Nb 

Ue 

Ob 

Qb 

Qb 

Pe 

Qd 

Pd 

Od 

Oc 

Wc 

Ob 

Ob 

Of 

Fb 

Fc 

Kb 

Xm 

Fb 

Dc 

Ec 

Nb 

Ti 

Ge 

Xh 

Tg 

Pb 

Be 

Qb 

L(r 

Te 
Tf 
Tf 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



57 



■ orriMe^te. 



KijerdggraJU . 

Koete 

Kof 

Kohat 

Kohistas .... 

Koidere 

Koig 

Koilovsk .. . . 

Koin 

Koiram 



T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

L. 

Fd. 

T. 

R. 

Mts. 



Koisilin C. 

R. 
L. 



Kokahlahiahket 

Kokikli 

Koking 

Koko Nor 

Koks 

Koksah 

KoU 

Kola 

Koldagi 

Koleah 

Kolbyan 

Kolhyan 

Kolinia 

Kolimskoi . . . . . 

Koliulehen 

Koliaschea 

Koliva 

Kolno 

Kologriv 

Kolokolikovskoi . 
Kolomna.. .... . 

Kolp 

Kolpinskom .. . . 

Kolpttcha 

Kolryn ........ 

Kolvercia 

Kolyin Joujan . . 
Kolzdraleya . . . . 
Komaggas 

Kooang.nan . . . . 

Konbo 

Konda 

Kondinakaya . . 

Kong 

Kong 

Kong 

Kongnan 

Kongnberg 

Kong-tchang 



Austria. . 
Arabia . . 
Japan .. . 
Cabul . . . 
Cabul . . . 
Russia . . 
Norway . 



I. 
R. 
Bay 

^- 

T. 

Pr. 

Cy. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

L. 

?I- 

R. 
T. 
Cty. 

\ 

Cy. 



Mantchooria . . 

Thibet 

Rumia 

Oregon Ter... . 

Tartary 

China 

China 

Aufltralaaia... . 
Brit America . 

Rusaia 

Russia 

Darfur 

Algiers 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Russia 



Konieh 'Cy, 

Konig ~ 

Konigsburg ... 
Koninschna . . . 

Konkerc 

Konotop 

Konrat 

Konstantingrad 
Konstantinov . . 
Konup 



C. 

?^- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T, 
T. 
R. 



Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Norway 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Cape Colony . . 

Russia 

China 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Soudan 

Soudan 

Africa 

China 

Norway 

China 

Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America 

Prussia 

Russia 

Mon^lia .... 

Russia 

Tartary 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
Africa 



Nc 

Pf 

Ve 

Qe 

Qe 

Ob 

Na 

Pb 

Vc 

Re 

Od 

Ed 

Qc 

Sf 

Se 

Tk 

He 

Ob 

Ob 

Ng 

Me 

Re 

Re 

Wb 

Wb 

Ah 

Cb 

Pb 

Nc 

Od 

Pb 

Oo 

Oc 

Pd 

Pd 

Nc 

Mb 

Qb 

Pb 

Nl 

Nb 

Sf 

Ob 

Qc 

Qc 

Mg 

Mg 

Lh 

Te 

Mc 

Se 

Oe 

Gb 

Nc 

Pb 

Sd 

Oc 

Pd 

Od 

Ta 

Nk 



Konvinger .... 

Koochan 

Kooloj 

Kooloobdea.. .. 

Koom 

Kooma 

Koomabad .... 

Koondooz 

Kooner 

Kooniakary . . . 

Koonsha 

Koop 

Kooranko 

Kooreen&r 

Kopani 

Kopaul 

Kopen 

Kopi 

Kopyss ........ 

Kordofan 

Korennoe 

Korgus 

Korgin 

Koriaks 

Korilvays 

Kornegalle .... 

Koma 

Korolaikha .... 

Koronas 

Korot 

Kortchin 

Korti 

Korumabad . . . 

Kosheleff 

Koeima 

Koelov 

Koeogol 

Kosorra 

Kostanie 

Kostrom ...... 

Kostroma ... 14 

Kostroma 

Kosva 

Kotah 

Kotai 

Kotelnitch .... 

Kotelnoi 

Koten 

Koten 

Kotska 

Kottojoures . . . 
Kotzebue*s .... 

Kouangsi 

Kouangsin .... 
Koubinskoe . . . 
Koudorinska . . 

Koudon 

Koudoagour. .. 
Koudouktou .. 

Koue-hoa 

Koue-te 



T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

T. 

r. 

T. 

Tr. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

I. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

Pr. 

^V: 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Dis. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

So. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

97' 
Cy. 



Norway 

Persia 

Beloochistan . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Persia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Persia 

Tartary 

Cabul 

Africa ^ 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Africa 

Hindoostan . . . 

Tartary 

Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia • 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 

Soongaria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Indian Ocean . . 

Ceylon 

Asiatic Turkey 

Russia 

Russia 

Siam 

Mantchooria . . 

Nubia 

Persia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Japan 

Russia . . 
Mongolia 

Africa 

Oregon Ter.. . . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Fiindoostan . . . 

Siam 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Little Bucbaria 
Little Bucbaria 
Asiatic Russia. 

Norway 

North America 

China 

China 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia . 

Mongolia 

Mongolia .\ . . . 

China 

China 



M b 

Pe 

Qf 

Sf 

Pe 

Od 

Pe 

Qe 

Qc 

Pd 
Wh 
Lh 
Rf 
Pd 

?^ 
Sc 

Od 

Oc 

2^ 
S a 

Rd 

Ta 

Xb 

Ok 

Rh 

Pe 

Pb 

Nb 

Sg 

Ud 

2« 
Pe 

Wc 

Vd 

Dc 

Sc 

^^ 
Ec 

Nd 

Oc 

Oc 

Pc 

Rf 

Pd 
Va 
Rd 
Rd 
Sc 
Nb 
6b 
T f 

rf 

Oo 
Tc 
Tc 
Td 
Td 
Sf 
To 



58 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Koagsbacka. . 
Kouitoun .... 

Kouka 

Koukiri 

Koukouderessou 

Kouktoi 

Koularka 

Kouloundrinskoe 

Koumpfour 

Kouminikovi . . . 
Koung-akka... . 

Kounto 

KoapoDsk ..*.... 

Koursba 

Koureli 

Kourea 

Kourgan 

Kouriskarki ... . 

Kournina 

Kourojogina .... 

Kourou 

Koursk 43. 

Koursk 

Kourtchoum... . 
Kouskoguin .... 

Koustnoi 

Kousnetzk 

Kouflsie 

Koustchanka . . . 

Koutais 

Kou-tao 

Koutchigaiflka . . 

Kouwan 

Kou-yuen ...... 

Koaza 

KouzDctak 

Kovdo 

Kovdo 

Kovno 

Kowan 

Kracai 

Krasnoborsk . . . . 

Krasnoi-lar 

Krasnoy 

Krasnoyarsk . . . 
Krasnoy-kbolm . 

Kraw 

Kreinenichoug.. 

Krcstova 

Krestovaya 

Krestovoy 

Krestovoy 

Krcstovskoo . . . . 

Krisei 

Kromy 

Kronenborg . . . . 

Kronotskoi 

Krook 

Kroo Towns .... 

Krostzi 

Krumen 



T. 
T. 

^/: 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ls. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

T. 

^- 

R. 
R. 
T. 
Pr. 

^': 

R. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Bay 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Gy. 

T. 

Ist 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

Cy. 

T. 
R. 



Sweden 

MongoHa ..... 
jSoudan. ...... 

I Mongolia 

IMongolia 

! Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Mongolia 

Russia ... 

Russia 

Africa 

Asiatic Turkey 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Guiana 

Russia 

Russia 

Mongolia ..... 
Nortii America 

Russia 

Russia 

Cape Colony . . 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Corea 

Asiatic Ri^ssia. 

Tartary 

China 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Russia . . 
Russia . . 
Russia . . 
Great Bucharia 

Arabia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Aleoutian Arc . 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

iPcrsia 

Liberia 

jRussia 

Africa 



Mc 

Td 

Mg 

Sd 

Td 

Vc 

Tc 

Re 

Pc 

Qb 

Td 

Ob 

Od 

Lg 

Od 

Td 

Qc 

Qb 

Xb 

Va 

Ih 

Oc 

Oc 

Rd 

Bb 

Pb 

Pc 

Nk. 

Pb 

Od 

Ue 

Tc 

Qd 

Te 

Oc 

Re 

Ob 

Ob 

Nc 

Qe 

Of 

Od 

Pd 

Oc 

Sc 

Oc 

Sg 

Od 

Wc 

Pb 

Ua 

Wa 

Sa 

Xc 

Oc 

Nb 

Wc 

Pf 

Lh 

Oc 

Nk 



N*mei of FbOH, te. 



Krusenstern ... 
Krusenstern .. . 
Krusenstern .. . 
Krasen«tem^8.. 

Kua 

Kuban 

Kudgorski .... 

Kuen-kin 

Kukar 

Kuku 

Kulboh 

KuU 

Kulleespelm ... 

Kulno 

Kulon 

Kulon 

Kulukak 

Kumi 

Kunkuy 

Kunsamo 

Kuopio 8 

Kuopio 

Kur 

Kurachee 

Kurant 

Kurdistan .. . .. 

Kurgha 

Kuriat 

Kurile. 

Kurile 

Kumaul 

Kumool 

Kurrcchane . . . 
Kurry Kurry .. 

Kurulon 

Kura 

Kusscrkund . . . 

Kustrin 

Kutaiah 

Kutshuga 

Kutsing 

Kuwadi 

Kwadelen 

Kwangse 

Kwangtung . . . 
Kweichow .... 

Kwettah 

Kwies 

Kwyhoo 

Kyberg. ...... 

Kylie 

Labezu 

Labiacei 

LabooK 

Labrador 

Laby 

Labyrinth 

Labyrinth 

La Cache 

La Cala 

SSBBSSmmmSSSSSS 



C. 

c. 

Ml 

I. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Mts. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

Cv. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

ST- 

T. 

Mt. 

Pr. 

L. 

T. 

L. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis, 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

^^: 

I. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bay 

Cty. 

T. 

Bay 

R. 
T. 



North America 
Brit America . 
Nova Zembla .. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mongolia 

Little Bucharia 

Libya 

Arabia 

Brit America . 
Oregon Ter. .. . 

Poland 

Mongolia 

Mongolia 

North America 
fkstern Sea .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Sinde 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Turkey 

Soon^aria 

Arabia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Asia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hiiidoostan . . . 

Africa 

Soudan 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Beloochistac. . 

Prussia 

Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Russia. 

China 

Japan 

Polynesia 

.China 

China 

China 

Cabul 

Africa ' . . 

Africa 

Russia 

Celebes 



Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 

lk>rneo 

Brit America . 
Scnegambia .. . 

xNubia 

Lower Canada. 
Brit America . 
Tunis 



Bb 
Eb 
Pa 

SJ 
Sc 

Qd 

Qb 

Se 

Rd 

Nf 

Pf 

Fb 

Ed 

Nc 

Td 

Td 

Be 

Uf 

Xb 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Pd 

Qf 

Wc 

Oe 

Qd 

Pf 

Wc 

Wd 

Rf 

Rg 

Nk 
Mg 
Td 
Vb 

Qf 

Nc 
Ne 
Tc 
Sf 
Ue 
Xh 
Tf 
Tf 
Tf 
Qe 
Nk 
Oi 
Na 
Ti 

Sd 
Re 
Th 
He 
Lg 
Og 
Gd 
Db 
Me 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



59 



La CaadiauL. . . . 

Laccadivefl 

Lachlan 

Lacker 

La Conocption .. 
La Crosse Lake. 

Ladak 

Ladak 

Ladak 

Ladanarska 

Ladey noje Pole 

Ladikieh 

Ladoga 

La IXominica . . . 

Ladrone 

Ladrone 

Lady Aime*s . . . 

Lady Grey 

Lady Julians.... 
Lady Nelson^s .. 

Lafayette 

Lagbu*8 

Lagens 

Lagoa 

LaGoleta 

Lagooa 

Lagoe 

LaGozalU 

La Grange 

Lagaillas 

La Guayra 

Laguedo 

Lagullaa 

Lagullas 

LaguDiar 

Lagana 

Lagima 

Lahore 

Lahore 

Lahou 

Lahoa 



Cbai. 



Lahsa 

Lahtie 

Lai-chow 

Lainio 

Lakeneig 

Lalcba 

Lalmamon 

Labk 

Lama 

I^ Magdalena . . 

Lamas 

Lambay 

Lambayqne .... 
Lambuka . . ^ . . . 

Lamego 

La Mira? 

Lamock 

Lamoel 

Lamoo 



T. 

Is. 
R. 
L 

Vil. 
Ft 
Dis. 

ir- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
L. 
I. 
Is. 
Is. 
Bay 

a 

I. 

Sb. 

T. 

Sh. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

T. 

C. 

Bk. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

Cy. 

C. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

'^- 

Sta. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

Sea 

L 

T. 

Sh. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

I. 

T. 



Mexico 

Asia 

New S. Wales . 

Malaysia 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
Little Thibet . 
Little Thibet . 
Little Thibet . 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Syria 

Russia 

Polynesia ..... 

China 

Polynesia. .... 
Brit America . 
Mozambique . . 
Australasia . . . 
Australasia... 

Indiana , 

Australasia... 
Pico Island . . 
Inhambane... 

Tunis 

Polynesia .... 

Portugal 

Buenos Ayres 
Arkansas ..... 
Indian Ocean . 
Venezuela.. .. 

Azanaga 

Indian Ocean 
Cape Colony . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Equador 

Hindoostan .. 
Hindoostan . . 

Guinea 

Guinea 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Hindoostan . . . 

China 

Sweden 

Africa 

Russia ...... 

Abyssinia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Peru 

Malaysia 

Peru 

Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Polynesia 

China 

Polynesia 

Africa 



Rat 

Leii. 



Ff 
Qg 

VI 
Ui 
£e 
Ec 
Re 
Re 
Re 
Vb 
Ob 
Oe 
Ob 
Ci 
Tf 

Vg 
Ga 
Ok 
VI 
Wl 
Gd 
Wj 
Ke 
Ok 
Me 

L e 
HI 
Fo 
Nl 
Hg 
Kf 
Nl 
Nl 

Ij 

Hj 

Hi 

Qe 

Qe 

Lh 

Lh 

Pf 

Pf 

Qf 

Ue 

Nb 

Lf 

Ob 

?f 

Vc 

Cj 

Hi 

Tg 

Gi 

Vb 

Hj 

Wf 

Tf 

Oi 



Lamov 

Lampedosa. . . . 

Lampione 

Lampon 

Lampong . . . . . 

Lamurek 

Lamuti 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lan^how 

Landa 

Landfall 

Landfall 

Landsberg . . . . 
Land's End . . . 

Lanepou 

Langanaes . . . . 

Langara 

Langajra 

LangencsB . . . . 

Langley 

Langoen 

Lan.Ho 

Lankao 

Lankeran 

Lannes 

Lantchang . . . . 

Lanzarota 

Laos 

Lapa 

La Paz 

La Paz 

Lapcheva . . . . . 
Lapdinska . . . . 
Lapitcha..... . 

Lapiuga 

Lapland 

La Plata 

Laporte 

Lapteff 

La Puebla 

La Puebla 

La Purissima. . 

Laquaha 

Lar 

Laraat 

Larak 

Larch 

Lari 

Larissa ....... 

Laristan 

Laritchi 

Larkenting . . . . 

Larkhanu 

Lamica 

La Roche 

La Rochelle .. . 

La Rouge 

La Rouge 

Larrey ....... 



T. 

I. 

I. 

Bay 

Dis. 

I. 

Tr. 

Cy. 

So. 

Rf. 

Cy. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

C. 

Bay 

C. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Cly. 

Bay 

Dep 

^- 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Cty, 

T. 

T. 

T. 

St 

T. 

T. 

I. 

?^- 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Str. 

S'- 

Ft 
C. 



Russia ... 
Moditerran. Sea 
Mcditerran. Sea 

Luzon. 

Sumatra 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 
England ...... 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

China* 

Borneo 

Bay of Bengal. 
Patagonia .... 

Prussia 

England 

Thibet 

Iceland 

Patagonia 

Oregon Ter. . . 
Nova ZembU. . 
Newfoundland . 
LofToden Isles . 
Mantchooria . . 

Russia 

Persia 

New S. Wales. 

Laos 

Canary Isles . . 

Asia 

Bcnguela 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Europe 

New Grenada . 

Indiana 

Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Polynesia 

Persia 

Australasia .. 
Persian Gulf . . 
Brit America . 

Soudan 

Turkey 

Persia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Thibet 

Sinde 

Cyprus 

Isle of Georgia 

France 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Holland. . 



ReC 



Oc 
Me 
Me 

Ug 

Si 

Vh 

Vb 

Lc 

Ga 

Ck 

Se 

Th 

Sg 

Hn 

Nc 

Lc 

Re 

Kb 

Hm 

Dc 

Pa 

Id 

Mb 

Td 

Nb 

Pe 

VI 

Sg 

Lf 

Sg 

Mj 

Hj 

Hj 

Wb 

Qc 

Vb 

Pb 

Nb 

Gh 

Gd 

Wb 

l« 

Fg 

De 

Aj 

Pf 

Ui 

Pf 

He 

Mg 

Nd 

Pf 

Rb 

Sf 

Qf 
Oe 
Jn 
Ld 
Ec 
Eo 
Tk 



60 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Nun««f naoai» te. 



Las Bruscas .. 
Las Juntas . . . 

I^asker 

Las Nuevita* . 

La Sola 

LaSoledad... 
La Son&iere. .. . 
Las Penaelaa . 

Lassa 

Lassa 

Last Hope . . . 

Late 

Latham's .... 

Latoor 

Latouche Treville 
Lattakoo.... 
Latta Laita . 
LaQghIan*8 . . 
LauDceston . 
Laurie*s .... 
Lausaunne . . 

Lava 

Laval 

Lavapie 

Lavento .... 

Lavra 

Lavras 

Lavritski .... 

Lavroff 

Lawson 

Lax 

Laxara 

Lay 

Laybach 

Laysan 

Jjayschev . . . 

Le 

Lcaotong . . . 
Leatong .... 
Leavenworth 

Uba 

Lebanon .... 

Lebda 

Lebeginskaya . . 

Lcbetse 

Lebida 

Lebyagya 

Lecasova 

Ledo 

Leec?i 

Leeds ......... 

Leegetan 

Leeland 

Lccrdal 

Lee*s Foreland . . 

Loeuwin 

Lecuwin^s 

Leeward 

Lctfouw- 

ILefbuouekh .... 
Lcfuga 



T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

L 

T. 

ML 

T. 

Pr. 

s- 

I. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

L 

I. 

T. 

J, 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Fd. 

L 

PL 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

G. 

Fl 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L. 

T. 

L 



C. 

Ld. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 



Baenos Ayres 
Mexico...... 

Polynesia .... 

Cuba 

Polynesia .... 

Mexico 

Sl Lucia .... 

Mexico 

Thibet 

Thibet 

Patagonia . . . 
Polynesia .... 
Indian Ocean 
Hindoostan .. 
New Holland, 

Africa 

Malaysia .... 
Australasia... 
V.Diemen*sLd. 
Soutli Shetland 
Switaerknd . . . 

Borneo 

France 

ChiU 

Peru 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brazil 

Asiatic Russia . 
Nova Zembla 
Greenland . . 
Norway .... 
N. Pacific Oc. . 
North America 

Austria 

N. Pacific Oc. . 

Russia 

Laos ......... 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Missouri 

Prussia 

Virginia 

Tripoli 

Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

Tripoli 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Bcngucla 

Wisconsin Ttr, 

England 

MalajTsia 

Denmark 

Norway 

Spitsbergen . . . 
New Holland. . 
New Holland.. 
West Indies.. . 

Timor 

Mantchooria 



II 
Fe 

Xf 
Gf 
Ak 
De 
Hg 
Ee 
Se 
Sf 
Hn 

Oi 

^i 

Nk 

Ui 

Wi 

Vm 

Jo 

Md 

Th 

Ld 

HI 

Gi 

Uc 

Ji 

Qb 

Pa 

la 

Nb 

Bf 

Bb 

Md 

Af 

Pc 

sg: 

Ud 

Ud 

Fe 

Nc 

Ge 

Me 

Ub 

Nf 

Me 

Qc 

Qb 

Mi 

Fd 

Lc 

Th 

Mc 

Mb 

Na 

Tl 

Tl 

H? 
Ui 

Ud 



Polynesia C k 



Leghea 

Leghorn 

Le Grand 

Leh 

Leifle 

Leige 

Lein-chow 

Lein.ping>.chow . 

Leipzig 

Leja 

Lekma 

Lekoe 

Leiundo 

Lema 

Le Maire 

Lemberg 

I^mlum 

Lemnos 

Lemus 

Leravig 

Lena 

Lena (of the) .. . 

Leng 

Lengerout 

Lcngua de Baca 

Leon 

Leon 

Leon 

Leona Vicario . . 

Leoo-keoo 

Leopold 

Leopoldstadt. . . . 

Lepers 

Le Puy 

Lerma 

Lerwick 

Lesan 

Lescfaenault .... 
Leschenault .... 

Le Sparre 

Lcsscpe 

Lesser Slave 

Lessor Slave Lake 
Lc88*r Slave Lake 

Lessee 

Lesueur ..... 

Letcs 

Letons 

Lettee 

Leuba 

Leutsohau.. .. 

Levanoe 

Levata ...... 

Le Vck 

Lewis 

Lewis 

Lewis 

Lewis 

Lewisburg . . . 
Lewth waiters . 
Lexington ... 



Sta. 

Bay 
Cy. 
Cy. 
Cy. 

T. 
L. 
I. 
R. 
I. 
SL 

s^- 

T. 
I. 
I. 
T. 
R. 
G. 
T. 
T. 
C. 

^- 

R. 

a 

T. 

I. 

T. 

IT. 

T. 

L 

C. 

PL 

T. 

C. 

L. 

Dis. 

Fl 

I 

Mts. 

L. 

Rk. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

T. 

Str. 



Africa 

Tuscany .... 
New Holland 
Little Thibet 
Greenland . . 
Belgium .... 

China • 

China 

Saxony 

Syria 

Russia 

Norway .... 

Congo 

China ...... 

Patagonia . . . 

Austria 

Asiatic Turkey 
Archipelago 
Patagonia.. 
Norway . . . 
Asiatic Russia . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Laos ......... 

Persia 

Chili 

Spain 

Guatemala .. .. 

Bolivia 

Mexico 

Eastern Sea. . . 
BriL America . 

Austria 

Australasia . . . 

France 

Spain 

Scotland 

China 

New Holland. . 
New Holland. . 

France 

Mantchooria . . 
BriL America . 
BriL America . 
BriL America . 

Denmark 

Now Holland . . 

Russia 

Cape Verd Is. . 

Malaysia 

Chili 

Austria 

Norway 

Africa 

Caribbean Sea. 

Scotland 

Illinois 

Oregon Ter.. . . 
Greenland .... 

Arkansas 

PowePs Group. 



Cy. I Kentucky. 



Nf 

Md 

UI 

Re 

lb 

Mc 

Tf 

Tf 

Mc 

Oe 

Ob 

Mb 

Mi 

Tf 

Hn 

Nd 

Oc 

Ne 

Hm 

Nb 

Ub 

Ua 

l« 
Pe 

HI 

Ld 

Ff 

Uf 

Ga 

Nd 

Xj 

Md 

Ld 

Lc 

Uf 

Tl 

Ti 

Ld 

Vd 

Ec 

Ec 

Ec 

Mc 

Tl 

Ob 

Kg 

Ui 

HI 

Nd 

M b 

Nf 

Gg 
L c 
Fd 
Ed 
la 
Fe 
lo 
Ge 



OOHeVLTWG INDEX. 



61 



Leziiiftoo« 
Leydra... 
Leyxm... 
LeytB > 



Liaga . . . 
LiiiliQff. 
liant.,... 
Liani*>.. 



LiiMa.. 
Liberia. 
Liberty. 
Liberty. 



LUa 

Liddoii*s 

Lidkopiny • . . . 

Lie 

Lifht 

Ligiep 

Ljgpr 

Likian^ 

Lilabaroaba . . . 

LiHeaund 

Lilly Fowktaui. 
Lima 



LifDcri . . < 
Limerick . 
Limesoe .. 
Limesol... 
Limmens . 
Limoges. 



Linares. 
Lineoln. 



Lin 
Linodln^s .. 
Lindesay .. 
Liodesnoes . 
Lindsay ... 
Lindsay ... 
Linds-dal .. 

Lindy 

Lingayen . . 
Ling^ow . 
Ling-hein .. 
Lingin .... 
Lingnang . . 
Lio-kiang . . 
Linosa ...« 

Lints 

Lintzin .... 

Lion's 

Lipe 

Lipari 

Lipes 



T. 

T. 

Pt 

L 

T. 

R. 



L 

a 

R. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

T. 

Des. 

T. 

T. 

G. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

§" 

T, 

SUu 

Dep 



Missouri 

HoUand 

Brit America 

Malaysia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Russia ....... 

Asiatic Russia. 

Siam 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia:* 



Africa. . . « . 

Texas 

Missoori... 
Africa.. •« 
Greenland . 



tt 



Po. 
L 
R. 
C 
C. 

a 

T. 
R. 

Of. 
Str. 

a- 

^- 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

T. 

L 

T. 



Fe 
Me 

Gb 

S^ 
Pc 

Pb 

Vn 

l^ 
Dc 

Qc 

Nc 

Lh 

Ff 

Fe 

Nf 

lb 

Nc 

Brit Ameriim . E a 

Sweden Mo 

Tbibet Re 

Asiatic Russia. U a 

Polynesia Xh 

Mskysia Sh 

Gbina 8f 

Africa Nk 

Norway M c 

Cape Colony . . N k 

Peru 6 j 

Pern Gj 

Swedstt Mb 

ChiU HI 

Irebnd Lc 

Norway Mb 

Cyprus ....... Oe 

Bgt New S. Wales. Vj 

■" France Md 

Malays Tg 

Mexico Ff 

England L c 

China Sea ....Tg 

New S. Wales. Vi 

Polynesia X i 

New&Wafes.Vl 

Norway M c 

Brit America . G a 

Elephant Island I o 

Sweden N b 

Quiloa Oj 

Luzon Ug 

China Te 

China Te 

Malaysia Sh 

China ........ 8 f 

China Tf 

MeditemuL Sea M e 

Austria Md 

Russia N c 

Atlantic Ocean Kc 

BoUvU. Hk 

Medlterran. Sea M e 

New Granada. Hh 



Lipetsk... 
Lipovety.. 
Lipstadt . . 
liptchani. 
Liptrap .. . 
Lisbon ... 
Lisbume. • 
Usianskoy's Ld. 
Lisle 



T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
C. 



I 



Listen 

LichteniUs 
Litkina.... 

Little 

Little 

Litde 

Little Altai 
Little 

Little Big Horn 
Little Bucbaria 
Little Cayman . 
LittteFisb .... 
Little Ganges. . 
Little Intqua .. . 

Little Key 

Little Kooroper- 

tachia 

Little Lant 

Little Marten .. . 
Little Missouri.. 
Little Mistisiinny 
Little Ottien.... 
Little Portandick 
Little Rock ... 

Little Seal 

Little Sea Otter 
Little Sioux ... 
Little Thibet . . 
Little Whale.. 

Litta 

Liubim 

Liu^ima 

Livensk 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool ...... 

Liverpool 

Livingston • . • . • 
Livingstones. . . . 
Livinnfam's. . . . 

Livonia 19. 

Litard 

Liard 



Is. 

T. 

T. 

L 

L. 

Des. 

Mts. 

I. 

R. 

L 
L 



Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Russia '. . 

New 8. Wales. 

Portugal 

North America 
N. Pacific Oc . 

France 

New & Wales 
Brit America 
Greenland . . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit America 
Hindoostan .. 
Mongolia .... 
Ba^ of Bengal 

Missouri 

Asia 

West Indies. . 
Benguda .... 
Pdyneeia. . . . 
Bahamas .... 
Austrakuna.. . 



Llera .. . 
Lloyd*s , 



L. 
R. 
L. 
R. 

T. 

g^- 

I. 
R. 

R. 
T. 
L 
T. 

§r- 

T. 
T. 
C. 
Cst 

a 

L 

L 

Pr. 

Pt 

L 

T. 

Pis. 

T. 

Is. 



Oc 

Nd 

Mc 

Nd 

VI 

Le 

Ab 

Af 

Mc 

Wk 

Eb 

lb 

Sa 

Va 

Eb 

af 

Sd 

Ed 
Rd 
6g 
Mj 
Bi 
Hf 
Ui 



Asiatic Russia. 

Malaysia 

Brit America . 

Missouri 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

Arkansas 

Brit America . 
North America 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Asia 

Brit Amnica 



Russia 

Japan 

Russia 

England 

Nova Scotia.. 
N. Brunswick 
Senegambia .. 
Brit America 
Sooresby*s Ld. 
Brit America 
New Holland. 
New Guioea . 
Polynesia .... 
South Shetland 
Russia .... 
England .. . 
Australasia 

Spain 

New Grenada . 

Mexico 

South Shetland 



Wa 

Ti 
Eb 
Fd 
He 
Pd 

Fe 
Fc 
Ac 
Fd 
Re 
He 
Ob 
Oc 
Ve 
Oc 
Lc 
Hd 
Hd 

Ga 
Ka 
Dd 

Vi 

Wh 

Ho 

Nc 

Lc 

Vj 

Ld 

Hh 

Ff 

Ho 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Lloyd*8 

Loango 

LoBDgo 

Lobos 

LoboB 

Lobos 

LoboB 

Lobot 

LoboB 

LoboB 

LoboB 

Locker 

Loch Fine . . . 
Lock's....... 

Loclerskoi ... 
Lodajas ..... 

Lodeeana .... 

Lodmnndar .. 
Lofaugar .... 

Loffixlen 

Logan 

Loganaport... 

Loggun 

Loghiaova ... 

Logoe • 

Logos 

Loheia 

LoHo 

Loire 

Lokhan 

Lombardy ... 
LomUein .... 
Lombock .... 
Lombock .... 
LommeD Berg 

Lomsele 

London 

London 

London 

London.... .. 

London 

Londonderry . 
Londonderry . 

Londor 

London 

Long 

Long 

Lon? 

Long 

Long 

Long 

Long 

Longa?ran . . . 
Longchamps . 
Long Island.. 
Long Island . . 
Long Lake... 

Longnan 

Longuerae . . . 

Looboe 

Loo-choo 



Prm 

Cty. 

Cy. 

T. 

Pt 

Pt 

L 

L 

L 

Ib. 

Is. 

C. 

L. 

L 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

Fd. 

T. 

Is. 

Po. 

T. 

^: 

T. 
R. 

'^ 

R. 

T. 

Km. 

I. 

St 

I. 

Mt 

T. 

^: 

T. 

Cst 

Rk. 

Cy. 

Is. 

Mt 

T. 

L 

L 

I. 

L 

L 

I. 

L. 

T. 

Rk. 

L 

So. 

Ho. 

8^- 

T. 
Is. 



Soath Shetland 

Africa 

Loango 

Boenos Ayres . 
Boenos Ayres . 
Patagonia .... 

Polynesia 

Uruguay 

Azanaga 

Peru 

Mexico 

New HoUand. . 
Scoresby*s Ld.. 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia, 

Azanaga 

Hindoostan . . 

Iceland > 

Sweden 

Norway 

Brit AflMrica 



Soudan 

Asiatic Russia . 
Changamera . . 

Guinea 

Arabia 

China 

France 

Russia 

Italy 

Malaysia 

Malaysia 

MakjTsia 

Spitsbergen . . . 

Sweden 

England 

Upper Canada . 
Guatemak ... . 
Greenland .... 
Malayan Sea . . 

Ireland 

Patai^nia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Malaysia ..... 
Eastern Sea... 
Australasia ... . 
Australasia.... 
Brit America . 

Celebes 

Atlantic Ocean 
United Sutes. . 
United SUtes .. 
Brit America . 

China 

New Guinea . . 

Celebes 

Eastern Sea .. . 



lo 

Mi 

Mi 

II 

HI 

Hm 

Vf 

II 

Kf 

61 

Ef 

Tk 

Ka 

Hb 

Re 

Lf 

Re 

Kb 

Nb 

Mb 

Fa 

Gd 

S« 
Qc 

Oj 
Mh 

S« 
Te 

Ld 

Pb 

Md 

Ui 
Ti 
Ti 
Na 
Nd 
Lc 
Gd 
Gg 
I a 
Th 
Lc 
Hn 
Vc 
Ob 
Hb 
Gc 

Sj 

Uf 

Vi 

Vi 

Gc 

Ui 

Jh 

Hd 

Hd 

Gc 

Se 

VI 

Ui 

Uf 



Lookayanoy.... 

Lookers-on 

Lookout 

Lookout 

Lookout 

Lookout 

Lookout 

Loon 

Loon 

Loony 

Lopatka 

Leper's 

Lopez ......... 

Lop Nor 

Loppen ........ 

Loquez 

Lora 

Lord Auckland's 
Lord Howe's .... 
Lord Howe's . • . 
Lord Howe''s . . . 
I Lord Mayor's ». . 
Lord Nelson's . . 
Lord North'a . . . 

Loreto 

Loreto 

L'Orient 

Lorma 

Los CoquiUas .. . 
Los HermanoB .. 
Losinogorska .. . 
Los Martires . . . 

Los Patillos 

Lessen 

Lo8tange» 

Lot's Wife 

Loocheux 

Lougan..... ... 

Lou^hboro 

Louis 

Louis 

Louisa 

Lonisburg 

Louisiade 

Louisiana 

Louis PhiHip . . . 

Louisrille 

Louisville 

Louit^ow 

Loumbov 

Louristan 

LourondsoQg . . . 

Loutzk 

Louza 

Love 

Love 

Lovenorn 

LoTisa 

Low 

Low 

Low 



a 

C. 
C. 
C. 
Pt 
R. 
L. 
R. 

a 

I. 

C. 

L. 

L 

Po. 

R. 

Gr. 

L 

L 

Gr. 

St 
I. 



T. 

I. 

Is. 

R. 

L 

L 

Tr. 

Cy. 

In. 

C. 

Po. 

Rk. 

C. 

L 

St 

C. 

^'■' 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Bay 

c^' 

T. 
I. 
L 



Russia 

Australasia . . . 
Patagonia .... 
Brit America . 
North Carolina 
Oregon Ter. .. 
New & Wales. 
Wisconsla Ter. 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan ... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Polynesia. 
Africa. . . . 



1 Ocean X 



LHtle Bueharia 
Norway .... 
Madagascar . 

Cabul 

Southern 
Australasia. ^». 

Polynesia 

Australasia . . . 
Brit America . 

Patagonia 

Polynesia..... . 

Mexico 

Bolivia 

France 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Patagonia .... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Polynesia .... 
South Peru . . 

Norway 

Polynesia .... 
Polynesia .... 
Brit America 

China 

Oregon Ter... 
Kerguelen's Ld. 
Isle of Franee. 
Malaysia . . . 
Cape Breton I. 
Australasia... 
United States. . 
Brit America . 

Kentucky 

Georgia 

China 

Russia 

Persia 

Thibet 

Russia 

Russia 

Greenland .... 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Seghalien 

Russia 

Polynesia 

South Shetland 
Malaysia ... . 



Oc 

Xm 

Hm 

Gc 

Ge 

Dd 

Wk 

Fd 

Ec 

Qf 

Wc 

Xi 

Mi 

Rd 

Na 

S'. 

n 
Wl 

»j. 

Fb 
Gn 
Uh 
Ef 
Hj 
Ld 

l« 
Ee 

Hm 

Re 

Vh 

Hk 

Mb 

Wf 



Db 
Te 
Do 
Qm 
Pk 
Th 
Hd 

Fe 

Fb 

Ge 

Ge 

Tf 

Pb 

Pe 

Se 

Nc 

Pe 

Ib 

Ma 

Vd 

Nb 

Aj 

Ho 

Ui 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



63 



Low 
Low 



Lowui|^.. 
LowAihan. 
Lowat «... 
Lowmtte .. 
Lowdeah*. 



Lowef 

Lower Angara 
Lower Canada . . 



Is. 
Ii. 

L 
Pk. 
T. 
Mt. 

L. 
C. 
L. 
R. 
Pr. 



Lower Inbalriuiya T. 
Lower Nii>i>owau 
Lower Oudinak , 
Lower ShYhge . . 
Lower Suae .... 
Lower Tcboom- 

akaya 

Lowther 

LowWoodj.... 



Loxe 

LojaJty. «.«... 

Laan...« 

Laban...«.... 

LobWn ,. 

Lobeck ....««• 

Lobeck 

Lublin 

Lubo 

Lubo 

Lubolo 

Lubreck 

Lucaya « 

Lucca«..«« .«• 

Loceme 

Lucknow 

Ludamar 

Luenburg 

Lugartoa 

Lagh a Summa 

Lu^o 

Lui.«hov 

Loidim 

Lukin 

Lulea ..« 

Lulea ........ 

Lulea 

Lunenburg.. «• 

Lupata 

Lutoo 

Luzan 

Luxemburg .11. 
Luxemburg 

Luxor 

Luaon 

Ljaaa 

Ljranee .... 
Ljckaele... 
Ljcomedia . 
Ljdlas .... 



Ha 

l 

Dia. 
T. 



Aqftralaaia.... 
Australaua.... 

Cbina 

Birmah 

Barbaiy 

Barbery 

Tunia 

Seghalien 

Oi^gonTer.... 
Aaiatic Ruasia. 
North America 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Brit America .< 
Aaiatic Rnaaia. 
Brit America 
SMae .•••«.•• 



Uf 
Sf 
Me 

Le 
Me 

Vc 
Ed 
So 
Hd 
Sb 
Fc 
So 
Hb 
Lf 



L 

I«. 

T. 

Fd. 

la. 

T. 

L 

T. 

^: 

R. 
Fr. 

Sta. 
L 

a 

T. 

Cty. 

L. 
T. 

?: 

ViL 

T. 

R 

L. 

T. 

Mta. 

R. 

T. 



Aaiatic Rnaaia 

Brit America 

Polynesia.... 

Equador 

Norway pi a 

Auatralaaia... . X k 
Uh 
Ug 
Mc 
Mc 



MalaviU . 
Pruana... 
Germany 



Poland 
Mozambique 
Mozambique 
Benguela . . . 

Tripoli 

Bahamas . . . 

Italy 

Switzeriaad* 
Hindooetan • 

Africa 

Hanover.... 

Mexico 

Abysnnia... 

Spain 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Nova Scotia .. 

Africa 

Ruasia 

Buenos Ayres 



Sb 
Fa 
Ch 
Gi 
Na 



Malaysia T i 

~ Nc 

Oj 

Nj 

Ne 

Gf 

Md 

Md 

Rf 

Lg 

Mc 

Gf 

Oh 

Ld 

Te 

Pb 

Ah 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Hd 

Ob 

II 

Md 

Md 

Of 

Ug 

Me 

Qf 

Nb 

Nf 

Xh 



K- 



6.D Germany « 
Cv. Belgium. 

l' 

T. 
T. 
T. 
L. 
L 



lysia . . . 
Barbery .... 
Bekxichistan . 

Sweden 

Africa , 

Poljmesia .... 



Lydra 

Lynchburg . 

Lynn 

Lynn 

Lyon 

Lyona 

Lyons 

Lyons 

Lytin 



L 

T. 

T. 

CnL 

C. 

%" 

Ch. 
T. 



Maab 

Maadan 

Maaaoe 

Maatsuyker*s . 

Mabah 

Mabbrook. . . . 

MabU 

Macaa. 



Macahe T. 



Macao. 

Mdcar , 

Macartney . . . 

Macaa 

Macassar . . . . 
Macassar . . . , 
Macassar . . . . 
Macauley'*a. . . 

Macava 

Maccai 

Macclesfield .. 
Macdongall . . 

Maceyo 

Machias . . • . . 
Machides . . . . 
Machides . • . . 
Machigasta .. 
Machigma . . . 
Machiguine . . 
Machistan . . . 
Machoora. . . • 
Mackenzie . . . 
Mackenzie's . . 
Mackinaw . . . 
Mackintosh . . 

Macon 

Macon 

Maoouar 

Maoowar .... 
Macquarle . . . 
Macquarie • . • 
Macquariea . . 
Mact^uaries .. 

Macn 

Macy's 

Madagascar .. 
Madawasca .. 

Madeira 

Madeira 

Madeiras .... 

Maden 

Medina 



T. 
T. 
L 
Is. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 



C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Str. 

L 

R. 

T. 

Bk. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

I' 

T. 

ViL 

T. 
R. 

In. 

^• 

Cy. 

Is. 

T. 

Har 

T. 

R. 

L 

T. 

L 

L 

R. 

R. 

L 

Is. 

T. 

T. 



Polynesia. 
Virginia .. 
England. • 
North America 
Brit America 

France 

France 

Brit America 



Ge 
Mc 
Cc 
Db 
Md 
Md 
Gb 
Nd 



Greenland 
Arabia . . . 
Norway . . 
V.Diemen*aLd. 

Soudan 

Africa 

Barca 

Hayti 

Brazil 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 

China 

Equador 

Cambodia 

Celebes 

Malaysia 

Polynesia 

Venezuela .... 
Mozambique . . 
China Sea . . . 
Brit America 

Brazil 

Maine 

Africa 

Brazil 

Buenos AyresV 
Asiatic Russia. 
Nova Zambia.. 
Brit America . 
Aaiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Sooresby'sLd.. 

Michigan 

Brit America . 

Georgia 

France 

Arabian Gulf. . 

Nubia 

V.Diemen^sLd. 
V. DiemenVLd. 
New a Wales 
Southern Ocean 
Asiatic Turkey 

Polynesia 

Indian Ocean . 
Upper Canada . 

Brazil 

Atlantic Ocean 
Atlantic Ocean 
Asiatic TurkeylO 
Scnegambia.. .jL 



lb 
Of 
Na 

Vm 
Ng 
Mf 

Ne 

H.« 
Jj 
Tf 
Va 

Ue 
Gi 
T^ 
Ti 
Ti 
Ak 
Hh 

sj 

?f 

Ji 

Hd 

Oh 

Ii 

Hk 

Ab 

Pa 

He 

Wc 

Db 

Ka 

Gd 

Hb 

Ge 

Md 

Of 

Of 

Vm 

Vm 

VI 

Wn 

Ne 

Ak 

£i 

Hi 
Ke 
K 



1^ 



64 



CONSULTING INMX 



■ orriMMite. 



Madiwm 

Madison 

Madjicosemfth 

Madras 

Madrid. 

Madura 

Madura 

MadveflTo 

Magadoxa . . . 
Magadozm ... 

Magami 

MagatocflT. . . . 
Magdalen .... 
Magdalena ... 
Magdalena... 
Magdalena... 
Magdalena .. . 
Magdeburg . . 
Magellan .... 
Magellan's . . . 

Mageroo 

Maghinskaya . 
Magnetic .... 
Magnitnaia . . 

Magnuse 

Magnuse 

Magoo 

Magus 

Mahagan ..•. 
Mahanuddy . . 

Mahe 

Mahe 

Mahe 

Mahee 

Mahirka PreislaDg 
Mahmora .... 

MahoQ 

Mahrah 

Mahrea Arabs 
Mahuhish.... 
Mahunga .... 

Mala 

Maiaoiti 

Maimatchin .. 

Main 

Mainagoa.... 

Maine 

Mainland .... 

Maison*s 

Maitland 

Majambo .... 

Majoor 

Majorca 

Mara 

Maiossa 

Makamie .... 

Makoko 

Makooana.. .. 

Makosses.... 

Mako^a ...... 

Makalla 



R. 
T. 
I. 



Cty. 

L. 
Is. 
Dep 

^^ 
T. 

R. 

Str. 

Are. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

Sh. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

Is. 

Bk. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cy. 

Dis. 

Tr. 

T. 



Missouri Ter. . 

Indiana 

Eastern Sea... 
Hindooatan . . . 

Spain 

Hindoostan . . . 

Malaga 

Asiatic Russia. 



^' 

I. 

SL 
I. 
I. 
T. 

I. 
T. 
R. 
R. 

s.y- 

Tr. 
Tr. 
Tr. 
Dis. 



Africa 

Magadoza .... 

Japan 

Asiatic Roisia. 
Brit America . 
New Grenada . 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Buenos Ayres < 
New Grenada . 

Prussia 

Patagonia .... 
Polynesia ..... 

Norway 

Asiatic Russia 
New aWales 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Persia 

Polynesia.... 

Ceylon 

Hindoostan .. 
Indian Ocean.. 
Indian Ocean . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Morocco 

China 

Arabia 

Africa 

Russia 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Mongolia 

Anatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

United Stetes. . 
Shetland Is. .. . 

Polynesia 

New & Wales. 
Madagascar. . . 

Polynesia 

Mediterran. Sea 
Barbary. 
Peru.... 
Soudan.. 
Africa. . . 
Africa .. 
Africa .. 
Africa... 
Arabia . . 



Ed 
Gd 
Uf 

ll 

Rh 

Ti 

Wa 

Ph 

Ph 

Ve 

Va 

Hb 

Hg 

Ma 

II 

Hh 

Mc 

Hn 

Vf 

Na 

Tb 

V 

Pc 
Bb 
Eb 
Pf 
Uf 
Rh 
Rf 
Pi 
Pi 
Pi 
Rg 
Uc 
Le 
Sf 
P« 

^« 
Pc 

Ni 

Vc 

Xb 
V 



^: 

L 

T. 

Sea 

R. 

CM. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 



Lb 
Bh 

Wl 

V. 

Me 
Me 
Hj 

Mb 

Ni 

^j 
Nk 

2J 

Pir 



Makuifai . . 

Mala 

Malabriga. 
Malacca .. 
Malacca .. 
Malaga .. . 
Malanca . « 
Malanta . . 
Malaskerd 
Malayan .. 
Malaysia . 
Malcolm . . 
Malabar .. 
Maiden . . . 
Maldiyas. . 
Moldonado 
Malebum . 
Malenillo . 
Malesptna. 
Maletivo .. 
Malfin.... 
Malhada .. 
Malheur .. 
Malik.... 
Malimba. . 
Malin .... 
Malines... 

MiOkm T. 

MaUar... 

Mallicola 

Malkm . . 

Malloodo 

Mallooin 

Malmo . . 

Malone . . 

Maloi 

Mai 

Mais 

Malstrom 

Malta 

Malang 

Malwa 

Mamaeh , 

Mamadysk 

Mamaiale , 

Mama Inferior .. 

Mamahi , . 

Mamaleek 

Mamas 

Mama Superior . 
Mambookiea.. 
Mamcheo .... 
Maminisea... 
Mamore ..... 
Mampoor .... 

Man 

Mana 

Manachan . . . 

Manai 

Manambatou . 
Manamboure . 



Arabia 

New Grenada . 
Polynesia..... 

Malaya 

Malaysia ... 

Spain 

BrazU 

Australasia .. 

Turkey 

Asia 

Ooeanica .... 
Brit America 
Hindoostan . . 
Polynesia..... 

Asia 

Uruguay .... 
Hindoostan .. 
Bahamas .... 

Japan 

Ceykm 

Buenos Ayres 

Brazil 

Oregon Ter... 



Bks.|Asia. 
R. 
Har 
T. 



Africa... 

Ireland tL c 



L. 

L 

L 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L 

R. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

I. 



R. 

Ch. 

T. 

T, 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

Ct,. 

R. 
R. 
I. 
C. 
R. 



Vf 

Sh 

Sh 

Le 

li 

Wi 

Oe 

Th 

Th 

Cb 

Qh 

Bi 

Qh 

II 

Rf 

6f 

Vd 

Rh 

Hk 

E^d 
Qh 
Mh 



Belgium 
Asiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Anstralassa.. . 
Polynesia.. .. . 

Boraeo 

Polynesia ..... 

Sweden 

Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

New Grenada 

Norway 

Lofibdey Is. .. 
Mediterran. Sea 
Sweden .. . . 
Hindoostan 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Mozambique . 
Asiatic Rusria 

Asia 

Soudan 

Equaior 

Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Siam 

Brit America 

Bolivia 

Africa 

Chffi 

Guiana 

Madagascar .. 
Polynesia .... 
Madagascar.. 
{Madagascar.. 



Mc 

Wc 

Nc 
Xj 

Ag 
Md 
Wc 
^k 
Gh 
Nb 
Mb 
Me 
Mb 
Rf 
Od 
Pc 

Tc 
Qh 

Mg 
Hh 
Tc 

Nk 

L c 
Ih 
Pk 

Pt 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



65 



Maoanten^ha 
Mananzari . . . 

Manaoo 

Manaa 

ManaaaioTara .• 

ManaTolka 

ManI 

Ml 

Manchester 

Mancbeater 

Maachineel 

Manda .... 

Mandal.... 

Mandan . . . 



Mandara. 
Maadera. 



Mandhaar .. • . 
Manding..... 
Mandinga«... 
Mandinak..... 
MandiTee .... 
MaBdrere .... 
MandroocUiA 
Blaaetaok .... 
Man&edaoia.. 
Maagalora ... 
Mangaza* • . . 
Mangsea...., 
MaDgeraj.... 
Mangerajr.... 
Manghabe3r . . 
Manglarea ... 
Maogoakkoi . 

Mang*a 

Mangueca ... 
Manguera . . . 
Manbeim .... 

Maniaaa 

Manica 

Manica 

Manioouagan 
Manicooagan 
ManiUa..... 
Manjnaki . . • , 

Manipi , 

M&niaov» .... 
Manitoba .... 
Maniton . . . « , 

Maniton 

Manitoaline «, 
Manitoaline .. 
Manitacb .... 
Mani^ool . . . « 

Manna 

Manna 

Manning .... 
Manning** . . . 
Manoel GooxbItm 
Manoal Gonalvea 



a 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

L. 

L 

L 

^- 

Ho. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

Ft. 

Tr. 

Dia. 

T. 

Dia. 

Pt 

Cty. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

Str. 

G 

Pt 

T. 

fika. 

L 

L. 

S^ 

^y 
T. 

R. 

L. 

5f 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 

L. 

fa. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

Pt 

Sb. 

T. 

I. 



Madagascar. . . 
Madagascar. . . 

Brazil 

Soongaria 

Thibet 

Anatralasia . . . 
Sooresb/sLd.. 
England 



Brit America . 

Jamaica 

Brazil 

Norway 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Soadan....... 

Nubia 

Celebes 

Celebes 

Africa 

New Grenada . 

Russia 

Hindoostan . . . 
Madagascar. . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Greenland .... 

Naples 

Hindoostan . . . 

Afirica 

Polynesia 

Malaysia 

Malaysia 

Madagascar. . . 

Equador 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Malaysia ..... 

Uruguay 

Baden 

AfHca 

Malapa.. 
Manica.. 
Lower Canada. 
Lower Canada. 
Phillipine Is. . . 
Afliatie Russia. 
Malaysia 
Brazfl... 
Brit America . 
Mongolia .... 

Brit America > 
Upper Canada 
Upper Canada 
Asiatic Russia 
Madagascar.. . 
Sumatra ...... 

Senegambia .. . 
North America 
New Georgia. • 

Brazil 

Brazil 



Pk 
Pk 
Hi 
Rd 
Re 
Ui 
Kb 
Lc 
Fe 
£c 

?l 

Mc 
Fd 
Fb 

^« 

Ui 

Ti 

Ob 
Qf 
Pk 
Ub 

lb 
Nd 

^1 
Bk 

Ui 

Ti 

Si 

Td 
Ui 

II 

Md 

He 

Ui 
Ji 
Fc 
Rd 
Db 
Gd 
Gd 
Od 

Pj 

Si 

Lh 

Ca 

Wi 

Ji 

Ji 



Hmm «f nMH, ta. 



a 



Manofy 

Manonoo .... 
Manotoba.... 

Mansel 

Mansfield.... 
Mansfield .... 
Manaiatre.... 
Mantalagoose. 
Mantanzas . . . 
Mantatees .... 
Mantohooria.. 
Mantcboos . . . 

Mantua 

Mannigh 

Manzora... .. 

Maoaca 

Maomo 

Mapez 

Mapima 

Mapoota 

Mara 

Mara. ....... 

Maracaybo... 
Maracaybo ... 
Maraeatos.. . . 

Maragha 

Marampajra . . 

Maraaca 

Maranham . . . 
Maranham . . . 

Marapi 

Maratubft .... 

Marari 

Maravi 

Marayi 

Marberry .... 

Marble 

Marburg 

Marburg 

Marcus 

Marcus 

Mardin 

Mareb 

Marstimo .... 
Maretakoe . . . 
Margaret's . . . 
Margaret's . . . 
Margarita.... 

Mana 

Mariaberg ... 
Maria IxMzba. 

Marian 

Marianna .... 

Marias 

Marias 

Marias 

Marias 

Maria V. DiemenjC 
Mariban .... 

Marica 

Mariegalante 



L 
L. 

L 

T. 

I. 

Bay 

L. 

T. 

Tr. 

??• 
^- 

R. 
L. 
T. 
Mt 

T. 
R. 
Dis. 
T. 

I'- 

Tr, 

T. 

T. 

L 

Pt 

^: 

Is. 

T. 

L. 

Tr. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

I. 

L 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

C. 

Mt 

C. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

L 

I. 

Bk. 



Madagascar. . . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Ohio 

Brit America . 
Madagascar... 
Lower Canada. 

Cuba 

Afiica 

Asia 

Mantchooria . . 

Italy 

Asiatic Russia. 
MoUpa... 
Florida .. . 
Mong(^. 
BruU.... 
Mexico. . . 
Mapoota.. 
Abyssinia. 
Darfiir . . . 
Venezuela 
Venezuela. 
Africa.... 
Persia.... 
Brazil .... 
Brazil .. . . 
BrazU .... 
Brazil .. . . 
Brazil... . 
Malaysia , 
Africa. . . . 
Africa. . . . 
Africa... . 
Soudan .. . 
Brit America . 

Austria 

Hesse Cassel 
Polynesia ... 
Polynesia . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Arabia . . 
MediteiTan. Sea 

Russia 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Venezuela .... 

Seghalien 

Japan 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Florida 

Missouri Ter. . 

Polyziesia 

V.Diemen'sLd. 

Africa 

New Zealand. . 

Persia 

Brazil 

West Indies... 



Hit 



Pk 

^j 
Fc 

Gb 

Gd 

Gb 

Oj 

Gd 

Gf 

Nk 

Ud 

Ud 

Md 

Va 

Oj 

Gf 

Sd 

Ih 

Ff 

Ok 

sj 

Pe 
Jk 
Ih 
Ji 
Ji 
Hi 
Th 

Oj 

Mg 

Fb 

Nd 

Mc 

Wf 

Bh 

Oe 

Pg 
Me 

Ob 
Ck 
Vf 
Hg 
Vc 
Vd 
Fb 
Vg 
Ge 
Ed 
Bk 
Vm 

If 

Pe 
Jk 
Hg 



c 



CONSULTING INDE3L 



Marienburg^ .. 
Marienweraer 

Marietta 

Mariffoana •• . 

Marikan 

Maringa 

Marion ...••« 
Marion « . . • . . 

Marioa'a 

Marionponle.. 
Markarie .... 
Markaakap... 
Markbinakoi . 

Mannar 

Marmello . • • . 
Marmora .... 
Marmorioe... 
Marmorioa • « . 

Maro «. 

Maioa 

Maroa 

Maiowyne . . . 
Marquena • . . 
Marseillea.... 
MarahaU*8 ... 
Martaban • > • . 

Marten 

Martha* 

Martha' 

Martha's Yineyaid 

Martin 

Martin 

Martin 

Martin 

Martinique.... 
Martin Vaa.... 

Martiree 

Martyr 

Marvam 

Marville 

Mary Anne ... 
MaryBttloott'e. 
Mary Jonee . . . 

Maryland 

Maryland 

Mary's 

Maa-a^Faero.. . 
Maa-a-Tierra . . 

Maabate 

Maacara 

Maacarenha . . . 

Masera 

Maahow • 

Maaingloe 

Maasachoaetts . 
Massachnaetta . 

Massacre 

Maaaangano... 
Masaanczanee . 
Maasi 



T. 
L 
I. 
T. 

?"• 

L 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Sta. 

R. 

Sea 

^y 
T. 

Rk. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

la. 

I'- 

R. 

I. 

L 

R. 

L. 

la. 

Mts. 

I. 

Rka 

R. 

C. 

T. 

^' 

L 

^^ 
St 

Ck>L 

^ 

I. 
I. 
0,. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

St. 

I. 

la. 

F. 

Cty. 



Pi 

Pmaaia.. 
Ohio.... 
Bahamaa 
Kurile laianda. 

Africa 

Miasoori..... 
Aaiatie Roasia 
Indkn Ocean 
Russia 



r 



Miaaonri Ter. 
Asiatic Roasia 

Africa 

Brazil 

Ef orope ••«..• 

Turkey 

Turkey 

N. Pacific Oo. 
Venezuela .... 
Austria.. •«•. 

Guiana 

Polynesia*.... 
France.. •.•• 
Pclyneaia * • * * 

Birmah 

Brit America . 
Missouri Ter. . 
Polynesia . **• 
Maasachusetta 
Brit America . 
Brit America , 
Brit America 
Brit America i 
West Indies.. 
Southern Ocean 

Mezioo 

Brit America 

Bnzil 

Falkland Is... 
Brit America 
Polynesia.... 
Brit America 
United Sutea. 

Liberia 

NewZeahmd. 
S. Pacific Oc. 
S. Pacific Oc . 
Malaysia .... 

Algiers 

Indian Ocean . 

Arabia 

Africa 

Luzon Islands . 
United Statea 
Polyneaia ... 
Aofltralaaia.., 

Anglo < 

Mozambique . 

Afiica 

Afirioa 



No 
Nc 
Ge 
Hf 
Wd 

2^ 
Fe 

Ab 

Om 

Od 

Ob 

Ed 

Ub 

Hi 
Nd 

Ne 

Ne 

Af 

Hh 

Nd 

Ih 

Ci 

Md 

Xh 

fit 
Ed 
Dk 
Hd 
£b 
Fo 
Fa 
Ga 
Hr 
Ki 
e 
Ea 
Ji 
In 
Ha 
Ai 
Fa 
Ge 
Lh 
Xm 
Gl 
Gl 
Ug 
Le 
Pk 
ftf 
Nk 
Ug 
Hd 
Xf 
Wi 
Ni 

Oi 
Lg 



Maasoah..... 

Massy , 

Mastovska . . 
MaauUpatam. 
Matagorda ... 
Matagorda ... 
Matamoraa. .. 



Matava. 
Matea... 
Matelote. 
Matelola. 



Matera 

Mathewa's . . 

Matie? 

Matifb 

Matilda 

Matimo 

Matiama.... 
Matiuchkin . 
Matochkine . 

Matoll 

Matamay • • . 
Matamay • . . 
Matamay . . . 
Mattahellaa.. 
Matthiaa.... 
Mattogrosao . 



Mattura .... 

Matty'a 

Matumbagh . 
Maturin . . . . 

Matum 

Matnruaa ... 

Matwi 

Maty 

Mataol 

Maudamesa . 
Mauhee.. ... 

Maui 

Maule ...... 

I Maulmein... 
Maumee • • • . 
Maupiti....« 

Mauritius ... 

Mauroa 

Mauti 

Mazimora . • 
MazweU.... 

May 

Maya 

Mayaguez... 

Mayara 

Mayaveran .. 
May hew .... 

Mayo ...... 

Mayobamba . 
Mayorgo.... 

MayotU .... 



T. 
Dia. 
T. 
T. 

^y 
T. 

T, 

C. 

L 

L 

la. 

Rf. 

T. 

I. 

L 

C. 

Bk. 

L 

L 

G 

St 

Cty, 

^- 

St 

L 

L 

Pr. 

I. 

T. 

L 

T. 

Dep 

R. 

Tr. 

L 

L 

C. 

C. 

Tr. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

L 

L 

I. 

L 

T. 

R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
T. 
L 
L 



Greece 

Kurile lahmda. 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Polyneaia 

Africa 

Napka 

Poljmeeia 

Ruasta 

Algiers 

Polynesia 

Moiambiqua . . 

Japan 

Aaiatie Ruasia, 
Nora Zambia. . 

Africa 

JmfUk 

Japan ........ 

Jiqwn 

Auatralaak ... . 
Auatralaaia.... 
Brazil 



Nubia. 



Hindoostan . 

Texaa 

Tezaa 



Gey km 

Australasia.. 
Madagaacar . 



Biazil... 
Brazil... 
North America 
Brit America . 
Aaiatie Ruasia. 

Iceland 

South America 
Sandwich la.. . 

Chili 

Birmah 

Ohio 

Polptesia 

Indian Ocean 
Polyneaia ..... 
Polyneaia..... 
Asiatic Rusaia 
Brit America . 
New Jersey . . . 
Asiatic Ruasia. 
Porto Rico.... 

Barbery 

Hindoostan ... 
Miasissippi... 
Cape Verd Is. 

Peru 

Polyneaia .... 
Indian Ocean 



Qe 

If 

Ff 
Ff 

Ne 
Wd 

?i 

Vh 
Ni 
Nd 
Xh 
Pb 
Me 
Ck 
Oj 
Ve 
Xb 
Pa 
Ok 
Vd 
Vd 
Vd 
Ui 
Vi 

i'i 

Rh 
Vi 

^\ 
Hh 

Hi 

Hi 

Ab 

Fb 

Ra 

Kb 

li 

Bf 

Hi 

1^ 

Tb 
Ga 
He 
Vc 

?f 
It 

Oi 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



«7 



orriMMita. 



Mayichlai.. 
Mayro..... 
Mayn ..... 
MaysriUe. 
Mayumba. 
Mayomba. 
Majrrillo •• 
Mazagan . 
Maza^fso.. 



MastndenB . 



Mazapil.. 
Mazi4>pa. 



Mazavaidba • . . . 

Mazeira 

Maxeira 

MaaeroonBT •« • « 

MazuU 

Mazaia 

McAakm*s 

McOuty'f 

McCloer'f 

McCoUooh 

MeDoonfil • • . • . 

McDooal 

McGilHTTay . • . . 
McGillivTay . . . . 

Mclntire 

McKay'f 

McKinlqr 

McKinley 

McLeod 

McTaviah's .... 

McVicar 

Meakaima 

Meangia ^ 

MocanSelane .. 
Meeatina ...... 

Mecca 

Meeklenbprg 

Schwerin .18 
MecUenburgr^ 

Strelitz ..A9 

Mecon , 

Medde 

Medicine 

Medielana 

Medina.. ..••.. 

Medina 

Medinet Saltan . 
Meditemikean .. 

Medioio 

Medrooaft ...... 

Modwa 

Meeaday ....... 

Meerpore 

M< 



Mcherran . 



T. 

a 

T. 
Dii. 
T. 
T. 
.T. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 
Pt 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Dia. 
6. 
la. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
la. 
h 
In. 

a 

C. 

a 

R. 
I. 

a 

Pk. 

^' 

L 
la. 
T. 
Har 

Oy. 

. Q.I> 

.6J> 
R. 
T. 
R. 
YiL 

^- 

T. 

Sea 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

P»3r. 



TUtazy .. 

Pent 

Caba 

Kentucky. 
Loango. .. 



NewYork... 

Moroceo 

Brazil 

Africa. 

Persia 

New Grenada 

Mexico 

Mozambique . . 

Mexico 

Africa 

Arabia 

Arabia ......< 

Guiana •••••■. 

Congo....... 

Mozambiqae . 
Pdyneeia .... 

Senegarabia.. 
AuB^alaaia . . . 
Brit America 
Brit America . 
Brit America 
Oregon Ter. . 
Brit America 
Polynesia. . . . 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Japan 

Malaysia .... 
At 



Arabia . 



Germany. 
Gennany . 



Hindoostan .. 
Missouri Ter. 
Pata^ronia .... 

Arabia 

New Grenada . 
Tripoli 




Pd 
Hi 
Hf 
Ge 
Mi 
Mi 
Gd 
Le 
li 

?j 
Pe 

Gh 

Ff 

Oj 
Ef 

Oj 
Pf 
Qf 
Ih 
Mi 

V. 
fef 

Ha 
Eb 
Fa 

Ed 
Db 
Gm 
Fb 
Db 
Fb 
Do 
Eb 
Db 
Ue 
Uh 
Og 
He 
Of 

Mc 

Mc 

Hm 
Of 
Hh 
Nc 

Ne 
Xb 

Nf 

I'r 

Sf 
Of 
Ok 



lofPhn^ao. 



Mel'paBte 

MejdoQoharaky . 

M<4duBk 

Mckran ......< 

Mela 

Melamo 

Melano 

Melghig 

Meluna 

Melinda 

Melinda 

Melinque 

Metite. 

mSSSi. ".'.'!!.'! 

MellipeSi 

MeUiah*8 

Mellisb's 

MoUish's 

Meb 

MehiUe 

Mehrille 

Melville 

Melrille 

Mehille 

Melrille 

Melrille 

MelTiUe 

Melrille 

Memba Koma . 

Memel 

Memphis 

Menangkaboo . 
Mendawee . . • • 
Mende ....... 

MendcH 

Mendocino .... 

Mendoza 

Mendoza. 

Meng 

Mennomonies.. 
MenoraiMire . . . 

Menuf 

Menzaleh 

Menselinak.... 

Meofak 

Meoobanieh ... 
Mequinas ..... 

Merasche 

Merawe 

Mercedes 

Merchants'. . . . 
Merchants*. . . . 
Merchooskai . . 

Mercury 

Mercury 

Merguen Hotnn 

Mer^uf 

Menato 

Meribowhey... 
Merida 



T. 

I. 

Oty. 

Pr. 

Pa 

Pt 

L 

L. 

T. 

s*- 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

1. 

I. 

Rfk 

T. 

2!^ 
^' 
Pen. 



Brazil 

NoYa Zembk . 

Africa 

BekM)chistan . 
Patagonia ... 
Mozambique . 
Malaysia ... 

Barbery 

Ah- 



Africa 

Buenos Ayres 

Africa 

Aeiatic Ruaria 

Morocco 

CaiiU 

Australasia . . 
Polynesia. ... 
Australasia... 
Buenos Ayres 
New S. Wales 
Greenland ... 
Brit America 
Brit America 
NewHoUand. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 



T. 
T. 



C. 
Pr. 

§r- 

T. 
R. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
L. 

5r- 

T. 
T. 

T. 

Arc. 
Pt 



8o. 
Mt 

Mtiu Greenland . 
Pt MosamMque < 



T^ 

Sumatra ..... 

Borneo 

France 

Persia 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayres 
Buenos Ayres 

Tonquin 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Madagascar.. 

Egypt 

Egypt .... 
Asiatic RuBsu 

Arabia 

Brit America 

Morocco 

Asiatie 
Nubk. 

BucDos Aym . 
Brit America . 
Grreenknd ... 
Asiatic Russia 
New Zealand.. 

Africa 

Mantchooria 
Bay of Bengal. 
New Grenada 

Africa 

Mexico • 



a 
Oh 
Qf 
Hm 
Oj 
Ui 
Me 
Me 
Oi 
Di 
HI 
Nk 
Qb 
Lc 
Hi 
Vi 
Xe 
Wi 
Hf 

V 

Ha 
Ha 
Gb 

S^ 
Ea 

Eb 

Db 

la 

Oj 
Nc 
Ge 
Sh 
Ti 
Md 
Pe 
Dd 
HI 
HI 
8f 
Gd 
Ok 
Oe 
Oe 
Pc 
Of 
Gd 
Le 
ToriceyOe 



Hh 
la 
Vfc 

XI 

Mk 

Ud 

l\ 

Nk 

Gf 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Merida 

Merida 

Merinova 

Meritan 

Merla EaToo . • • 
Mermantaa . . • . 

Merra 

Merremongows < 
Meru al Rud . . < 

Mer t 

Mer?e 

Mescala • 

Meseritz .•....< 

Meihuril 

Mesjid Ali . . . . 
" -id HoflMin 



Menina 

Mestocyta 

Mesarata 

MesnraU 

MeU 

Meta 

Metelin 

Methye 

Methye 

Metko 

Metvenkaya... 

Metz 

Mewar 

Mezia ........ 

Mexioo , 

Mexico 

Mezioo 

Mexioo 

Mezari 

Mbzene 

Meiene 

Meiene 

Mezieret 

Mezraz 

Mfflin 

Mnyihkin.... 
Miaco ..;.... 

MiaU. 

Miamii 

Miana 

Miarrin 

Miaanija 

Miohigan .... 
Michigaiv* • • • 
Michigan . . . • 
Michipiootton . 
MichipicottoQ . 
Michipiootton . 
MichcNLcan . . . 
Middeisb.... 

Middle 

Middle 

Middle 



St 
G. 

^- 

T. 

^' 

T. 
Dia. 
T. 
T. 

^ 

Tr, 
T. 
R. 
R. 

St 

L 

St 

T. 

L. 

L 

I. 



T. 
T. 
T. 

a 

I. 

L. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

§?• 
^' 

T. 
T. 
L. 
T. 

7: 

T. 

a 

T. 
.R. 
.1. 

L. 

L. 

. Du. 
.T. 

:^: 

.R. 

. RepJ North America 



Venezuela ... 

Spain 

Aaiatic Ruaaia 

Arabia 

Poljrneaia.... 
Lonifliana. . . . 

Syria 

Africa 

Tartary 

Hindoostan . . 
Great Bucharia 

Mexioo 

Proaiia 

Mozambique . . 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Brit America . 

Suae 

Sicily 

Fezzan 

Tripoli 

Tripoli .. 

Aaiatic Ruaaia. 
New Grenada 
Archipelago. . . 
Brit America 
Brit America . 

Soudan 

Ruaaia 

France 

Sinde 

Africa 



Mexico 

North America 
Mexioo ..... 
Oregon Ter. 
Ruaaia . . . . < 
Ruaaia .... 



France . 
Soudan. 



Ruaaia 

Japan 

Anatie Ruaaia 
Michigan .... 

Peraia 

Brazil 

Ruana 

United States. . 

Indiana 

United Statea. . 
Upper Canada . 
Upper Canada . 
Upper Canada . 

Mexico 

Bergoo 

Lower Canada. 
South Shetbnd 
Anatralaaia . . . 



Hh 
Le 
Re 
Pf 

U 

Oe 
Oi 
Qe 
Rf 
Qe 
Fg 
Nc 

SJ 
Oe 

Oe 

Gc 

Lf 

Ne 

Nf 

Ne 

Ne 

Vc 

Hh 

Ne 

£c 

£c 

Ng 

Ob 

Md 

Qf 

Mi 

Ee 

Fg 
Dd 
Ob 
Ob 
Ob 
Md 

Oc 

Oc 

Ve 

Tc 

Gd 

Pe 

li 

Pb 

Gd 

Gd 

Gd 

Gd 

Gd 

Gd 

Fg 

Ng 

He 

lo 

Ul 



Vaamvinumthe. 



Middleburg , 
Middle Savage. 
Middleton*a ... 
Middleton'a . . . 
Middle Vigten . 

Midia 

Midian 

Midroe 

Mier 



Mijjertheyn . 
ikhalora .. 



la. 

la. 

L 

Str. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

fH' 

R. 
T. 
I. 
L 



Mil 

Mikulin 

Mikulin 

Milam.. 

Milan... 

MUdred 

MUk... 

MUkof.. 

MUU... 

Mille... 

MilledgeviUe . . . ICy. 

Millaburg T. 

MiU*a Point ... 

Mihie 

Milo 

Miloyloyakik . • 

Miltsin 

Milwalky 

Minaa Cicraea.. 
Minchimadiva . 
Minch (the) .. . 

Mindanao 

Minden 

Mindoro 

Mindoro 

Mineral Point . 

Minerva 

Mingan 

Ming Kiang .. . 

Mingrelia 

Minno 

Minicoy 

Miniet 

Minorca 

Minak 31 

Minak 

Miotow 

Mioaen 

Miquelon 

Mirador 

Miranda 

MirepolB 

Miri 

Mirim 

Mirimichi 

Miacou 

Miaener*s 

Miaaao 

Miaaelad 

Miaaevn ...... 

Miaaieaay 



Polyneaia 
Brit America . 
Anatralaaia 
Anatralaaia . . . 
Norway . 
Turkey . 
Arabia . . 
Algiera.. 
Mexico.. 
Africa... 



T. 
R. 
T. 
C. 



T. 

Ld. 

L 

T. 

Mt 

T. 

Pr. 

Vol 

T. 

Sea 

I. 

T. 

L 

ViL 

R. 

a,. 

Rka 
T. 
L 
Pr. 

§^- 

L. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
L. 

Bka. Asia . 



Ruaaia ... 
Ruaaia ... 
Texaa. . . . 
Itdr..... 
Brit America . 
Miaaouri Ter. . 
Aaiatic Ruaaia. 
Brit America . 

Polyneaia 

Geor^a 

Liberia 

Kentucky.... 
Scoreaby'a Ld. 
Archipelago ». 
Aaiatic Ruaaia. 

Morocco 

WisoonainTer. 

Brazil 

Patagonia 

Scotland 

Mindanao .... 

Pruaaia 

Malayaia 

Malayaia 

Wiaconsin Ter. 

Polyneaia 

Lower Canada. 
China .. . 
Aaia .... 
Portugal. 
Aaia .... 

Mediterran. Sea 
Ruaaia .. 
Ruaaia . 
Banca... 
Norway . 
Newfoundland. 

Brazil 

Portugal... . 

Ruaaia 

Venezuela.... 
Uruguay .... 
N. Brunawick 
Lower Canada 



Ak 
Hb 
Wk 
Wk 

Mb 
Nd 
Of 
Me 
Ff 

?! 

Pb 

Pb 

Ff 

Md 

Fb 

Ed 

Wc 

Gb 

Xh 

Ge 

Lh 

Ge 

Ka 

Ne 

Sc 

Le 

Gd 

J 



Brazil. 
Afriea. 
Turl 
New 



r^oUudV. 



Hn 
L c 
Uh 
Mc 

Uh 

Ug 

Ed 

Cj 

He 

Se 

Od 

Ld 

Qh 

Of 

Md 

Nc 

Nc 

Ti 

Mb 

Id 

li 

Ld 

Oc 

Hb 

LI 

Hd 

Hd 

Ri 

Hi 

Nr 

Nd 



CONSULTING INDEX 



Minima .... 
Miflunabj . 
Miflsinnippi . 
MiasiMaa^. 
MissiMippi .. 
MiadMppi.. 
Miwokmgbi. 
Miflnaari .... 
MuwHiri .. . . 



Bt 
Ter. 
Minouri R. 



MisUkM 

Mistepec 

Mitaa 

MitcheH*t 

Mitchi 

Mitiaro 

Mitoe 

Mitre 

Mitton 

Mitadieff 

Miyaa 

Mizen 

MizimbattT ... 

Moa 

M«ab 

Moan 

MobaAee 

Mobile 

Mobile 

MnboU 

Moeambira. . . . 
Mocaiifaelaf .« 
Mocaranffo •• • • 

Moeba 

Moeha 

Mock 

Moeoa 

Mocomoeo .... 
Moerodobodakm 

Modena 

Modena 

Modoa 

Moe 

Moen 

Mofleo .••••.. 

Mpgarra 

Mogaon 

Mcv^lTMJok .... 
Mfighihv ...92 

Moghilev , 

MoghuUkaja . . . 

Mog^L , 

Mofincftle^.^*.. 
Mofodore ...... 

M^-fT**-t .\raba. 



T. 
L. 
R. 
L. 
St 
R. 
.T. 



T. 

^' 

L. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

Hd. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

T. 

Tr. 

^' 

^' 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

D. 



T. 
L 
I. 
T. 

r 

??^ 

T. 
T. 
R. 
la. 
T. 
Tr. 
L 
Laimg.T. 




MohiUa 

Mohin 

Mohjler 



Japan 

Brit 

Brit America 

Upper Caziada. 

United States. . 

North America 

Greece 

UaitedStalea.. 

United States 

Wisconsin Ter. 

New Zealand. 

Mexico 

Russia 

Pdjnesia.... 

China 

Polynesia.... 
Thibet 



Aostralasia 

Sinde 

No?a Zembla. . 
Asiatic Russia 

Ireland 

Africa ...... 

Malaysia ..<... 

Syria 

Kit America . 

Africa 

Alabama 



Africa 

Brazil 

Africa 

Africa 

Arabia 

Chiti 

Norway 

New Gieciada. 
Sumatra...... 

Asiatic Russia. 

Italy 

Italy 

Greece .....•• 

Norway 

Denmark 

Sbitsbergea . . . 

Btrmah.. 
Labrador 
Russia .. 



Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Mozambique 
Morocco *. * . 

Africa 

NubU 



NewTork... 
Indian Ocean 
Mantcbooria . 



Ue 
Gd 
£o 
Gd 
Ge 
Gf 
Ne 
Fe 
Fd 
Fe 
Xm 

rg 

Nc 
Xi 
Te 

?j 

Se 

Xj 

Qf 

Fa 

Qc 

Lo 

Oj 

Ui 

Oe 

Go 

Nk 

Oe 

Ge 

Ok 

li 

^\ 

Sf 

Mb 

Hh 

Si 

So 

Md 

Md 

Ne 

Mb 

Mc 

Ma 

Ne 

Sf 

lo 

Oe 

Oc 

To 

Ik 

Le 
Lf 

Nd 



Moi^lotakol . 

Mojabra 

Monaysk 

Mokamba.... 
Mokanrushy . 
MoklijsBskaya 

Mokur 

Molcou 

Moldam 

Molineaox ... 

MoUer 

MoUer 

Moluccas .... 
Moluoque AtoUco 
Moou .. 
I Mombas 
Mombas 
Mombas 
Mompoz 
Mooa •• 
Mona .. 
Monado. 
Mona 
Moncao 
Monchaboo. . . 
Mondeco .... 

Monfia 

Mongalla .... 

Mongaro 

MoDgeaboonf 
Mongearts . . . 
Mongolia .... 
Monge*s ..... 
Mon|fhadjar . . 

Monica 

Monkey Key. 

Monk's 

Monmouth .. . 
Monmouth . •• 
Monneron.... 
Mono Emugi( 

Monpan 

Monroe 

Monroe 

Monrovia .... 
Monselmines . 

Monsol 

Monta&r 

Montague.... 

Montague.... 

Montague.... 

Montague 

Monf 

Mool 

Moot 

Mootau! 

Mootdoves. . . . 

Monte Chriato. 

Montego 

Monterey 

Mooterey 




G. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Cty. 

Is. 
I. 
R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

Sir. 

T. 

i'- 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

L 

Ft 

Mt 

R. 

L 

Is. 

a 
I. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

Ft 

L 

a 
a 

L 

Fa 

T. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

L 

^^ 
T. 

T. 



Asiatic Russia. 
Barca 



Monmbique . 
Kurile Islands 
Russia 

Mantcbooria . 

Europe 

New Zealand. 
Nova Zembla . 
Polynesia .. . . 
Malaysia .... 

Asia 

Asiatic Russia 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 

New Grenada . 

Birmab 

West Indies.. 

Celebes 

West Indies.. 

Brazil 

Birmah 

Portugal 

Indian Ocean < 

Africa 

Africa 

Borneo 

Africa 

Persian Gulf. 
Seghalien...., 

Tartary , 

Paraguay 

a Pacific Oc.. 
New Grenada 
Patagonia ... 
MaUym.... 
Seghalien.... 
Africa 



Va 
Nf 

Oc 

Oj 

Wd 

Fb 

Na 

Vd 

Nd 

Xm 

Pa 

Cj 

Ui 

Qh 

Vb 

01 

Oi 

Oi 

Hh 

Bf 

^f 

Sf 
Ld 
Oi 

ii 

Lf 
Ff 
Vd 
Fd 
Ik 
Gl 
Hg 
Hn 
Uf 
Vd 
Oi 
Sf 
Fe 
Gd 
Lh 
Lf 
Ni 
Ug 

North AmericalCe 

Patagonia...., 

Sandwich Ld. . 

Australasia.... 

New Britain . . 

Brazil 

France 

Long Island... 

Mexico 

Mediterran. Sea 1 

Jamaica . 

Mexico.. 

Mexico .. 



Michigan. 
Liberia... 
Africa.... 
Africa .. . . 



Gl 

Kn 

Wl 

Wi 

Ii 

Md 

Hd 

Ff 

Md 

Do 



70 



CONSULTING INDE3L 



Monterey • . • . 
Monteaik .... 
Monteverde .. 
Montevideo... 
Montgomery . 
Montgomery's 
Montpelier . . . 
Montpellier... 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Montreal 

Montroddy . . . 
Montroee .... 
Montrose .... 
Montaerrat . . . 

Monze 

Moocoowan .. 
Moogroo?e . . . 

Moolky 

Moolooa 

Moon (of the) 
Moondah .... 

Moore's 

Moore's 

Moorghab... . 
Moorghaub .. • 

Moorja 

Moorshedabad 

Moose 

Moose 

Moose 

Moose 

Moose 

Moose Head. . 
Moose Lake .. 

Moosh 

Mopou 

Moquehua ... 

Moquem 

Moquis 

Mora 

Mora 

Morajie 

MoraJskoi.... 

Morant 

Morant Kays . 
Mordwinov .. 

Morea 

Morebat 

Moresby's. • . . 

Moretch 

Moreton 

Moreton 

Moreyra . . . . . 
Morikini. .... 

Morlaiz 

Morley 

Morley 

Mommgton . . 
Mornington . . 
Morocco 



Tr. 
I. 

^: 

6r. 

9^- 

^• 

&• 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

C. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

ay. 

Mts. 

R. 
L 
L 
R. 
T. 
T. 

&• 
Dis. 

R. 

R. 

L. 

L. 

L. 

Ft 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

Mto. 

T. 

Pt 

Is. 

Bay 

Pen 

T. 

Mts. 

T. 

^ 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

PL 

L 

Po. 

Km 



Mexico.. 
Arabia .. 

Polynesia 

Uruguay .... 

Alabama 

Eastern Sea. . . 

Vermont 

fVance 

Lower Canada. 
United States.. 
Upper Canada . 
Hmdoostan . . . 
Pennsylvania. . 

Scotland 

West Indies... 
Beloochistan . . 
Brit America . 

Africa 

Hindoostan 
Africa .... 
Africa .... 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Polynesia..... 

Tartary 

Persia 

Africa 

Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Wisconsin Ter. 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Brit America . 

Maine 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Corea 

South Peru .«. 

Brazil 

Mexico 



Soudan 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 

Jamaica 

Jamaica 

Seghalien 

Greece 

Arabia 

New Holland.. 

Russia 

New & Wales. 
Australasia . . . 

Brazil 

Sandwich Is.. . 

France 

Caffraria 

CafiVaria . 
News. Wales. 
Nubia... 
Africa... 



De 

Oe 

Wh 

II 

Ge 

Uf 

Hd 

Md 

Hd 

Fd 

Gd 

Rg 
Gd 
Lc 

**? 

Qf 
Ec 

JJJ 
Q( 

Ni 

Nh 

Mh 

Xi 

Ve 

Qe 

Pe 

kf 

Go 
Ge 
Pd 
£e 
Fc 
Hd 
Fc 
Oe 
Ud 
Hj 

^^e 
Mb 
Mg 

Nf 
Qb 

^« 

?f 

Ne 

Nc 
Wk 
Wk 
Hi 
Bf 
Ld 
Ni 
Ok 

V 
pg 

Le 



Morocco 

MoroHermoso. 

Morokai 

Moromoaa .... 
Morososhna . . . 
Morosoahna . . . 

Morotoi 

Morphil*. r...« 

Morris 

Morris 

Monro Cairetas 
Morro de Mexil- 

lones 

Mnrro Jorgo. . 

Morrope 

Morro Pooa . . . 

Mortain 

Morty ........ 

Morty 

Morual .» 

Moruas ....... 

Morumhidgee.. 
Morundava.... 

Moschi 

Moscovy 

Moscow ....35. 

Moscow 

Mosdok 

Mose 

Moshowa 

Moekenes ..... 

Mosquitia 

Mosquito 

Mosquito 

Mosquito 

Moss 

Mossel 

Mestagfa 

Moster 

Mosul 

MoUo 

MoUpa 

Moticlenskoi ... 

Mouat 

Mouja 

Moukden 

MoukhtouiakoL 
Mouksinofka . . 

Moulin 

Moalina 

Monlon 

Moultan 

Mouna 

Mounah Kaah . 
Monnah Roa . . 
Mountnorris... 

Moapti 

Moupty 

Moura 

Mouren 

Mourinskoi.... 



L 

T. 
R. 
L 
L 

a 

L 
Pt 

Pt 
Pt 
T. 

T. 

Str. 

I. 

L 

Tr. 

R. 

t: 

Mt 

Pr. 

^: 

L 
R. 
L 
Dis. 

Gr. 
Pt 
T. 

?•' 

T. 

C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
L 
T. 
R. 

^- 

Mt 

Mt 

In. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 



Morocco 

Mexico 

Sandwich Is... 
imbique . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Sandwich Is. . . 
Senegambia .. ^ 
Greenland ..... 
Polynesia 
Peru.... 



Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Peru 

Africa ».. .... 

France 

Malaysia ... 
Malaysia .... 
Polynesia .... 
New Grenada 
New S. Wales . 
Madagsscax.^.. 

Nubia 

Spitsbergen .. . . 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Australasia . . , 

Africa 

Loffoden Is. .. 
Guatemala .. • i 
Brit America . 
Polynesia ...... 

New Grenada . 

Norway 

Spitsbergen . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Austria , 

Asiatic Turkey 

Corea 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 

Soudan 

Mantcbooria .. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Australasia... . 

France 

Asiatic Russia.. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Sandwich Is^ ^. 
Sandvrich Is. . . 
Scoresby's Ld.. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Soongaria 

Brufl 

Mantdiooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 



Le 
Ef 
Bf 
Ok 
Wc 
Wc 
Bf 

Ha 
Xi 

Gj 

Hk 

Hk 

Gi 

Nj 

Ld 

Uh 

Uh 

ll 

VI 
Ok 
Og 
Ma 

Oc 
Oc 
Od 
Ui 

Nk 
Mb 

U 

Xh 
Gh 
Mc 

Ma 

Ua 

Nd 

Oe 

Ue 

Nj 

Wc 

6a 

i^g 
Ud 
Tb 
Va 
Wj 
Md 
Qb 
Qc 
Ub 

l« 
Bg 
Ka 
Vb 
Qd 

Hi 

Ud 
Tb 



CONSULTING INDE2L 



71 



MnMiorilMMitaL 



MottTskaya. — 

Moonak 

Mootnui 

Mouton 

Movia ....... 

Mowee 

Moxos 

MonmlMque... 
Mfffambique... 
Momnbiqiie... 
Monunbique... 

Moryr 

Mount Caimel . 
Mount Desert.. 
Mount Meadow 

Muchima 

Muckie ■ 

Mucuixes 

Mucwannpore • ■ 

Mud 

Mudago 

Mudge 

MuGdla 

Mugfbrd 

Mughen 

Mugna 

MuiroQ ' 

Muktar 

Mnlat 

MuIgravB 

Muigrave 

Muimw9 

MuU 

Mu]toomah ... 
Mumbenck ... 

MomiUa 

Mundlah 

Mnnwi 

Mnmoh 

Mn Nimig;! ... 
Monnipora ..... 

Mttiwter 

MoonloniBka . • 

Muonio 

Murcia 

Mnrdock 

Murmur < 

Murot 

Mnrraj 

Murray Firth... 
Murray Maxwell 
Murray*! . 
Murray's . 
Murtaao . . 
Murucuru. 
Murusuru. 

Musa 

Muaaufani. 
MuMat .... 
MuKle... 
Mnaena.... 



T. 

Pa 

Tr. 

I. 

Dep 

Got 

T. 

Cb. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Bk. 

Ft 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

a 

Tr. 

a 

T. 
T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

la. 

I. 

Pa 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T.. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R'- 

T. 
HL 
R. 

In. 

I. 

L 

I. 

R. 

T. 
Dm. 



Asiatic Russia 
Fezian •».... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Nova Scotia. . 

Africa 

Sandwich Is.. 

Bolivia. 

Africa 

Mosambique . 
Indian Ocean 
Mozambique . 



Illinois. 



Brit America . 

Benguela 

Sumatra 

Africa 

Hindoostan ... 
Greenland .... 

Soudan 

Brit America . 

Africa 

Labrador 

Africa 

Buenos Ayres . 
Australasia ... 

Tripoli 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

North America 

Scotland 

Oregon Ter.. . . 

Nubia 

Asiatic Turkey 



Africa.. 
Bavaria. 
Africa. . 
Birmah. 
Prussia. 
Russia . 
Sweden. 



Spain 

Gfeenland . 



Soudan 

Magadoxa ... 
News. Wales 

Scotland 

Brit America 
Australasia ... 
Australasia... 



Oazombo 

Africa 

Arabia 

Africa 

Arabia 

Missouri 

Bay of Bengal. 



Sc 

Nf 

Hd 

Bf 
^) 

^\ 
Ok 

0} 

Nc 

Ge 

Hd 

Fb 

Mi 

Sh 

Rf 
lb 

S« 
£a 

Oi 

He 

Nf 

HI 

Tk 

Ne 

Uc 

Xh 

Xh 

Ce 

Lo 

Dd 

2« 
Pe 

Rf 

Ng 

Md 

Oi 

Sf 

Mc 

Nb 

Nb 

Le 

Ha 

Mg 

Ph 

VI 

Lc 

Gb 

Wi 

Vi 

Od 

Nj 

?f 

Ed 



Musfeia 

Mumrave's... 

Musked 

Musk Ox.... 
Musolimy..., 
Mussendom .. 

Mussir 

Muasy. 

Mustachewan 
Mustavas .... 
Mustoong .. . . 

Mutra 

Mnttra 

Mutukano.... 
Muzimba .... 
Muzimbas .. . . 
Myandung . . . 
Myggenec.... 

Myra 

Myrick 

Mysd 

Mysore 

Mysore 

Mysory 

Mywooila .... 

Nabajoa 

Nabajoa 

Nabajoas .... 

Nabd 

Nachack 

Nachtc^.... 
Nadmiento .. 

Nackiloo 

Nacogdoches . 
Nadanfoen . . . 
Nadeschda... 
Nadeshda.... 
Nadrfcma .... 

Nagel 

Nagercoil .... 

Nagoja 

Nagore 

Nagpore 
Nasy Bi 
Nahney 

Nain 

Nain 

Nakasusuklok .. 

Nakshivan 

Naloes 

Nalym 

Nalymskd 

Namaqua, Great 
Namaqua, Little 

Nambu 

Nambu 

Namoh.. 

Namroo 

Namur 

Namurick 



T. 

L 

^• 

L 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

L 

T. 

C. 

L 

Pr. 

T. 

I. 

L 

T. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

C. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Sta. 

L 

T. 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

Ld. 

Ld. 

T. 

C. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 



Soudan ....... 

Polynesia 

Persia 

Brit America 

Arabia 

Arabia ... .... 

Kurile Islands. 

Africa 

Brit America 
Buenos Ayres 

Cabul 

Arabia 

Hindoostan . . 
Asiatic Russia 
Mozambique . 

Africa 

Birmah 

Faroe Islands . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Africa 

Malaysia . . 
Hindoostan 
Hindoostan 
Australasia. 
Polyi 



Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Tunis 

Labrador 

Indian Ocean.. 

Chili 

Persia 

Texas 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Kurile Islands. 

Barbery 

Russia 

Hindoostan ... 

J^pan 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Austria 

Brit America . 

Persia 

Labrador 

Labrador 

Asiatic Russia. 
Sone^rambia . . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

Africa 

Japan 

Japan 

China 

Little Thibet.. 

Belgium 

Polynesia 



Mb 
Vh 
Pe 
£b 
Pf 
Pf 
Wd 
Mf 
Gc 
Hk 
Qf 
Pf 
Rf 
Wc 

^\ 

2j 

ll 

Ne 

Ui 
S^ 
Vi 
Xj 

Ef 

£e 

Ee 

Me 

He 

Pm 

HI 

Pf 

Fe 

Ud 

Vc 

Wd 

Me 

Ob 

Rh 

Ve 

Qf 

Rf 

Nd 

Db 

Pe 

He 

He 

Pe 

Sl 

Qb 
Nk 
Nk 
Ve 
Vd 
Tf 
Re 
Mo 
Xh 



CONSULTING INDEX 



Thibet 

China ........ 

France 

fimdooetaii .. . 

Jvpuk 

Asiatic RuHia. 

China 

China 

Mantohooria 

China 

China 

Bengoela... 
Tkrtory..., 
China ...... 

IVanoe 



China 

China 

Brit America 

Thibet 

Loocboo 



Trinidad Is.... 
Brit America . 
Caspian Sea. . . 

Italy 

Naples 

Equador 

Gneoe 

GaUapagos.... 

France 

Polynesia..... 
By of Bengal. 
Madagascar. . . 
Madagascar. . . 

Russia 

Hindoostan ... 
South Shedand 

Russia 

Asiatic Roasia* 
Pern.... 
Tennessee .... 

Rtissia 

Guinea 

Germany 

Nova Zembla. 
Bahamas .... 
Hindoostan .. 
New Grenada 

Brazil 

Sumatra 

Africa 

Africa 

Caffiaria 

Indian Ocetn 
Caffraria .... 

Caffraria 

Labrador . « . . 
IVnssissippi. . . 
Louisiana. . . . 
Persia 



Re 
Tf 
Md 
Ry 

Ue 
Vc 
Tf 
Te 
Ud 
Te 
Tf 

Qc 

Tf 

Ld 

Hd 

Te 

Tf 

He 

Re 

Uf 

Ug 

Hg 

Fb 

Pe 

Md 

Md 

Hi 

Ne 

Fi 

Md 

2^ 

Sy 

Pj 

Ne 
Rf 

lo 

Nc 
Re 

S^ 
Ge 

Nb 

IK 

Mc 

Gf 

gg 

Ji 

Sh 

01 

Ok 

Ok 

Pi 

Ni 

Oi 

He 

Fe 

Fe 

Pe 



Natividad.... 
Natividad .... 

Natki 

Nattavar 

Naturaliste .. . 
Natnraiiste... 

Nansa 

Navacot 

Nararino***.. 

Navarino 

Navasa 

Navia. 

Navigators' .. . 
Nai4heelavoo . 

Navnas 

Navy Board.. 

Naxio 

Nayanola ...» 
Naystad ..... 

Nazaret 

Nazareth 

Nazareth 

Nazareth 

Naze 

Neaoote.. ... ». 

Necau 

Neehes 

Necker 

Nederlandiolr. 

Nedjeran 

Nedsjed 

Needle 

Needles 

Needveditza . . 
Neembueo ... 
NeepigoQ .... 
Neepigon .... 
Negapatam... 
Negombo .... 
Negncka.... 

Negiais 

NegieCe 

Negril 

Negrillo 

Negro 

Negm 

Negroponte... 

Negros 

Nehaond 

Neishloi 

Neisae 

Nelk)re 

Nelson 

Nelson 

Nelson 

Nelson's 

Nelson's 

Nemiskaiw . . . 

Nemoy 

Nemtchioov . . 
Neosho 



Pt 

Tr. 

T. 

C. 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

Is. 

L 

Tr. 

In. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Bk. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L 

L 

Dis. 

Pr. 

Rk. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

Ho. 
T. 
T. 
Fk. 

a 

T. 

Ft 

L 

R. 

R. 

L 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

R. 

Ft 

Ch. 

Is. 

L. 

Tr. 

T. 

Sta. 



Brazil 

Mexico 

Mtntchooria . 

Sweden 

New Holland. 
New Holland. 
Asiatic Turkey O 
Hinrtpostan ... 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Greece 

West Indies... 

Spain 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Peru 

Brit America . 
Archipebgo ... 

Bfezico 

Russia .*•..». 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Anica ........ 

Indian Ooean.. 

Norway 

Hi nd o o stan ... 

Barbery 

Texas 

N. Pacific Oe. . 

Polynesia 

Arabia 

Arabia 

Australasia . . . 
Southern Ooean 

Russia 

Paraguay .... 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Hindoostan .. 
Ceylon 



H 

Vc 
Nb 
Tl 
Tk 

e 
Rf 

Gd 

Ne 

£5 

n 

Hi 
Gd 

Ne 
Fg 
Nb 



Missouri Ter. 
Birmah 

Chm 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

Uruguay .... 

Brazil 

Archipelago. . 
Malaysia ... 
Persia....... 

Russia 

Prussia 

Hindoostan .. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America . 
Australasia.... 
South Shetland 
Brit Amerioa . 
Missouri Ter. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Western Ter... 



Ik 
Ji 
Mi 

Mc 

Rf 
Me 
Ff 
Bf 
Xi 

?? 

Vm 

Od 
Ik 
Gd 
Gc 

Ry 

Rh 
Fe 

l\ 
ff 

II 
li 

Ne 

?« 
Pe 

Nb 

Nc 

s« 

Fc 
Fc 
Fc 
VI 
lo 
Ge 
Ed 
Qb 
Ft 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



73 



■ cfRMi^te 



I. 



Gty. 

R. 

R. 

L. . 

t. 

R. 

B* 

T. 

T. 

R. 

U 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T- 

T. 

I. 

T. 



Ne&v 

Nepanl .....•• 

Ne^hjee 

Nepinita 

Nepisunf .... 
Nepomaoeno.. 

Nera 

NetiKuldah... 
Nerekiitf'- 

Xeija 

Nerpa 

Nerpitchie ... 
Nertchinsk. . . 
Nertchiask* . . 
Nertchiziflkai . 

Nervoeki 

Neaoe 

NeMby 

Noniketoqya. 

N6S?SX*.« • . .« 

Ncfuae 

Nenstadt 

Ncvel 

Neters 

NeviT. 

Nevis 

New 

New Albany . 
New AmeterdamlT. 
New Arcbangel . 
Nctwark ..«•... 

Newark 

New Bolide 

Newbero. ...... 

NewBcMian.... 

New BriUki..., 
New Brunswick 
New Brunswick 
Newburypoit • * . 
New Caceres . . 4 
New Caledonia . 
New Gaiedoiiia . 

New CaMle 

Newcastle..., 

Newcastle 

NewCaimkra... 
New CbmwaU . . 
New Diecoreiy . 
New Dongiola... 
NewEehota.... 
Newfoundland ; . 
Newfeondland . . 
New Fnesland. . 
New Georgia . . 
New Georgia... 
New Grenada... 
New Guinea.... 
New Hampehiie 
New Hanover . . 
New Hanover . . 
New Haven .... 



Polyoesia. ... 
Hindoostan ... 
Brit America • 
Anatic Ruasia. 
Ufper Canada. 

BtaU 

Asiatic Russia . 
Hindoostan . . . 



Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Ariatic Russia. 
Norway 

If issoori Ter. . 

Russia 

North Ca^lUn^ 
Austria 



Cy. 



France 

Brit America 
West Indies.. 
Polynesia.... 

Ittdiaaa 

Guiana 

North America 
Upper Canada 

Labrador 

N. Pacific Oc. . 
North Carolina 

Illinois 

Anstraiaaia.... 
North America 
Brit America . 
N. Hampshire « 

Luzon 

North America 
Australasia .«. 
N. Brunswick • 
News. Wales. 

Eb«;land 

Brazil 

Brit America • 
Polynesia ..... 

NuWa. 

Geoiffia .*.... 
North America 
Newfoundland. 
Spitsbergen . . • 

Liberia 

Australasia.... 
Ameika 
Australasia.... 
United States. . 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Australasia . . . 
Connecticut .. . 



Sta. 

^- 

L 

T. 

T. 

L 

Cty. 

Ha 

T. 

T. 

?'■ 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

L 

^: 

L 

Bk. 

Di^ 

CoL 

Is. 

Rep. South 

St 
Cty. 



Xj 

Rf 

He 

Ta 

Gd 

HI 

Vb 

Rf 

Oc 

Pr 

Tc 

Kb 

Ta 

Tc 

Tc 

Pb 

Nb 

Na 

Fe 

N« 

Ge 

Nd 

Nc 

Md 

Fb 

Hg 

'0% 

Lh 
Co 
Gd 
He 

S« 
Ge 

Fd 

Wi 

Hd 

Gd 

Hd 

K^ 
Dc 

Xk 

Hd 
Wl 
Lc 

^c 

Xj 

2^ 
Ge 

Id 

Id 

Na 

Lh 

Wi 

Hh 

Vi 

Hd 

Dc 

Wi 

Hd 



Is. 

Sta. 

.^ay. 

r Holsteinboig Cty. 

A. 

St 

T. 

St 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ter. 

L 

a 

Cty. 
T. 

L 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
T. 

Cty. 



New Hebrides 
New Hernhut 
New Holland . 
New 

Newlhdand 
New Jersey . • . » 
New Lattakoo . . 

New Leon 

New Maeao .... 
New Madrid . . . 
NewmansviJle . . 
New Mezioo.... 
New Nantucket. 
Newnham.. •••. 
New Norfolk... 
New Noitb Wales 

NewOran 

New (Means . . . 
Newport ....... 

New Providence 

New 

New Segovia . . . 
New Segovia . . . 
New Shumachie 
New Siberia. . . . 
New Smyrna < . . 
New South GsBsn- 
lanc^ 

New South Wales Cty 
New South Wales ay, 
NewTcherkask " 
New Work .... 
New Year .... 
New Year's... 
New Year's.... 
NevYork..«., 
New York.... 

Neyoor 

Ney va 

Nesperoes 

Nezperoes 

Nffaotong ...... 

Nba-triang .... 

Niagara 

Kias G 

Nicaragua «... iSt 

Nicaragua T. 

„ Nicaragua L. 

Nice T. 

Nicholas First . . C. 

NiehoIsoB*a Sh. 

Nickol Bay 

Nieobar Is. 

Nicohkoe T. 

Nioopol T. 

Nicosia C. 

Nicotera .- T. 

Nieoya O. 

Niegin T. 

Nmwveldf .... Bgn 



Australasia... 
Greenland ... 
Australia .... 
Brit Ameriea 
Australasia... 
United Stales . 

Africa 

Mezioo 

Tonquin 

Missouri 

Fbrida 

Mexico 

Polynesia.... 
North America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
BueooB Ayres 
Louisiana.... 
Rhode UaMi. 



L 
Har 

I. 

St 

^' 

T. 
Ft 
Tr. 

^: 



Ireland .. . 
Mexico... 
Guatemala 
Luaon... . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Florida 



Xj 

lb 

Uk 

Fb 

Wi 

Hd 

Na 

Ff 

Tf 

Ge 

Gf 

Fe 

Ah 

Be 

Dc 

Fb 

Hk 

Ff 

Hd 

Gf 

L 

F 

Or 

Va 

Gf 



Southern Ocean 
Brit America . 

Australia 

Russia 

Newfoundland. 
Australasia.... 
SUten Iskmd.. 
Patagonia.... 
United States. 
New York .. . 
Hindoostan .. 
New Grenada 
Oregon Ter.. . 
Oregon Ter.. . 

China 

Cochin China 



F^llsj Upper Canada . 
Brit America . 
Guatemala .... 
Guatemala ,. . . 
Guatemala .. . . 

Sardinia 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

New Holland .. 
Bay of Bengal. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Turkey 

Cyprus 

Naples 

Guatemala .... 

Russia 

Cape Colony . . 



t[ 



lo 
Fc 
Vk 
Od 

Id 

Uj 
Hn 
Hn 
Gd 
Hd 
Rh 
Hh 
Ed 
Ed 
Te 
Tg 
Gd 
Hb 

Gg 
Md 
Fa 
Ak 
Tk 
Sh 
Re 
Nd 
Oe 
Ne 
Gh 
Oc 
Ni 



74 



CONSULTING INPEX. 



Niffoo 

Nigmta ..>%> 

Niger 

NightiDfAle • 

Nightinfale . 

Nigritit 

Niman 

Niioras 

NUutinflkaia. 

Nikitak 

NikolMv.... 

NikolaoTska . 

Nikokk 

NikoMutya .. 

Nik 

Nite 

NUes 

NUdinski . . . 

NUkndous AtcO. 
Ion 

Nilmst 

Niman 

Nimgottta 

NinatM 

Nine Degree • . . 

Ning 

Ningfaai-wei.... 

Ningo 

Nin^-po ....... 

Ninjemean 

Ninna • • 

NipartoUk 

Nipashee 

Niphon 

Nirie 

Niahapore 

Niahney ViHoiBh 

Nisibeen 

Nismea 

NisnedwitdL.... 

Nissa 

NiBsa 

Nitcheguon .... 

Nitzi 

NiuchoCsk...... 

Niak 

Niumen 

Nixon 

Nizabad 

Nizapatam 

Niznei Novgo- 
rod 23. 

Niznei Novgorod 

Noafong 

NoaPis.. 

Noalore 

Noel 

Nogai 

Nogden 

No& 

Nokinaka 



T. 
T. 
R. 
I. 
L 
Ctj. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

la. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

cai. 

T. 

?• 

R. 

I. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 



Liberia. . 
Japan .... 

Africa 

Tonifain . . 
Southern Ocean 

Africa 

Sandwich Is... 

Mexico 

Asiatic Roaaia. 
Roaaia 



T. 
T. 
L. 
C. 
T. 
L. 
R. 
C. 
T. 
T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

la. 

R. 

C. 

C. 

T. 



Lh 
Ve 



Asiatic Rusaia. 
Ruaaia ....*.. 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Malaysia ..... 

Africa 

Michigan 

Aaialic Roaaia. 



Asia .... 
Oregon Ter... . 
Mantchooria 
Mantehooria 
Birmah.'.... 
Asia 



Mongolia 
Dahomey 
China .. . 
Asiatic Roeak. 
Mantcboork . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Japan 

Polynesk 

Persia 

Asiatic Roask. 
Asiatic Turkey 

FVanoe 

Rossk 

Tartary 

Turkey 

Brit America 

Japan 

Rosak ....... 

Rosak 

Mantchoork . 
Patagonia . . . 
Asiatic Rosak. 
Hindooflton 



Rossk 

Russia 

Hindooatan . . . 
Australasia . . . 
Madagascar.. . 
Bay of Bengal. 
Asiatic Ruaak. 
Asiatic Roasia. 
Patagonk .... 
Asiatic Rusak. 



Tt 

LI 

Mjr 

Bf 
E*e 
Pc 
Qc 
Od 
Qc 
Pc 
Pd 
Ui 
Of 
6d 
Qb 

Qh 
Dd 
Ud 
Ud 

Sf 
Qh 

Te 
Mh 
Uf 
Vo 
Uc 
He 
Fb 
Ve 

5J 
Pe 

Ub 

Oe 

Md 

Oc 

Pe 

Nd 

He 

Ue 

Ob 

Ob 

Uc 

Om 

Pd 

Rg 

Oc 
Oc 
Rf 
Vi 
Ok 

Vc 
Hn 
Ub 



tctmmttlt. 



NokMima . . • . . 

Nolinsk 

Nombre de Dioa 

Nomott 

Noncowry 

Nonoijev..*.... 

Noon 

Noon 

Noota Baron . . . 

Nooahky 

Nootka 

Nordknd 

Nordmaling . . . . 
Nordvik 



Norfolk 

Norfolk 

Norfi^k 

Norfolk 

Norfolk 

Norija ....... 

Norkeping . . • 
Norksalik.... 

Norman . . * * . 

Nora 

Non> .<....., 
Nerogame . . . 
Norrland..... 

Norsio 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

Northam..... 
North Arran.. 
North Branch 
North Branch 
North Cape . . 
North Cape . . 
North Cape Del- 

gada 

North Caiofina 
North Devon . , 
North East .. . . 



L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L 

T. 

So. 

Div. 

T. 

C. 

f"- 

I. 

So. 

Mt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Di? 

T. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

L 

L 

I. 

L 

Sea 

R. 

R. 

Ch. 

2^y 
pt 

Bl. 

Fk. 

Fk. 

Fk 

T. 

Is. 

R. 

R. 

c: 



Japan 

Roaaia 

Mexico 

Africa 

Bay of Bengal. 
Rossk 



C. 

St 



Sose 

Java 

Beloochktan . 
Oregon Ter... 

Norway , 

Sweden 

Asiatic Rossk 

Tirgink 

Aostralasia... 
Gallapagoa ... 
North America 
V.Dieraen*sLd. 
Rossk . . . 
Sweden... 
Greenland .... 
Bk-it America . 
Mantehoork .. 
Mantchooria . . 

Mexico 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Isle of €^igk 

Iceland 

Norway 

Asiatic Roasia. 

Brazil 

N. aOreenknd 
Ore^ Ter. . . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Makysk ..... 

Malaysia 

Polyneak 

Europe 

Brit America < 
Asktic Russia. 

Europe 

Brit America . 
Seghalien ..... 
Oregon Ten... 
Brit America . 
Missouri Ter. . 

Missouri 

Oregon Ter. . . 
New Holland. . 

Ireland 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Zealand.. 
N.Cakdonia.. 



Ajan. 
Unitec 



nited States 
Brit America . 
Spitabergen 



Ve 
Pc 
Ff 
Lg 

Sh 

Nc 

Ti 

Qf 

Dd 

Nb 

Nb 

Ta 

Oe 

Xk 

Fi 

Cc 

Vm 

Pb 

Nc 

lb 

Db 

Ud 

Vd 

Ef 

Nb 

Nb 

Jn 

Kb 

Na 

Ab 

Ih 

lo 

Dc 

Oi 

Sj 

Uf 

Vf 

Mo 

6c 

Ub 

Lc 

Hb 

Vc 

Dc 

Hb 

Fe 

Fd 

Ed 

Tl 

Lc 

Dc 

Ec 

XI 

Wk 

l« 
6e 

Gd 

Na 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



75 



• cfrhflOyftak 



North East. 
Northera Trian. 

gte 

North FordAiid . 
North Georgia .. 
North Greeoiaiid 
North Kyii*«.... 

Northlined 

North Natanu 
North 

North Moimtaifl 
North PoyuB.. . . 
North Roqnepiz . 
North SboAl.... 
North Soiheraet . 
North Th«nM8. . 

North Uitt 

NorthumMland 
NorthemberUuMi 
North WMt.... 
North West.... 
Northwest.... 

Norton 

Norway 

Norway 

Norwich 

NoM 

NosLaboa 

Nosovoo ..••.•■ 
NoaoaSenhorade 

Porto OiIto . 
Noaaa Seidiora 

Deateno •« •• 
Noaaa Benhora 

do Roaario . . 

Not 

Notchek 

Notinffham.... 

Nolo 

NoCo 

Noire Dame. . . 

Notway 

Nooba 

NanboQeooIafffa 

Nouk 

Noukan *, 

NbomeD • * * • • 

Nouraea « 

Noaraoak 

No?a da Madre 

deDioB 

NofaDereoora 
Nova Redonda . 
Nova Scotia .. . 
Novaya Ladogo 
Nova Zembla . . 
Nov. BicUxa . . 
Novprorod . . .16. 
Novi Baxar. . 
NovLepel .. 
Novocetakoie 



I. 

a 

^■ 

L. 
I. 



I Middleaez Cty. 
Cr. 
Tr. 
L 
L 

^' 

I. 

a 
I. 

Pa 

Pt 
a 

Sa 

Cty. 

Dia. 



T. 



Greenland .... 

Caribbean Sea 
K. George'a Sd. 
Brit Amierica 
Grreenland ••• 

Norway 

Brit America 
Malayaia .... 
Brit America . 

Miaaoori 

Patagonia 

Indian Ocean.. 
Caribbean Sea 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Scodand 

NewSWalea. 
Auatralaaia... . 
lale of Frimce. 

Africa 

New Holland.. 
North America 

Earope 

Brit Ameiica< 
England. • . • . < 

Egypt 

Arabia 

Asiatic Ruaaia. 



T. 
L. 

T. 

a 

Dia. 

R. 

L 

ViL 

R. 

R. 

la. 

T. 
T. 

Ft 

T. 

L 

T. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



Brazil. 
Brazil. 



Brazil 

Roaaia 

Asiatic Roaaia 
Brit America 

Japan 

Japan 

Newfbondland. 
Brit America . 

Nnbia 

Aaiatic Ruaaia. 
Greenland .... 
Aaiatic Rl _ 
Mantchooria 
Africa.. .. 
Greenland 



Brazil 

Asiatic Rnsaia. 



America 



Arctic Ocean 

Rosaia 

Roaaia 

Turkey .... 

Roaaia 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 



la 

Gg 

I o 

Fd 

Id 

Na 

Fb 

Th 

Fd 

Ed 

Hm 

Pi 

%l 

Fa 

Lc 

Vj 

Wk 

Pk 

Mj 

Tk 

Bb 

Mb 

Fc 

Mc 

Of 

1% 

Ji 

Ik 

Ik 
Ob 
Xb 
Gb 
Ve 
Ve 
Id 
Gc 
Of 
Ua 
Jb 
Ab 
Ud 
Mj 
Jb 

Ih 
Qq 
Mi 
Hd 
Ob 
Pa 
Oc 
Oc 
Nd 
Nc 
Sc 



Novodvinak .... 
Novogradok .... 
Novo Khoperak]. 
Novomoakovak. . 
Novo Troki .... 
NovotzoorcAai- 

tooevakoi ..«. 
Nov. Volhynakoi 
Now-chow . »• . . 

Nowogrod 

Noyakana 

Noyen 

Nobia 

Nubian 

Noheemabad . . . 

Noiakoi 

Nokahivah 

NukhzU 

Nolchai •. 

Nomez 

Nan 

Noneraoi «. 

Nunnivaek .... 

Nora 

Nuremburi^ . . . 

Narmia 

Nottletartic . . . 
Nowee Bander 

Noyt'a ^. 

Nuyt'a 

Noyt'a 

Nyamez ...;«. 
Nybondan .... 
Ny Cirleby . . . 

Nyflfe.. 

Nykoping..... 

Nyland 

Nympha 

Nyons 



T. 
T. 
T, 



Oahn 

Oak 

Oanna 

Oazaca 

Oazaoa 

Oban 

Obderakoi... 

Obe 

Oberaba.... 
Oboino . . • . 
O'Brien's... 
Obakaya.... 
Obaervatory . 

Obva «. 

Obvinak . . . . 

Oby 

Oca 

Oeana 

Ooetn 

Ooeanakie... 
Ocbotak . . . 



Roaaia . 
Roaaia . 
Ro 



Roaaia . 



T. 
T. 

^ 

T. 
T. 

Des. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

C. 

R. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

^: 
^' 

Arc 

Ld. 

Ris. 

T, 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

Pr. 

Pt 



I. 
R. 
I. 

St 

^: 

Cy. 



G. 

In. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

Pr. 



Roaaia 

China ^ , 

Roaaia 

Aaiatic Roaria 

Oorea '. . 

Africa 

Nobia 

PerAia 

Aaiatic Rosaia 

Polyneaia 

Aaiatic Rosaia. 
Aaiatic Ruaaia. 
Sonegamhia . . . 

Africa 

Greenland .... 
North Ame^ca 

Tartary 

Bavaria 

Roaaia 

Labrador 

Hindooatan ... 
Aostralasia.... 
New Holland. . 
Aostralasia . . . 

Torkey 

Persia 

Roaaia 

Soodan 

8wede»4 

Roaaia 

Patagonia .... 
France 



Sandwich la. .. 
Brit America . 

Polyneaia 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Scotland 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Asiatic Rotfaia. 

Bolivia 

Aaiatic Roasia. 
South Shetland 
Asiatic Roasia 
Brit America . 

Rossia 

Russia 

Malaysia ... . 

Brazil 

Mexico 

Polynesia 

Nova Zembla .. 
Asiatic Russia. 



Ob 
Nc 
Oc 
Od 
Nc 

Tc 

Nc 

TT 

Nc 

Wb 

Ud 

Of 

Of 

Pf 

Tb 

Ci 

Uc 

Vc 

M^ 
lb 

Ab 

Qc 

Md 

Nb 

He 

Qf 

Ul 

Ul 

Ul 

Nd 

Pe 

Nb 

Mh 

Nc 

Nb 

Hm 

Md 

Bf 

Fc 

£j 

Fg 
L c 
Qb 
Qb 

V\ 

lo 
Qb 
Dc 
Pc 
Pc 
Ui 

k'b 

Xi 
Qa 
Wb 



76 



ODNBULTING IHDSX. 



Ochotek Cy. 

Ochotok Sea 

L. 

In. 

T. 



Ochto... 
Oeraeock 
Oeroni .. 

Odaib It. 

Odde T. 

Oddj T. 

OdesMt Cv. 

Odeypore |T\ 

CMMa 

Odoli 

Odowari.... 
Oedenbuig .. 
Oei-obow . . . 

Oetraa 

Oeiraa 

Oekuid 

Oeno 

Oaael 

Ofoden 

Ogapock •. . . 
Ogden*a .... 
Ogdenabng . 

Oghao 

Ohatooeh ... 

Ohia 

Ohio 

Ohio 

Ohila 

Oioun 

Oitama 

OHx 

Oiem. ...... 

Okhanak.... 

Oki 

Okinagan . . . 
Okinagan..'. 
Okinagan . . . 
Okinskok ... 

Okkak 

Okkak 

Okkakaio... 
OkladnikoTO. 
Okoeaki .... 

Okoflir 

Okota 

Okul 

Ola 

Olanchd .... 
Old ........ 

Old 

Old Bengoek 
Old Biitiee . . 
Old Caoonda 
Old CaUbar . 
OldCroee..., 
Old Dongola. 



L 

§r- 

§r 

L 

L 

I. 

T. 

R. 

Har 

T. 

I. 

L 

I. 

St. 

R. 

^' 

T. 

L. 

Pt 

R. 

R. 

T. 

L 

L. 

R. 

How 

T. 

L 

Bta. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

Dii. 

T. 

FL 

Ho. 

T. 

^: 

R. 
T. 

Cy. 



Okienborg . .19. G.DJGermany 



Austria 

China 

Braal 

Braal 

Pakie Sea . . . 
Polyneaia.... 
Baltic Sea ... 

Norway 

Guiana ...... 

Africa 

New York... 
Polynesia .. . . 
Polynesia .. . . 
Polynesia .... 
UnUedSUtes. 



United States. . 6 e 




Africa. 



Japaa 

Japan ..» 

Japan 

Asiatie Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Japan 

Oregon Ter. . . 
Or^on Ter. .. . 
Or^onTer.... 
Asiatic Russia. 

Labrador 

Ubrador 

BnL Amariea . 

Russia 

Japan 

Japan 

Asiatic Russia . 

Ckbol 

Africa 

Gfuatemak . . . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 



Wc 

Wc 

Ob 

Ge 

Ef 

Oe 

Kb 

Mh 

Od 

Qf 

Xh 

Ud 

Ve 

Nd 

Te 

Ji 

li 

Nc 

Dk 

No 

Nb 

Ih 

Mk 

Gd 

Aa 
Cj 
Cd 



Africa 
Sumatra 

Nubia fOg 

Me 



Mj 
Ub 
/ < 
f . 
Ve 

Pc 

Ue 

Ee 

Ed 

Dd 

Sc 

He 

He 

He 

Pb 

Ve 

Vd 

Vc 

Qe 

Nh 

Gd 

Dd 

Gd 

Mj 

Mg 

Nj 

Mh 

Si 



€fPhM%te 



OldPbrtoSeguM 
Old Timinskoi 
OUTripofi... 

Oleitn 

Olekmia 

Olekminak ... 

OIsm 

Oienei 

Olenot 

Oksnsk 

Olenak 

Oieno 



Onropei. 
Oiikoi.. 



LOl 

Oliphant's, 
Olimaran 
Olinda... 
Olinvico . 
Olivia... < 
OimnU . . c 
OkNnate. 

Ofenetz 10. 

OktneU 

Oloii Koadouk .. 
Ok>uto-iov8koi . » 
Okmto-iovskoi . . 
Ofeu Tourghai. . 
Olug Yukluz . . . 

(Mukrsky 

Olvispol 

Olympus 

Oai 



Omaguas . 
Omahas .. 



Ombay 

Ombay 

Ombos 

Omeoon .... 
Omenak .... 
Omeipore •• . 
Ommanney . 

Omoa 

Omoke 

Omokm 

Omoloy 

Omon 

Omon 

Omona ..... 
Omorigeskst . 

Omsk 

Omskarka . . 
Omolewka . . 

Ona 

Onango 

Onega 

Onega 

Onega 

Onega 

Onega 

Onemen 

Ongole 



T. 
L. 
R. 

^- 

C. 
L 
T. 
R. 
Is. 
T. 
L 
R. 
L 

^- 

C. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

Mi 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Str. 

T. 

T. 

Die. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Pr. 

Sea 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

C. 

G. 

L. 

R. 

T. 



Adiatie Rnssia 
Asktic RoMMa 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Asiatic Russia. 

France 

Ri 

Asktic Russia' 

Cape Colony • 

Polynesia ...• 

Brazil 

Asiatic Rnssia 
Asiatk Russia. 

Austria ' 

Mexico *. 

Russia 

Mongolia 

Asiatie Russia. 
Asktic Russia. 
Tartary . 
Mongdk 



Brasi} ... 
Asiatic Bi 

Tripoli ' 

Mongolia 

Aaktic Russk. 



Oregon Ter. .. 
AsktM Rnssk. 

Equador 

WesteEa Ter. . 

Malaysk 

Makyaia 

Egypt 

Asktic 
Greenland . 
Hindoostan 
North 
Gnatemak .. . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Asiatk Russk. 
Asiatic Russk 
Arabk 




Sc 

Me 

Sd 

Tc 

Ub 

Ta 

Qa 

Ob 

Ta 

Ta 

Ld 

Nd 

Wc 

Nl 

Vh 

Ji 

Wb 

Wc 

Nd 

Ef 

Ob 

Ob 

Td 

Xb 

Xb 

Qd 

Rd 

Xb 

Od 

Dd 

Re 

Hi 

Fd 

Ui 

Ui 

Of 

Vb 

la 

Rf 

Do 

Vc 
Wb 
Ua 
Pf 
Qf 
Vb 
Ro 
Qc 
Qb 
Vb 
Tc 
Ve 
Ob 
Ob 
Ob 
Ob 
Ob 
Xb 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



77 



Oagoe 

Onman 

Onnekotan . . 

Ono 

Odocqm.... 

Odod. 

Ooooafow... 

Onore p 

Ontario 

OntoQff Javm 
Onvaraanara 

Ony 

Oiua 

Ooeh 

Oodfsr 

Oogda 

Oogiit 

Ooglil 

Oowin 

Ookatiaba... 

Oolee 

Oolool 

Oomero0ta .. 
Qoiwl—hka . 
Ooneeiiiak .. 
Oorakantaha. 
Oorookor ... 
Oortimg .... 

Oott 

Oo-nma . . . . 

Opala 

Oparo 

Opelouns ... 
C^nrniwick . 

Ophir 

Oimrto 

Opotchka... 

Oppela 

Oquitaa 

OnttBOB 

Oran 

Orange 

Orange 

Orange 

Orangeborg . 
Orangerie .. . 
OrchSja .... 

Orchon 

Oreaya 

Orebro 

Oregon 

Oregon 

Oregrund . . . 
Oreguatm... 
Oregnatiii... 
Orel. .....•• 

Orel 

Oiemjateha . 
Orentorg . . . 
Orenbuig... 
Orenee 

7» 



C. 
I. 
L 
L 
R. 
I.' 
T. 
L. 
Ib. 

a 

Pt 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

L 

T. 

L 

I. 



Poljrneaia. . 
Polynesia. . 
HindooBtan 
North America 
North America 
Mta Asiatic Ri 
PdyneMa. 



Mantcbooria . . 
Asiatic Roasia. 
Korile Islands. 

Polyneaia 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polyneaia 

Hindoostan .5. 
North America 
Australasia ... 

Iceland 

New Guinea . . 

Coneo 

Hindoostan ••• 
Hindoostan .. 

Persia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Hindoostan .. 



I. 
T. 
T. 
I. 

VoL 

L 

T. 

Sta. 
Mt 

^: 
^: 

I. 
T. 
L 

a 

R. 

T, 

Har 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Ter. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 



Little BuchariaQ 

Jwgm , 

Japan 

Asiatic Rnaaia 
Poljrneaia..... 
JjODisiana*... 
Greenland . . . , 
Sumatra ••••• 

Portugal 

Russia 

Prussia. ...... 

Mexico 

Anstralasia .•< 
Algiers 1 



Malaysia . 
firazU.... 



Africa 

South Carolina 
Australasia... . 

Venezuela 

Mongolia 

Turkey 

Sweden 

United States. . 
Oregon Ter... . 

Sw^en 

South America 

Brazil 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Spain 



Uc 
Ab 
Wd 
Ak 

^\ 
Td 

^j 

^« 
Gd 

Wi 

Kb 

Ui 

Mi 

Qf 

Qf 

Pe 

Gb 

Gb 

Rf 

Ta 

Vh 

Wh 

Qf 

Ac 

Be 

Vb 

Uh 

d 

Ue 

Ve 

We 

Fe 
Aa 

Sb 
Ld 
Nc 
Nc 
Be 
Wi 
Le 
Uf 
Lh 
Nc 
Ge 
Wi 

ff 

Nd 

Nc 

Ed 

Dd 

Nb 

Li 

li 

Oc 

Oe 

Wb 

Po 

Pc 

Ld 



Orfa 

Orfui 

Orfiii 

Omin ... 
Orhey .... 

On...... 

Oriental .. 
OrinNoi.. 
Orinooo... 
Orinoco... 
Oriatagno. 
Orisaa.... 

Orkney... 
Orleana... 
Orleans... 
Orliansk . * 

Orlov 

OrWrNosB 
Orlova.... 
Orlovoi . . . 
Ork>wka .. 
Ormond .. 
Ormua.... 

Oroo 

Onxnon.. . 
Orontea... 
Oroolong.. 
Oropesa .. 
Orskaia... 
Ortesal... 
Orte&borg 
Ortigas... 

Orto 

Ortott .... 
OrtoQS.... 

Oraa 

Oruro .... 
Osaca.... 
Osaca.... 
Osages... 
Osborne .. 
Osbonie's. 

Oscar 

Oscar .... 

Osen 

Osepus «. . 
Oserejnoy. 
Oserma . . • 
Oaima. . . . 
Osima.... 

Osita 

Oska 

Osketanaio 
Osmandjik 

Osna 

Osnaburg . 
Osnaburg • 
Osnaburg . 
Osomo . . . 
Osomo ... 
Ossa,.... 



T. 

C. 

1st 

R. 

T. 

L. 

a 

L. 

Dep 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

L 

L 

^l- 

T. 

C. 

R. 

C. 

R. 

L 

L 

L. 

T. 

R. 

L 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

L 

T. 

^- 

Tr. 

C. 

Rf. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

I. 

I. 

ViL 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

L 



Asiatic Turkey 

Africa 

Patagonia • . • • 

Mongolia 

Russia 

Russia ....... 

New Britain . . 

China 

Venezuela .... 
Veoeznela .... 

Sardinia 

Hindoostan • . . 

Scotland 

Lower Canada. 

France 

Aaiatic Ruaaia. 

Russia 

Ruasia ....... 

Asiatic Russia. 



Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America 
Persian Gulf . . 
Mongolia .... 
Mongolia . . . . < 

Syria 

Polynesia 

Bolivia 

Taitary 

Spain .....••. 

Pruasia 

Brazil 

Mongolia .... 
Mongolia .. . . 
Mongolia ..... 
Venezuela •• . . 

Bolivia 

Japan , 

Japan 

Miaaouri 

Brit America . 
Polynesia.... 
Brit America 
Polynesia.... 

NoBway 

Persia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
EaatemSea... 

Japan 

Mexico 

Mongolia .... 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Ruasia 

Polyneaia... . 

Hanover 

Brit America 
Chili 



VoLlChia. 
T. 



Oe 

Hm 

Td 

Nil 

Nb 

Wi 

Se 

Hh 

Hh 

Me 

Rf 

Lc 

Hd 

Md 

Tc 

Pc 

Ob 

Xb 

Ob 

Xb 

Gb 

Pf 

Sd 

Rd 

Oe 

Uh 

?j 
Pc 

Ld 

Nc 

Jj 

Sd 

Sd 

Te 

Hg 

Hj 

Vc 

Ve 

Fe 

Ga 

Ck 

Fb 

Xi 

Mb 

Pe 

Ob 

Wc 

Uf 

Vd 

Ee 

Td 

Gb 

Od 

Ob 

Ck 

Me 

Fe 

Hm 

Hm 

Pc 



78 



CONSULTING INDE3L 



]inMiornM,«& am 



Owana 

OfltaflhkoT .... 

Ostend 

Osteroe 

Ostersond 

Ostiaks 

OstrooDoi 

OfltroY 

Ostrornoi 

Otago 

Otaheite 

Otchako? 

Otdia 

Oteewhy 

Otoes 

Otr&nto 

Otrar 

Otter 

Otter 

Otter 

Otter 

Otter Taa 

Ottowa 

Ottowas 

Otway 

Oaalm 

Oaba 

Oubiiiakei 

Ou-chow 

Ou.«how 

Ouda 

Ooda 

Oude 

Oade 

Oudakoi 

Oue 

Ouei-ming . . . . . 
Ouen-chow .... 

Oufa 

Oufa 

Oafa 

Oagalaghmioat 

Ougden 

Ou|rene 

Oaian • 

Oaicatai . 



T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Po. 

I. 

T. 

la. 

L 

•ft. 

T. 

T. 

t' 

Sh. 

O. 

L. 

T. 

Tr. 

C. 

T. 

L. 

T. 



Pr. 

9.'' 

^- 

Tr. 

R. 

T. 

It 

R. 



Spam 

Ruaaia 

Belgium 

Faroe laLanda . 

Sweden • 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Aaiatic Rosaia. 



OaUibouoou . . . . T 



Oainakoie. 
Oaistkoaitoun . 

Oakakee 

Oukeaima 

Ouki i. 

Oaki Kitoha... 



Oakinakoi C. 



Oulenmooreii . 
OulouManmoodan T. 
OumetPeielaztoaT. 
Ou-mong . 
Ounaa .... 
Oimdo.... 
Oonja .... 



Aaiatte Ruaaifc. 
New Zealand.. 

Poljmesia 

Roaaia 

Polyneeta 

PolTneaia 

MiaBonri Tar. . 

Naplea 

Tartary 

North America 
Brit America . 
Indian Ooean.. 
Wiacooain Ter. 
Wiaoonain .... 

niinoia 

Michigan 

New & Waksa . 
Mantohooria .. 
Aaiatic RuBua. 
Aaiatic Ruaaia. 

China 

Corea 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
BBndooatan «. . 
Hindooatan .. . 
Asiatic Roaaia. 

Brasil 

China 

China 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
North America 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Norway 
Asiatic ' 



Mongolia 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 



L. 



Aaiatic Ruaaia 
Mongolia .... 
Brit Ameriea 
GolfofTonqoinjT 
Asiatic Roasia. ~ 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 

China 

Mantchooria . . 
Aaiatic Roaaia. 
China 



Roaaia . 



■it 



Le 
Oe 
Mc 
Ld 
Mb 
Bb 
Xb 
Nc 
Wc 
Xm 

Cj 

Od 

Xh 

Aj 

Fd 

Nd 

Qd 

Dc 

He 

01 

Fd 

Fd 

6d 

Qd 

VI 

Ud 

Re 

Re 

Tf 

Ue 

Vc 

Vc 

Rf 

Rf 

Vc 

Ik 

Sf 

Uf 

Pc 

Pc 

Pc 

Cb 

Rb 

Mc 

Wb 

Sd 

Tb 

Tc 

Td 

Gc 



Tb 

Wc 

Se 

Ue 

Pc 

Sf 

Nb 

Ob 

Oc 



Oop... 
Oorak. 
Oural.. 
Ooralak. 



T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

Onrat |T. 

Oorcan.. 
Ooidabad iT. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



OuKna 
Oorpi 



Oonamakaia . 
Ouriankaia iTtr. 



Ooijoom... 

Ooro 

Oorrokoop . 
Ooraoa .... 
Oory'a . . . , 

OoB , 

Ooaa , 

Ooaa 



T. 
I. 
I. 
R. 
I. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

T. 
T. 



OostCamenager. 

akava 

Oostohelmakoe .« 
Ooateoorovakaya |T. 
OoateSianlk. 
Ooatiazoa .... 
Ousting VeUkc 
Ouat Motehent 
Ouat Ooakaya 
Ooat Tangoaakoie 

OoatVaga 

Ootchou 

Oatcfaoomootchin 
Ooter Vigten . . . 
Outger I&pa... . 
Outshi Ferman . 
Ootahochkoi Noaa C. 

Ouvalakoi |T. 

Ooy 

Oozene . . . 

Ovah 

Orando .... 
0?eido ... 
Ovena .... 

OvidoB fr. 

Ovo 

Orrootdi ... 

Owari 

Owen 

Owhyee .... 
Owhyhee ... 

Owl 

Owlitteeweek 

Oxford 

Oxford |cr 

Oxfoid.... 
Oxford.... 
Oxford.... 
Oxnea.... 

Oxoa 

Oyapock.. 



Aaiatic Roaaia. 



Tartary 

Aaiatic Roaaia. 

Mongolia 

Mtotchooria .. 
Afliatie Roaaia. 
Brazil 



Mongolia 

Asiatic Roaaia. 
MoD^lolia ...... 

Roasia 

N. Pacific Oc . 

Pdyneaia 

Mantchooria .. 
Aoatralaaia.... 
Aaiatic Roasia. 
Ruasia 



T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
L 
I. 
T. 



R. 
T. 
Pr. 
Pr. 

^- 

T. 
I. 
T. 

R. 
I. 
R. 
I. 

^- 

C. 

C. 

Ho. 

I. 

R. 

T. 



Roaaia . 



8c 
Vc 

Pc 

Pc 

Td 

Uo 

Pe 

It 

Td 

Re 

Se 

Po 

Af 

Vh 

Uc 

?j 
Se 

Pb 

Pb 

Oe 



Aaiatie Roaaia. 

Roasia 

Aaiatie Roaaia. 

Roasia 

RAaaia 

Roaaia 

Roaaia 

Asiatic Roaaia 
Aaiatic Roasia < 

Ruaaia 

Thibet 

Mongolia ..... 

Norway , 

Sfntabergen . . , 
Little BochariaQ 
Asiatic Ruasia 
Aaiatic Roaaia 
Aaiatic Roasia 
Aaiatic Roaaia 
Madagaacar. . . 

Congo 

Spain 

New S.Walea 

BrazU 

Archipelago. . . 

Roaaia 

Japan 

Brit America 
Oregon Ter. . 
Polyneaia. .... 
Brit America 
Brit America 

England 

New Britain^. . 
Oregon Ter.t.. 
Falkland la.... 
Brit America . 
Loffoden Isles . 

Tartary 

Goiana 



Re 
Pb 
Tc 
Pb 
Oc 
Pc 
Ob 
Qc 
Sa 
Ob 
Re 
Td 
Mb 
Na 
d 
Wc 
Pc 
Qc 
Pc 

l\ 

Ld 

VI 

li 

Ne 

Nc, 

Ve 

Fa 

Ed 

S^ 
Fc 

Gb 

Lc 

Wi 

Dd 

Hn 

Fc 

Mb 

Pd 

Ih 



CONSULTING INDEX 



79 



Ikmm9tnmm,9m, 



Ofo 

Oxark.... 

Oiee 

One 

One 

Oxen 

Oxema . . . 
Oziemoie . 
Ozigina.. 
Ozi^inak.. 



R. 

MtB. 

T. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 



^: 

Tr. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

a 

Padaviri R. 



Pa 

PaaH 

Pacajes .. . . . 
FaeakMlorp 
Pacaza .... 
Pacchino ... 

Padii 

Paciiitea.... 
Pacaoo|^ . . . . 
Padamo . . . . 
Padang.... 
Padaraa . 



United States. . 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa.., 

Peraia 

Asiatic Roaaia. 
Asiatic Ruana. 
Asiatic RoMia. 
Asiatic RoMia. 



T. 



Paderborn . . 
Padgagana . 
Padgorodna 

Padomist |T. 

Padoacah •. > . 
Padron . . . . 

Padstow 

Padaa 

Padar 

Pady Dob .... 
Pagmhm Mew 
Pagansane .. . 

Pagoes 

Pagcm 

Paha 

Pkhang 

Pahviooukol .. . 
Paieban .., 
Paidmatta. 
Pailas.... 
Paimcni . . 
, Paisley . . . 
Paitaire. . • 
Pajane .... 
Pakhia..., 
Paknam . . . 
Palamos . . . 
Palamow .. 
Palana .... 

Palace 

Palawan .. . 

Palca 

Pakati \L 

Paldpas . . . 
Palembang. 
Paleocia .. . 
Palenqne .. 



Pb 
Fe 
Oi 
Oi 
Oh 
Pe 
Ra 
8c 
Vb 
Vb 



Thibet Bf 

Cape Colony . . N I 
Booth America I i 
Cape Colony . . N 1 

Brazil li 

Asiatic Ruiria. S c 

Mongolia S d 

Pero Hi 

Thibet Bf 

Venezoela ....Hh 

Sumatra Si 

Cambodia Tr 

Baenos A jres . H h 
Prussia ...:... M c 
Asiatic Russia. W b 
Asiatic Russia. Q c 
Nc 
Missouri Ter. . F d 

Conffo Mi 

England L c 

Itafy Md 

Hindoostan ...Re 

Asia Q h 

Krmah Bf 

MaUysU Ui 

TV. Senegambia .. . L g 

" Polynesia Vg 

Mongolia Se 

Makya Sh 

Thibet S e 

Mantchooria . . U d 
New Zeahmd. . X 1 

Sweden Nb 

Peru Hi 

Scotland Lc 

Mongolia S d 

Russia Nb 

Asiatic Russia. X b 

Siam Bg 

Spain Md 

Hindoostan . . . R f 
Asiatic Russia. Wb 

Polynesia Uh 

MJaysia ... . Th 

Bolivia Hi 

Soongaria Qd 

Buenos Ayres . H k 

Sumatra Si 

Spain L d 

Mexico Fg 



Pklermo 

PdestiBe 

P^eikhua.... 
PalhasMm.... 
PaUamcotlah. 

Pallas 

PaUena 

PaUisem 



Palm 

Palma ^ 

Palma 

Palma 

Palma 

Palma 

Palmareinha. 

Palmas 

Palmer 

Palmer ..... 

Palmer's 

Palmoro . . . . . 
Palmerstott.. 
Palmyra . . . . . 
Palmyra .... 
Palmyras ... 

Paloloo 

Pales 

Palos 

Polte 

Palumbi . . . . . 

Pama , 

Pamer , 

Pampas 

Pompekma . . . 
Pampehma . . . 
Pamplico . . • . 

Panama 

Panama . . . • . 

Panares 

Ptochina . . . . 

Panctou 

Pandora 

Pandora' 

Pandora's.... 

Panga 

Pangany 

Panffooteran. . 

Paniany 

Panicheira . . . 
Pannayia . . . . 

Panot 

Panovskaya . . 

Pansa 

Pantar 

Pantelaria.... 

Pantura 

Pannoo 

Pany 

Pao-king 

Pao-ning 

Paoo 



. T. 
T. 

Mt 

T. 
.Is. 

.a 

Is. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

a 
c. 
a 

Pt 

Ld. 

C. 

I. 

Rns 

Pt 

Is. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

I. 

L 

Dis. 

Pk. 

^- 

So. 

£:' 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Ld. 

R. 

Pr. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
I. 
I. 



Sicily 

Syria 
Cabal 

M< 



Japan 
Ceylon 



^ykm 

olynesU.... 
New Zealand. 



Canary lales . 
Osnary Isles . 

Chili 

Spain 

Mexico 

Angola 

Liberia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Soothcm Ocean 
Sardinia... 
Polynesia . . 

Syria 

Hindoostan 
Polynesia .. 
Polynesia.. 
Celebes.... 

Spain 

Thibet.... 

Barea 

Eastern Sea 
Tartary ... 
Buenos Ayres . 

Spain 

New Grenada . 



North Carolina 6 e 



New Grenada 
New Grenada . 

Chili 

Asiatic Russia. 

Thibet 

Austmlasia.... 
New Guinea . . 

Polynesia 

Congo 

Africa 

Malaysia 

Hindoostan . • . 

Africa 

Africa 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
South Peru . . . 

Malaysia 

Mediterran. Sea 



Me 

Oe 
Qe 
Sd 
Rh 
Vd 
Rh 

Xm 

Vj 

Kf 

Kf 

Hh 

Me 

Ef 

Mi 

Lh 

Gb 

£a 

He 

Me 

Bk 

Oe 

Rf 

Bh 

^f 
Ti 

Ld 

Bf 

Ne 

Uf 

Q« 

HI 

Ld 

Hh 



Sta. Ceylon. 
T. Mexico. 
L Malaysia . 
Cj. China . 
Cy. IChina. 



Gh 
Gh 
Hk 
Re 
Se 

VI 
Xj 
Ni 
Oi 
Th 
Rf 

Oj 
Mh 
Ob 
Tc 

«j 
Ui 

Me 

Rh 

Ff 



Poljrneaia. 



Uj 
Tf 



T 

Xj 



'I 



80 



CX)NSULTIN6 INDE3L 



■ oTFlMniAt. 



Paote-chow.... 

Paoting 

Papagayo 

Papaffajoa.... 
Papakawa .... 
Papaaqoiaro*.. 

Papej 

Papa of Pindea 

P»p«y-- 

Paquaah 

Para 

Para 

Para 

Paracata 

Paraoels 

Pardo 

Paragua 

Paraguay 

Paraguay 

Paraguay 

Para Hotan • • • • 

Paraiba 

Paraiba 

Paniba 

Paniba-do-aul .• 
Paramaribo .... 

Paramatta 

Parana 

Parana 

Parana 

Paranaguay .... 
ParanaEybia .... 
Parana Panama. 

Pardo 

Parece Vela .... 

Paribouaca 

Parin 

Parinaoota .... 

Paria 

Parita 

Parker*8 

Parma 

Parma 

Parmatchooaon 

Pamaiba 

Paropamiaan . y 
Parovakoie .... 

Parral 

Parry 

Parry 

Parry 

Parry 

Parry 

Parry'a 

Pany'a 

Parry»» 

Parry'a 

Partida 

Paroro 

Pas 

Paaado 



9? 

9,^ 
6. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Mta. 

T. 

L. 

Pr. 

§f 

T. 

Bk. 

R. 

R. 

Rap. 

R. 
T. 
Pr. 

i^' 

R. 

§?• 

R. 

^ 

R. 
R. 
L 
R. 
T. 
Mt 

^- 

L 
D. 

5^' 

R. 
Mte. 

T. 
T. 
C. 

a 
c. 

So. 

Pa 

6r. 

I. 

L 

^ 

T. 

Fd. 

a 



China 

China 

Guatemala .. . . 

BrazU 

Senfl^g;ambia. . . 

Mezioo 

loeland 

Palagcmia .... 

Chili 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

BraaU 

Brazil 

Brazil 

China Sea .... 

Brazil 

Venezuela .... 
South America 

Malayaia 

BoUna 

Mongolia 

BrazS 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Guiana 

New S.Walee . 
Boenoa Ayrea . 
Buenoa Ayrea . 

BrazU 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Polyneaia 

Lower Canada. 
Mantchooria . . 
South Peru. . . . 

France 

New Grenada . 

Poh 

Italy 



'olyneaia . 
taly 



Italy... 

Thibet 

Brazil 

Persia 

Asiatic Rusda. 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Sooreaby*8 Ld.. 
Upper Canada . 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Polynesia . . . . 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
N. J^acific Oc . 
So«thPem.... 



Equador . 



f 



Te 
Te 

fi 

K 

F 

Kb 

Hm 

HI 

Mc 

li 

II 

li 

fi 

Hh 
Ik 
Th 
Ik 
Td 
Ji 

Ji 

Jk 

Ih 

Wl 

II 

II 

Ik 

Ik 

11 

Ik 

Vf 

Hd 

Td 

Hj 

Md 

Gh 

Xi 

Md 

Md 

Se 

Ji 

Qe 

Sc 

Ff 

Da 

Ha 

Ka 

Gd 

Fb 

Vf 

Bk 

Wg 

£b 

Eg 

Hj 

Na 

Gi 



lorPhfM^taL 



Paso del Norte .. 

Passandava 

Pasaandaya 

Pasaanee 

Panara 

Passaro 

Pasaau 

Pssse , 

Pasaier 

Passion 

Pasto 

Pastol 

PaUbdca 

Patagonia 

Patalan 

Patanagoh 

Patanee 

Patani 

Patani 

Patchacha 

Patchachinakoi . 

Patchatka 

Patchusan 

Paternoster .... 

Paterson^s 

Patience 

Patiza 

Patki 

Patna 

Patquaahaguina. 

Patrick 

Patrocinio 

PatroBchilka... 

Patta 

Patteraon's 

Patton 

5*type 

Pan 

Paucartambo . . . 

Pauiang , 

Paulista 

Paumoor. ...... 

Paunch «.. 

Paria , 

Pawnee 

Pawnee Picts. . 

Pawnees , 

Payan 

PaybTsk , 

Payta , 

Paysandu 

Pays del Diablo. 

Peace 

Peace River . . . . 

Peacock , 

Peak 

Peak 

Peak 

Peak 

Peak 

Peak 



T. 
T. 

a 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Rks 

T. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
C. 
T. 
R. 
C. 
R. 
I. 
I. 
I. 
C. 
R. 
T. 

fa- 

To. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Gr. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

'A 

Tr. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

R. 

Ho. 

His. 

I. 

I. 

Ch 

^ 

Mts. 



Mezico 

Madagascar. 
Madagascar. 
Beloochistan 

Borneo 

Sicily 

Bavaria 

Sumatra .. . . 

Borneo 

N. Pacific Og. . 
New Grenada . 
North America 

Peru 

South America 

Java 

Birmah 

Africa 

Malaya 

Malaya 

Asiatic Ruasia. 
Astatic Rusaia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Eastern Sea. . . 

Malaysia 

Australasia.... 
Seghalien .. 

Brazil 

Java 

Hindooatan . . . 
Upper Canada . 

Scotland 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Melinda 

Polynesia 

NewS.Wale8. 

Brazil 

France 

Bolivia 

Malaysia 

BrazU 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindooatan ... 
Lombardy .... 
Missouri Ter. . 

Mezico 

Missouri Ter. . 

Monffolia 

Russia 

Peru 

Uruguay ..... 
Buenoa Ayrea . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Canary lalea . . 
KurUe labmds. 

Japan 

Upper Canada. 
Upper Canada . 
Azanaga 



Fe 

si 

Th 
Ne 
Md 
Sh 
Ti 
Eg 
Gh 
Bb 

Gj 

Hm 

Ti 

3? 

Nk 

Sh 

Sh 

Xb 

Xb 

Xb 

Uf 

Ti 

Xm 

Vd 

'rh 

Rf 

Gd 
Lc 

Xf 
Sc 
Oi 
Xh 
VI 

V. 

?i 

Jk 

s« 

Qe 

Md 

Fd 

Fe 

Fd 

Se 

Oc 

Gi 

LI 

II 

Ec 

Ec 

Eb 

Kf 

Wd 

Vd 

Gd 

Gd 

Lf 



CONSULTING INDESL 



81 



Brit America . 
New&WalM. 
North Amerifla 

Polynesia 

Caribbean Sea. 
N. Paeifio Oc . 
Pelyi 
Thibet 



.Ft 



Polyneata 

Franee 

Brazil 

Somatra 

Loango...... . 

Ab^ 

Arabia 

Caribbean Sea. 
Falkland la.... 
Baloochittan.. . 
News. Wales. 
Brit America . 
New & Wales. 
New HoUand. . 

Polyaaaia 

Patagtmia .... 
Anatie Russia. 

Birmah 

China 

Russia 

Corea 

Norway 

China 



Brit America . 

ChiU 

Polyi 

Polynesia.... 

Hindooslan .. 

Afrioa 

Brit America 



Mte. Thibet 



Malaysia 
North America 
Brit Ameriea 
Asiatic Russia 
Monsolta .... 
Africa 



Con^ 

Indian Ooean.. 

Congo 

Wisconsin Ter. 
Wisooosin Ter. 

Wales 

Brit America . 
Falkland Is.. . . 

Polynesia 

Australasia . . . 

Spain 

Rnssia 

8caresby*s Ld. 
Upper Canada 
Asiatic Russia 



Do 

Wk 

Ba 

Ci 

6 

Af 

Bk 

Se 

Xh 

Ld 

li 

Sh 

Mi 

Ni 

P« 
Gg 
In 
Qf 
Tl 
Db 
Tl 
Tl 
Vf 
Hn 
To 

%^ 
Te 

Ob 

Ud 

Nb 

Te 

Nk 

Fo 

HI 

Uh 

Uh 

Qf 

Mk 

Fc 

Se 

Ui 

Cb 

Fb 

Rb 

Rd 

Ni 

Oi 

Ni 

Fd 

Fd 

Lc 

Gb 

In 

Ve 

Xm 

Ld 

Ob 

Ka 

Gd 

Wb 



Penginskoe . • . 

Penpfoin 

Peniohe 

Penjinsk 

Pennsylvan.... 
Pennsylvania . . 

Penobscot 

Penrhyn 

Penrhy n 

Pensaoola 

Pentecost 

Pentland 

Penn 37 

Pensa 

Peoria 

Pepin 

Pera 

PeraHead.... 

Peras 

PerciTal 

Perdido 

Perecop 

Peregnne 

Pergoicas 

PergTolak 

Perun 

Perigoeox 

Perlovskoie .... 

Perme 19 

Perme 

Femagna 

Psmagua 

Pemaiba 

Pemambooo... 
Pemamboco... 

Peron 

Peros Bmhos. . 

Perouse 

Perpetoa 

Perpignan .... 

Pen 

Persepolis 

PersU 

Persian 

Perth 

Perth 

Peru ....... .^ 

Pern 

Peru 

P fft cu dore s .... 

Pescara 

Pesehan 

Pesenmagnisa . 

Peshawar 

Pest 

Pestelcina 

Petasaras 

Petebclee 

Petchoia 

Petehora 

Petersbarg .... 



6. 

Pt 

T. 

Sea 

CoL 

St 

c. 

^- 

Fr. 
Pr. 

^: 

L. 
T. 
C. 
Is. 

a 
a- 

L 

^: 

Pr. 
T. 
T. 
U 
T. 

Mt 

L 

Str. 

a 

^: 

Rns 



Asiatic Russia. 
Coronation Is. . 

Portiqrd 

Asiatic Russia. 

Liberia 

United States. . 



Rep 

T. 

I. 

T. 

ViL 

L. 

^- 

T. 




Wisooosin Ter. 

Malaya 

New &Waies . 

Brazil 

Falkland Is.... 
Fkmda Ter.. . . 

Brit America . 

Brazil 

North America 

Red Sea 

France 

Asiatic Russia. 

Ruasia 

Braza 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

New HoUand. . 
Indian Ocean.. 

Japan 

OngonTer. 
France .... 



Persia. 
Asia.. 



Scotland 

New Holland.. 
South America 
Poly 



roiynesu 
Indiana . 
Polynesia 
Naples.. 
North America 
Patagonia ... 

Cabal 

Austria. ...... 

Asiatic Russia 
F 



Rosbia . . 
Rusria .. 
l^rpnia. 



Wb 

lo 

Le 

Wc 

Lh 

Gd 

Hd 

Bi 

Gb 

Ge 

Ob 

Lc 

Oc 

Oc 

Gd 

Fd 

Sh 

li 

Hn 

Gd 

Od 

Gh 

Ji 

Be 

Og 

Md 

Tb 

Pc 

Pc 

Ji 

Ji 

Ji 

Ji 

Ji 

Tk 

Qi 

Vd 

Dd 

Mc 

Oa 

Pf 

Pe 

Pf 

Lc 

Tl 

Hi 

Vf 

Gd 

Xg 

Md 

Ab 

Hm 

Qe 

Nd 

Tb 

l« 
Te 

Nc 

Pb 

Ge 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Peter First L 

Petic T. 

Petite Terra.... I. 

Petorca T. 

Petoroa VoL 

Petotlan T. 

Petowack T. 

Perseus. . . 4. . . . Sh. 
Petoune Hotiui Cv. 

Petrikaa T. 

Petriu T. 

PetroBaakMBkua. T. 
Petrozavodsk . . Cy. 
Petro|>aulovskoie T. 
Petropaulovskoie |T. 

t! 

T. 
T. 
R. 

I'- 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Pa 

Is. 

Sta. 

L 

I. 

^^ 
T. 

a 

L 

T. 

T. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

T; 

Pr. 

R. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



Petrovsk 

Petrovsk 

Petrovsk 

Peym 

Peza 

Philadelphia.... 
Philadelphia .... 
Philip Broke . . . 
Philippopolia • . . 

Phillip 

Phillip 

Phillipine 

Phillipolis 

PhiUipe 

'Phillips 

Phillips 

PhiUipsUdt 

Phipps 

PhoBiilz 

Phngen 

Phu^en 

Piacina 

Piacinskoie 

Pialitza 

Piatnitskoie .... 

Piauhi 

Piauhl 

Piavo 

Picada 

Pichai......... 

Pichano 

Pickaninny Bas- 

sam 

Pickersgill , 
Pico 



T. 
I. 
I. 

Picombas R. 

Pt 

T. 

Rks 

R. 

T. 

L. 

Ho. 

I. 

Har 

T. 



PicoB 

Pictou 

Pictured .... 
Piekougamis 

Pielis 

Pielis 

Pierre ai| Calamet 
Pigeon .. 
Pih-kwan 
Pijin .... 



S. Pacific Oc. . 

Mexico 

West Indies... 

Chili 

Buenos Ayres . 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
Atlantic Ocean 
Mantchooria t . 

Poland 

Siam 

Asiatic Russia. 
Russia .. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Russia ' 

Russia 

Little Bucharia 

Russia 

Pennsylvania. 
N. Pacific Oc. 
Shannon Is. • . 

turkey 

Australasia . . 
New S. Wales 
Malaysia .... 
Afirica...«... 
Polynesia . . . 
Polynesia.... 
Brit America 

Sweden 

North AmericajC 

Polynesia 

Cochin China . 
Cochin China . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Russia 

Brazil 

Siam 

Buenos Ayres 



Guinea ....... 

Isle of Georgia 

Azores 

Brazil 

Peru 

Nova Sootia. . . 

Michigan 

Lower Canada. 

Russia 

Russia 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

China 

Mantchooria . . 



[2 I MuMarnMi^aft 



Fo 
Ef 
Hf 
HI 
HI 

Ha 
Kd 

Ud 

Nc 

l« 
Pc 

Ob 

Sc 

We 

Od 

Pc 

Oc 

Rd 

Pb 

Gd 

Af 

Ka 

Nd 

XI 

VI 

Uff 
Nk 
Vh 

^\ 
Ch 

Mo 



Ai 
l« 

Sa 

Sb 

Ob 

So 

Ji 

Ji 

Ob 

^i 

Hk 



Lh 
Jn 
Ke 

i\ 

Hd 
Gd 
Hd 
Ob 
Ob 
Fc 
Vf 
Uf 
Ud 



Pike 

Pike 

Pike 

Pike*s 

Pike's 

Pilar 

Pilaya 

Pilcomayo . 
Pilcomayo • 
Pilemetz ... 
Pilgrim.... 
Pilfaui's.... 

Paiar 

Pillar 

PiUau 

Piloutai.... 

Pilsen 

Pina 

Pinare 

Pinchabos. . 
Pinches.... 

Pine 

Pine 

Pinega . . . . 
Pinega . . . . 

Pine's 

Pine's 

Piney 

Ping-^hai ... 
Piirg-lcaDg . 
Firi^-lo . . . . 
Piri^toaa. .. 
Piiig-Liiig... 
Pirjg-toii .. . 
Ping-yuen • 
Pinnacle . . . 

Pino 

Pinsk 

Pinyang . . . 
Pinzon's . . . 
Pipestone . . 

Pipley 

Piramides.. 
Piranhas .. . 

Pirate 

Pirotibbi... 

Pirtan 

Pirtchina .. 

Pis 

Pisa 

Pisagua ... 
Pisania .... 

Pisco 

Pisgah . . . . 
PisDuk .... 

Pissou 

Pit 

Pitangni . . . 
Pitcairn's . . 
Pitchen.... 
Pitea 



L. 

Ls. 

R. 

L 

Pk. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

L 

a 
c. 
c. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

R. 

T. 
.1. 
.iPt 

R. 

T. 

R. 

L 

L 
. L 
. T. 
.Cj. 
.Cy. 

Cy. 
;Cy. 

Cy. 

Cy. 

T, 
, T. 
Cy. 

IT' 

T. 

R. 

R. 

Is. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 



Brit America 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
S. Pacific Oc . 
Missouri Ter. . 

Brazil 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Buenos Ayres . 

Russia 

S. Pacific Oc... 
Scoresby's Ld.. 
Patagonia .... 
V.Diemen'sLd. 

Prussia 

Mongolia 

Austria 

Afi-ica 

Brazil 

Peru 

Equador 

Brit America . 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Russia 

Russia 

Australasia... . 

Cuba 

Australasia.... 

Corea 

China 

China 

China 

CSiina 

China , 

China 

North America 

Mexico 

Russia 

China 

BrazU 

Brit America 
Hindoostan .. 

Mexico 

BrazU 

Tonquin 

Lower Canada. 
Mantchooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Tuscany 

South Peru.... 
Sencgambia. . . 

Peru 

Southern Ocean 

Siam 

Liberia. ...... 

Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Polynesia 

Mantchooria .. 
Sweden 



Fc 
Dc 
Dc 
Ek 
Ed 

y. 

Hk 
Hk 
Pb 
Fk 
Kb 
Hn 
Vm 
Nc 
Td 
Md 

Hi 
Gi 

Fd 

Ob 

Ob 

Xk 

Gf 

Ui 

Ue 

Te 

Tf 

Te 

Te 

Ue 

Tf 

Ab 

Ee 

Nc 

Te 

Ih 

Fc 

Rf 

Ee 

Ji 

Tf 

He 

Uc 

Rb 

Wg 

Md 

Sc 

'A 

Vc 
Nb 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



63 



mttnaem,^ 



L 

I. 

Bk. 

R. 

T. 

Arc 

L 



FltM 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Pittanki.. 

Pitt's 

Pitt'B 

Pittsborg . 

Pian 

Plaatfaerg . 
Plaoentia . 
PlaoeDtia .< 
Placentia . 
Plaoentia • 
Plakina.... 
PlanUun... 
Plants..'... 
Plasket*s... 

Plate 

Platte 

PlattenSee 

Plattsbnr; IT. 

Plaj Green L. 

Pleasant * 

Plettenbem... 
Ploskie Koehki 

Plotik 

Plymouth IT. 

Po. ^ 

Pobidenna .... 

Pocantins 

Pocaika 

PcMshow 

Poerovskoe..... 
PocroTskoi .... 
Podcamennaia .. 

Podolia 46 

Podolsk 

Podor 

Podpoosknoi.... 
Podvolochnayo . 

12^:::::::: 

Point 

Point da Galle . 
Pointed Heart . 

Poison , 

Poitiera 

Poivre 

PoU 

Poland 

Polaniren 

Polar 

Poiicastro 



^: 

T. 
T. 
T. 

T, 
L 
L. 
L 
L 
B. 
L. 



I. 
T. 



R. 
T. 
S. 
B. 

^: 

T. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

Ft 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

L. 

L 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

Km. 

T. 

Sea 

T. 



Polimska T. 



Pollard 

Polouk T, 

Polomi It. 

Pobnkir Moren. 
Polonjr 



Sweden 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Indian Ocean . 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 
Oregon Ter. .. . 
S. Pacific Oc... 
Penns/hrania. . 

Peru 

Afiica 

Newfoondland. 
H pjin 

Newfoundland. 
Guatemala .. . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Senegambia «. . 
Oregon Ter. . 
Polynesia .... 
Indian Ocean 
Missouri Ter. 
Austria...' .. 
New York... 
brit America 
Polynesia .... 
Cape Colony . 

Russia 

Poland 

£*ngland. • . ■ . 

Itafy 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brazil..., 
Asiatic Russia. 
China... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 



R. 
R. 



Nb 
Cb 
Xh 
Pi 
Ed 
Qb 
Dc 
Ho 
Gd 
Gi 
Nk 
Id 
Ld 
Id 

S^ 
Tc 

Lh 

Ed 

Xi 

Pi 

Fd 

Nd 

Hd 

Fo 

Xi 

Nl 

Pb 

Nc 

Lc 

Md 

Qc 

li 

Rb 

Te 

Re 

Ub 

Sb 

Nd 

Oc 

^8 

Re 

Tc 

i 

little BucharialR e 



Russia .... 
Senerambia 
Asiatic Rusi 
Asiatic Russia. 
Malaysia 



£b 
Rh 
Ed 
Kg 
Md 
Pi 
Md 
Nc 
Nc 
Ea 
Nd 
Qc 
Af 
Nc 
Vc 
Sd 
Asiafip Russia. Qb 



Brit America 

Ceylon 

Oregon Ter... 
Senegambia... 

France 

Indian Ocean . 

Austria 

Russia , 

Prussia 

Brit. America . 

Naples 

Asiatic Russia. 
N. Pacific Oc. . 
Russia ....... 

Mantchooria . . 
Mon^plia 



Polouyski . . 
Polovninaia 

PolUva 46. 

Poltava 

Polynesia 

Pomabamba ... 

Pomba 

Pomba 

Pombo 

Pomeri 

Pomeroon 

Pomona 

Pooa Moltibque 

Ponce 

j Pondang 

Pondicberry . . . 

Pond's 

Pond's 

Pooeries 

Pong 

Pon^os 

Ponijen 

Ponon 

Ponta Delgada. 

Pontal 

Ponte de Lima.. 
Pontevedra . 
Pontiao .. • • 
PoDtianah. . 
Pootianah.. 
Pontotoc 

Poolkee 

Poolop 

Podout 

Poonah 

Poonar 

PooDga 

Poor Bunder 

Pooree 

PooshtaKur Ridge 
Poo-to 

Popadi 
Popayan . 
Pofdar... 
P<^x)f?a .. 
Pora .... 
Pbrco ... 
Porcupine 
Porcupine 
Porcupine 
Pore .... 
Poreemo *■ 
Porinta .. . 
PorkhoY . 

Poro 

Poro Hotun T. 

Poromuschir 




T. 

R. 

Pr. 

Cy. 

Div. 

T. 

^' 

R. 
I. 
I. 
T. 
I. 

^- 

In. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 



Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Ooeanica 

Bdivia 

Mozambique . . 
Mozambique . . 

Afirica 

Indian Ocean . 

Guiana 

Scotland. 



Porto Rico... 
Malaysia .... 
Hindoostan .. 
Labrador .... 
Brit America 

Russia 

Mongolia ... . 
Senegambia .. 
Mantchooria . 
Mantchooria . 
St Michael L 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Spain 

Michigan.... 
Borneo ...... 

Borneo 

Mississippi. . . 

Russia 

Hindoostan .. 

England 

Cabul 

Polynesia .... 
Polynesia .... 
Hindoostan • . 



T. 

T. 

T. 

Mts. 

I. 

R. 

T. 



Siam 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Little Thibet . . 

China 

Thibet 

Asiatic Russia. 
New Grenada . 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Malaysia 

Bolivia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Missouri Ter. . 
New Grenada . 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Mantchooria . 
Mantchooria . 
Kurile Islands < 



Qb 

Ub 

Od 

Od 

Ch 

Hk 

Oj 

Oj 

Ni 

PI 

Ih 

Lc 

Qi 

Hg 

UE 

Rg 

I c 

Ga 

Nc 

Sd 

hi 

Uc 
Ke 

{] 

Ld 
Gd 
Th 
Th 
Ge 
Ob 
Qf 
Lc 
Qe 
Wh 
Wh 

Rf 
Sh 
Qf 

5^ 
Re 

Uc 

Se 
Re 
Gh 
Fc 
Ra 
Si 

Sj 

Fc 
Gc 
Ed 
Hh 

Th 

Nc 
Td 
Td 

Wo 



84 



OONSULTIN6 INDEX. 



L. 

PL 

Fd. 

T. 

Po. 



Porongos 

Porpoise 

Porsanger 

Poraken 

Port 

Portalegrre 

Portalesre 

Portandick .... 
Port au Prioce 
PortCasilda... 
PortCresflon... 
Port Desire . . . 

Portillo 

Port La Nasca. 

Portland 

Portland 

Portland 

Portland 

Portland 

Portland 

Portland 

PorUock's 

Port Longo 

Port Macquarie . 
Port Mahon ... . 
Port Namba 

Porto Bello 

Porto Bello 

Porto Bttcaretli . 
Porto Cabcllo. . . 
Porto Calvo .... 
Porto Cordova . . 
Porto de Ano 

Nuevo 

Porto de Casma. 
Porto de Coquim- 

bo 

Porto del Hiiasoo 
Porto do Moz 
Porto Grande 
Porto Nipe .. 
Porto Praya . 
Porto Rico . . 
Porto Santo . 
Porto Segaro . . . lUy. 
Porto Vecchio ..|T. 
Port Ra&el . . . 
Port Royal.... 
Port 8kn Jago . 
Portsmouth ... 
Portsmouth .... IT. 

Port Spain |T. 

Portugal . . ^' 

Posen .... 

Poaoi... 

Possession 

Possession 

P o s sess ion 

Possession 

Possession 



^' 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
Pt 
T. 
Is. 

Pt 
Pt 
Pt 

Can. 
Har 

T. 
T. 
T. 

k 

T. 
T. 

Sir. 

^^ 
T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

?• 

I. 
C 



Buenos Ayres . 
Falkland Is.. . . 

Norway 

Norway 

Newfoundland. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

AMca 

Hay ti 

Cuba 

Liberia 

Patagonia .... 

Cuba 

South Peru.... 
Iceland 



Cty, 

&• 

I. 

L 

C. 

Bay 

Bay 

Bay 



New & Wales 
Brit America 

Jamaica 

V.Diemen*sLd. 
Brit America . 
North America 

New & Wales . 

Spain 

Japan 

Malaysia 

New Grenada . 

Mexico 

Venezuela .... 

Brazil 

North America 



Mezioo. 
Peru... 



Chili 

ChUi 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Cuba 

St Jago .... 
West Indies. 

Madeira 

Brazil 

Corsica 

Venezuela... 
Martinique.. 

Mexico 

England .... 
N. Hami 
Trinii 
Europe 

Prussia 

China 

Africa 

Indian Ocean.. 
South Shetland 
Brit America . 
Isle of (Georgia 
Patagonia . . . . 



HI 
In 
Na 
Nb 
Id 
Ik 

Kg 

^? 
Gf 

Lh 

Hm 

Hy 

Gj 

Kb 

Hd 

VI 

Gc 

Gg 

Vm 

Dc 

Cc 

Wl 
Ld 
Ve 
Ti 
Gh 
Ee 

?i' 

Dc 

Ef 
Gi 

Hk 

Hk 

li 

li 

Gf 

Kf 
Hg 
Ke 

Hh 

5^ 

Lc 
Hd 
Hg 
L e 

Nc 
Tf 
Nk 
Pm 
Ho 
Ga 
Jn 
Hn 



Possession . . . 

Poet 

Potapovskaya. 

Potosi 

Potosi 

Potosi : 

Potschmsk . . . 

Potsdam 

Pottawatomies 

Potter*s 

Poty 

Pouca 

PouFfakeepsie.. . 

PouTisdus 

Pouljon 

Pour 

Pourhaton 

Pousoulan 

Poustaia , 

Poustarctsk .... 

Poustgcn 

PotttaOula 

Poverty 

Povienetz 

Povolgski 

PoYTovska 

Powder 

PoweU's 

Poxina 

Poyang Hon.... 

Proda 

Prades 

Prague 

Prairie dn Chien 

Pnleika 

Prasim 

Praslin 

Pratas 

Praya das PedrasjC. 
Praya das Neves ^ 

Predpriati 

Pregnogortka... 

Preparis 

PresbuTff. 

kdeOarisal.. 



Pres.de 
PresnoTska 

Presqoe 

Presto 

Preston 

Priaman 

Pribuiteff 

Prilooki 

Primeau 

Prince Edward . 
Prince Edward . 
Prince George .. 
Prince Leopold*s 
Prince of Wales 
Prince of Wales 
Prince of Wales 
Prince of Wales 



Mt Brit America . 
Mantcfaooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Missouri 

Russia 

Prussia 

Wisoonain Ter. 
Southern Ocean 
Asiatic Russia 

Thibet 

NewYork... 

Asia 

Mantehooria . 
Asiatic Russia 
Mantehooria . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Mantehooria . . 
New Zealand. . 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Rassia. 

Oregon Ter. 

SouSiem Ocean 

Brazil 

China 

Brazil 

France 



T. 
T. 
Dep 

^: 

T. 

^: 

1. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
Gr. 
T. 
L. 
T. 
T 



C. 
I. 
T. 
L 

T. 
I. 
R. 

a 

T. 

Is. 

T. 

L. 

I. 

L 

R. 

Is. 

Is. 

I. 



C. 



Ga 
Ud 
Tc 
Hk 

Fe 

Pb 

Mc 

Fd 

Kn 

Od 

Re 

Hd 

Qh 

Ud 

Rb 

Ud 

Ub 

Wb 

Wb 

Pb 

Ud 

XI 

Ob 

Oc 

Qc 

Be 

I o 

J J 
Tf 

Vd 



Austria iMc 

Wisconsin Ter. F d 



Russia 

Indian Ocean.. 
New Cieorgia. . 
Eastern Sea .. . 

Africa 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Bay of Bengal. 

Austria 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 

Michigan 

Brazil 

New Holland. . 

Sumatra 

North America 

Russia 

Brit America • 
Indian Ocean.. 
North America 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New a Wales. 
St of Malacca 



Arc. North America 



North America 

m 



Od 
Pi 
Wi 
Tf 

Mj 

J?j 

Qc 
Sg 
Nd 
Ee 
Qc 
Gd 

Jj 

Tk 

Si 

Ac 

Oc 

Ee 

Om 

Hd 

Fb 

Fa 

u 

Dc 
Ab 



OONSDLTING INDEX. 



65 



Priooe of Wmles' 
^ralaad 

Prinoe Regent's 

Prince Regent**. 

Prince Regent's 

Prince's 

Prince's ...... 

Primec^s .« 

Princess Anffosl 

Princess Cbar- 
lotto's...... 

Princess Char- 
lotte's 

PrinoessofWaleB 



a N. 

Bay Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Holland.. 
Africa. ..^.•.« 
Malaysia ... • 
Soatkem Oeesa 
Indian Ooean.. 



itaSh. 



Bay 



Royal . 
Prince WiUuun's 



Is. Oregon Ter. 



Ld. 

L 

So. 

L 



Prince William' 
Prince William's 
Pr.Wm. Henry's 
PrindpeRegenteT. 

Pripri 

Prurend 

Prietina 

Probaschenija . 
Prooouei?skaya 

Prome 

Propria 

Proakuroy •• . . . 

Prostoy 

Proaaaa 

Providence.... 
Providence .... 
Providence .... 
Providence .. . . 
Ptovidenoe .. . . 
Providence .... 
Providence .... 
PRMrideooe Wreck 
Providentia 
Prune ..... 
Prussia .... 
Pnith .... 



Prrpeta. 
Aov.. 



Pi 

Pskov 

Psyche 

Ptolemetta . . . 

Puachttn 

Pudiva ...... 

Poelohes 

Poerco 

Pueaortok .. . . 

Puget 

Paget'* 

Puficat 

Pulmerola.... 
Palo Anna . . . 
Polo Baniackf 
Palo Binting . 
Pok) Bouton.. 
Pdo Brala . . . 



30. 



T. 
T. 

a 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
T. 
L 
I. 

^- 

Ch. 

Rks 

L. 

Rk. 

Sh. 

L 

Km. 



New a Wales 

Brit America 
Polynesia 



Kk 

Ha 
Fa 

Uj 

Mh 

Ti 

Km 

01 

Vj 
Ga 

S^ 
De 

Ca 



Brit Ameriea 
Polynesia •• .. 
North Ameriea|C 

Polynesia 

Brasil 

T. Siam 

Turkey 

Turkey 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Birmah 

BrazU 

Russia 

Russia 

RusMa 

Australasia . . . 

Malaysia 

Rhode Island. . 
Brit Ameriea . 

Bahamas 

Indian Ocean.. 
Brit America . 
EosCem Sea. . . 
Australasia.... 
Madagascar. . . 
Europe 



T. 'Russia 
R. Ru 
Pr. iRu 

?• 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Tr. 

R. 

C. 

C. 

Sa 

T. 



I. 

I. 
I. 
I. 
I. 



Russia 

Persian Gulf.. 

Barca 

Chili 

Australasia.... 

Patagonia 

Mexico 

Gteemand .... 
North America 
Oregon Ter . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Naples 

Polynesia 

Malaysia . • . ■ • 
Malaysia . • • . . 
Str. of Malacca 
Malayan Sea 



Nd 
Ta 
Tc 

?f 

Nd 
Pb 
Ne 
Vi 
Uh 
Hd 
Ec 
Gf 
Pi 
Eb 
Uf 

Ne 

Nd 

Nc 

Nc 

Nc 

Pf 

Ne 

HI 

Xk 

Hm 

Fe 

Jb 

Cc 

Dd 

Rg 

Md 

Uh 

Sh 

Sh 

Sh 

Th 



Pttlo 

PQk» Camba .. . . 
Puk> Capaa. .... 

PuloCai^ 

PukiCondora... 

Pulo Laut 

Pnlo Lia^in .. . . 

PuloLozin 

Pulo Mankap .. . 
Pok) Mariere . . . 
Pulo Mintaon.. . 

PukNyas 

PuloOoio 

Pulo Panjang. . . 
PubPioBiig.... 
Pulo Rendo .... 
PufeSapaU.... 

Puk> Taya 

Pulo Timon .« . . 

PuloUbi 

Puk>Ubt,Fa]se. 

Pok) Way 

Puna 

Punilla 

PunjaHb 

Panjgoor 

Puno 

Puno 

Pnnta de Toro 

Puolaago 

PurceU 

Purdie's 

Pnrdy's 

Piireg 

Purffatory 

Purifieaeoao... 

Pumeak 

Puru 

Punis 

Putten 

Puttuek 

Putu Mayo. . . . 

Putag 

Puula 

Puzulatka 

Pyhajocki 

Pyhea 

Pylstaarts •• • . i 

Pyramid 

Pyrenees ...... 

Pyrenees 

Pytkova 

Quadra 

Qualan 

Quallah Battoo 

Quale 

Qualoen . . . . 
Quangtang 
Quarken... . 
Quarrellers. . . . 



L 

L 

Is. 

L 

I. 

L 

L 

I. 

L 

I. 

Rk. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

L 

L 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 



L Malaysia -.••.. 
I. Malaysia .... 

Malayan Sea . 

Gnlf of Siam 

Malayan Sea. 

Malaysia .... 

Malaysia . . . 

Malayan flea. 

Malaysia.... 

Polvnesia.... 

Malaysia .... 

MalaysU.... 

Asia 

Malaysia.... 

Sir. of Malaeea|8 

Malaysia . . . 

Malayan flea 

China Sea .. 

Makyan Sea .. 

Gulf ef Siam. . 

Gulf of Siam.. 

Malayaa 

Equader 

T. iChiU 

Die. Hindoostan . . . 
T. BeloeehistaB.. . 
Dep Sooth Peru . . . 
Cy. iSoaChPem.... 
Pt Chili 

Russia 

Brit America . 

New Holland.. 



T. 

Bay 

Is. 

I. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
I. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
L. 



Bdooehisfcan , 
Pttt^onia... 

Uruguay 



Russia .... 

Braail 

Hindeestsn . 

Pohmd 

Eqnador..., 
Russia . . . . . 
Russia . . . ' 



Sh 
Ui 
Sh 
Sh 
Th 
Ti 
Si 
Sb 
Ti 
Ufa 
Si 
Sk 
Rb 
Sb 
h 
h 
Tb 

ll 

Sb 
Sh 
Sb 
Gi 
Ml 
Q« 
Qf 

"4 



S 



New Zealand. . 

Pohnesia. 

V. Diemen'sLd. 

Europe 

South Ameriea 
Russia 



Har Russia 

T. Russia . 

T. 

I. 

Rk. 

Mts. 

Mts. 

Mt 

I. 
I. 

T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
I. 
Tr. 



Oregon Ter... 
Polynesia.... 

Sumatra 

Senegambia « « 

Norway 

Birmah 

Sweden 

Brit America 



HI 

Nb 
Fa 
Ul 
Vi 

Pf 

Gm 

II 
Rf 

Nb 

Hi 

Qf 

Nc 

Hi 

Nc 

Nb 

Ob 

Nb 

XI 

Ak 

Vm 

Md 

Hj 

Pb 

Dd 

Wh 
Sh 

Bf 
Nb 
Db 



6' 



86 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



numntnaem,me. 



Qoebec .... 
Qaechncabi 

Qoeda 

Qiiedal 

Qi 

Queen Adelaide's 

Range 

Queen Anne*s 
QueenChariotte's 
QueenCbarlotle's 
QueenChar]olte*8 



'A 

T. 
Pt 
Arc 

Mts. 

C. 

Arc 
I. 
8d. 
QueenCharblte'sSo. 

a 

^'- 

St 

9?- 

R. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T, 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 

T. 



Queen's ... 

Quet-ling . 

Quelpeert . 

Queretaro.< 

Queretaro. 

Querimba*. 

Qoeriniba.. 

QQe8neU*s. 

Quibaxe . . 

Quibdo . . . 

Quibo.... 

Qoicklock 

Qnickmee. 

Qiiilca.... 

QoUiman . 

QoiUimane 

QoiUota .. 

QuUoa.... 

Qoiloa.... 

QuiloD jSta. 

Quimboniby. 
Quimper.... 

Quina 

Quinoej .... 
Qoindonga.. 
Quinffemba . 
Qoinnon .... 
Qointao .... 
Qui Parle... 
Quipungo .•• 
Quirpon .... 
Quisimafugo 
Qalssama .. . 

Quiteve 

Quito 

Quitta 

Quizongo . • . 

Quoin 

Quorra 

Quorri 



Rabac... 
Rabat... 
Rabba... 
Racca... 
Raocoon , 
Race. ... 
Rachov .. 



T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

§f- 

R. 
I. 
R. 
T. 



T. 
T. 

§f 

T. 
Fk. 
C. 
T. 



Lower Canada. 
Patagonia .... 

Malaya 

Chili 

Patagonia ... 

Brit Ameriea . 
Greenland .... 
Australasia . . . 
Oregon Ter.... 
New Zealand. . 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Brit Ameriea . 

China • 

Corea 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Africa 

Mozambique . . 
Oregon Ter.... 

Matemba 

New Grenada . 
New Grenada . 

Sweden 

Birmah 

South Peru. . . . 

ChiU 

Mozambique . . 

ChUi 

Africa 

Quiloa 

Hindooatan . . . 

Africa 

France 

Congo 

Illinois 

Matemba 

Congo 

Cochin China . 

Brazil 

Wisconsin Ter. 

Africa 

Newfoundland. 

Africa 

Benguela .... 
Mozambique . 

Equador 

Dahomey .... 
Mozambique . 
Bay of Bengal 

Africa 

Soudan 



Austria 

Arabia 

Morocco .... 

Soudan 

Asiatic Turkey 
Wisconsin Ter, 
Newfoundland. 
Poland 



Hd 
Hm 

Sh 

Hm 

Hn 

Fb 
lb 

Dc 
Xm 

Dc 
Gb 
Tf 
Ue 
Ff 
Ff 
Oj 

SJ 

De 

^t 
Gh 

Gh 

Nb 

HI 
Oj 
HI 

^i 

Oi 
Rh 

Ni 
Fe 

Ni 
Ni 

If 

Fd 

I c 
Oi 
Mi 

2i 

Gi 

Mh 

^) 
Sh 

Mg 

Mg 

Nd 
Of 
Le 

Mh 
Oe 
Fd 
Id 

Nc 



Racoacb 

Radack Chain . 



Ra 
Radmann 
Radoe ... 
Radom . . . 
Radstock 
Raffles . 

Raft 

Rages... 
Ra|pn .. 



Rainy 

Rainy Lake . . 
Raivaivai .... 
Rajamundry.. 

Rajemal 

Rajour 

Rajpoor 

Raipootana . . . 
Rakkeciak . . . 

Raleigh 

Raleigh 

Raleiflrh*s . . . . 
Ralick Chain . 
Ralmanow . . . 
Ramalt 



Raroeda .... 
Ramgur .... 

Ramier 

Ramleah.... 
Rampoora... 
Ramree. .... 

Ranai 

Rancador . . . 
Rancagua. . . 

Ranea 

Rangamatty. 
Rangazvak .. 
Pangheehoo . 
Rangoon. . . . 

Ranier 

Rankin*s. . . . 

Raoul 

Raoutan .... 

Rapa 

RapaloTskoe. 

Rappen 

Raratoa 

Rarotonia .. 
RasalGat.. 

Rasat 

RasAsooad. 
Ras Awath.. 
Ras Banna.. 
Ras el Ain . . 
Ras el Jidid • 
Ras Gilla . . . 
RasGoree .. 



T. 
Is. 
Is. 
Mts. 

I. 

I. 

T 

Bay 

Pc 

R. 

T. 

I'- 

L. 

Dis. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

C. 

S'u 

Pk. 

Is. 

C. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

L 

Mt 

T. 

L 

L 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Mt 

In. 

I. 

^ 

T. 
L. 
L 
L 
C. 
C. 
C. 

a 

C. 
T. 
C. 

a 

T. 



Mexico 

Polynesia..... 
Madagascar.. . 
Madagascar. . . 

Sweden 

Norway 

Pohmd 

Brit America . 
NewHoUand.. 
Brit America . 

Bolivia 

Austria 

Polynesia 

Noith America 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Hindooatan .. . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindooatan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 
North Carolina 
Brit America . 

Guiana 

Polynesia 

Seghalien 

Arabia 

Hindoostan . . . 

Barca 

Hindoostan . . . 
West Indies .. . 

ArabU 

Hindoostan . . . 

Birmah 

Sandwich Is. . . 
Caribbean Sea. 

Chili 

Sweden 

Hindoostan .. . 
Madagascar.. . 
New Zealand. . 

Birmah 

Oregon Ter. . . 
Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Sweden 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 
Arabia . . 
Barcfil... 
Africa... 
Ajan. ... 
Africa... 
Asiatic Turkey 
NubU... 
Arabia . . 
Africa. . . 



Ee 

Xh 

V 
Pj 

Nc 
Mb 
Nc 
Fa 

Uj 
Gc 

^i 

Nd 

Bj 
Fd 
Fd 
Ck 

R| 
Ri 
Qe 
Q« 
Qi 
Hb 
Ge 
Hb 
Hh 
Xh 
iVc 
Pf 

Qg 
Ne 
Rf 
Hj 
Of 
Rf 

If 

Nb 
Sf 
Pk 
XI 

^«; 

Dd 
Fb 
Ak 
Xb 
Ck 
Qb 
Nb 
Bk 

®l 

Qf 

Ne 
Ph 
Ph 

P* 
Oe 
Of 
Pf 
P« 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



87 



RaaHafixia ••«. 

RasJUUh 

Rm Mabber . . . 
RuMacherMb 
Ru Miicliaai«. 
RMBeccaa... 
RaMTpow •••• 
Rm Tanbora . • 
RuUlKhyle.. 
Rm UmbM . . . 

Rat 

Ratehin Scpa.. 
Ralhboiie 



Ratisboo 

RaodancM . . . 

Rankoka 

Raaino 

RaToe 

Raven 

Ravenna 

Rawa 

Rawa 

Rawan Etrad . 

5*f 

Ra7& 

Raynpora • . . . 



Raznchina . 

Re 

Real 

ReaJejo . . . . 
Reaper .... 
ReanoD ... 






Reeberche (oftbe; 

Reeif 

RccreatioQ .. 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red Deor.., 
Red Head... 
Red Knife . . 
Red Lake ..< 
Redondo.... 
Redoodo.... 
Redontkafe.. 
Red River... 
Red Rock... 
Red Sand . . . 

Refbn 

R^;an 

ftegiato 

Regneradaoe 



a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 

T. 

a 
c. 
a 

R. 
L. 
L 
T. 

L 
T. 
R. 

^ 

T. 
T. 
L. 
C. 
R. 
T. 
C. 
R. 
L 
R. 
T. 
L 
L 
L 

Al€. 

a 

L 

Sea 

MU. 

R. 

R. 

Fk. 

Fk, 

L. 

L. 

PL 

R. 

C. 

R. 

Ho. 

L 

Mt 

T. 

Dia. 

L. 

HIb. 

L 

T. 

T. 

L 



Africa... 
Arabia .. 

Ajan 

Arabia 

Arabia 

ArabU 

Tartary 

Arabia 

Ajan..* 

Africa 

Oregon Ter. . . 

Tbibet 

Scoreeby^ Ld. 

Praaaia 

Bavaria 

Iceland 

Korile Islanda. 

Rnsaia 

Hindoofltan • . . 

Polyneaia 

Itaiy 

Anatria 

Poland 

Thibet 

Newfoondland. 

Java 

Htndooatan . . . 

Barca 

AnaticRoaaia. 

France 

Brazil 

Groatemala . . • . 

Polyneaia 

Polyneaia 

Norway 

Anatralaaia.... 
Cape Colony . . 

Polyneaia 

Africa 

Madagaacar .. . 
United Statea.. 
Wiaconain Ter. 

Texaa 

Miaaoori Ter. . 
Wiaconain Ter. 
Brit. America . 
New Holland.. 
Brit America . 
Greenland .... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Gallapagoa .... 
Patagonia .... 
Aaiatic Ruaaia 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Brava 

Japan 

Cabul 

Brazil 

Norway 



If 

Ph 
Pf 
Pf 
Pf 
Pe 
Pf 
Ph 

Ed 

Re 

Ka 

Nc 

Md 

Kb 

Wd 

Nb 

Qe 

Wb 

Md 

Nc 

Nc 

Re 

Id 

Ti 

Rf 

Ne 

Xb 

Ld 

iJ 
Gg 

Bi 

Bj 

Na 

Ul 
Nl 

Og 

Fe 

Fd 

Fe 

Fd 

Fd 

Fc 

Tk 

Ec 

la 

Db 

Fc 

Eh 

Hm 

Od 

Fd 

Eb 

Ob 

Vd 

Qf 

li 

Na 



llpMiarnuai,ae. 



Reid 

Reid 

Reikianoea 

Reikiaviig 

Rein Deer. 

Rein Deer. 

Rein Deer. 

Reliance . . 

Remedioa . 

Rennell... 

Rennell... 

RennelPa.. 

Reniiell^a.. 

Rennea . . . 

Republican 

Repolae . . . 

Repulae... 

Reqi 

Rerooa 

Reaafa. 

Reaele. 

Reahd 

Reaolution 

Reaolation 

Reaolation 

Reaolation 

Retimo 

Retino 

Rettenbenk 

Reunion 

Revel 18. 

Revel 

Rcrilla 

Rerillagjgedo . . . 
Revillagigedo. . . 

Rcvj 

Rewah 

Rey 

Rliio 

Rhode IsUnd .. . 

Rhodea 

Rhone 

Rhyb'mak 

Rhylsk 

Riaha 

RiaUk 

Riazane ....36. 

Riazane 

lUbe 

Ribnoe 

Rica de Oro .... 
Rica de Plata. . . 

Ricareea 

Riceboro 

Rice Trevor*8. . . 

Richarda* 

Richarda' 

Richardaon 

Richard8on*B . . . 

Richp 

Richmond 



R. 

^' 

T. 

L 

la. 

Ld. 

Ft 

T. 

Mt 

C. 

L 

So. 

T. 

Fk. 

T. 
L 
T. 
T. 

c,. 

I. 
I. 

Ft 

I. 

T. 

Dia. 

L 

Pr. 

?r- 

la. 

L 

T. 

T. 

L 

S. 

St 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Pr. 

§^- 

T. 

L 

L 

Tr. 

T. 

I. 

?' 

Ch. 

^' 

Cy, 



Oregon Ter.... 
Brit America . 

Iceland 

Iceland 

Spitabergen . . . 
Bnt America . 
Spitabergen . . . 
Brit America . 
New Grenada . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Auatralaaia... . 
Oregon Ter. .. 

France 

Af iaeouri Ter. . 
Brit America . 
NewaWalea. 

Spain 

Polyneaia 

Syria 

Sweden 

Peraia 

Polynena 

Brit America . 
Auatralaaia... . 
Brit America . 

Candia 

Now Grenada . . 
Greenland .... 
Indian Ocean . 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Mexico 

N. Pacific Oc . 
North America 

Ruaaia 

Hindooatan . . . 
New Grenada . 

Malayaia 

United SUtee. . 
Mediterran. Sea 

France 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Mongolia .... 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Denmark .... 
Aaiatic Ruaaia 
Polyneaia. .... 
Polyneaia .... 
Miaaonri Ter. 

Georgia 

Patagonia .... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Guinea 
Virginia .. . . 



Ed 
Hd 
Kb 
Kb 
Na 
Eb 
Ma 
Eb 
Hh 
Db 
Fa 

^^ 
Dc 

Ld 

Fd 

Gb 

Vk 

Le 

Rj 

Oe 
Nb 
Pe 

Wm 

Eb 

Ne 

Gh 

la 

Pk 

Nc 

Nc 

Ff 

Eg 

Dc 

Oc 

Rf 

Gh 

Sh 

Hd 

Ne 

Md 

Oc 

Oc 

Td 

Oc 

Oc 

Oc 

Mc 

Sa 

xr 

Xe 

Fd 
Ge 
Hn 
Gb 
Db 
Cb 
Eb 
..Vi 
..pe 



88 



CONSULTING INDSX 



Richmond . . 
Richmond.. 
Ricovskaya. 
Rldan; .... 

Rider 

Rielohitza. . 
Riezitzi .... 
Riga. 
Riga. 
Rig' 



^;f.'^. 



Riley 

Rimatara 

Rimba 

Rimini 

Rimnik 

Rinde 

Rinkioping 

Rio 

Rio Colorado . . . 
Rio de la Hacha 
Rio de la Plata.. 
Rio Grande .... 
Rio Grande do 

Norte 

RbGrandedoSul 
Rioja 
Rioja de la 
Rio Janeiro 
Rio Janeiro . . . 
Rio Magdaleoa* 
Rio Negro .... 
Rio Negro • . • . 
Rio Negro .... 
Rio Negro .... 

Riou 

Riou*8 

Riparoonee .... 

Ripon • . . 

Rivera 

Rivoli 

Riieh 

R.McIieod*8 .. 

Roanoke 

Robello 

Roberts' 

Roberto* 

Robertson 

Robinson 

Robson* 

Rocailleox .... 

RoGcas 

Rochefort 

Rochester 

Rochookoko ... 

Rock 

Rock 

Rock 

Rockingham .. 

Rooky 

Rocky 



6. 
T. 
T. 
Is. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

&• 

Bay 

Cy. 

C. 

I. 

Pr. 

T. 

C. 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 
Pr. 
Pr. 



L Nuera Cy. 
Pr. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

P6. 

I. 

R. 

1. 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Rks 

C. 

Mt 

Rf. 

C. 

I. 

Cy. 



Brit America . 
New a. Wales . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Malayan Sea . . 

Arabia 

Russia 

Roflsia 

Russia 

Russia 

Brit America . 

Darffar 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Benguela 

Italy 

Seghalicn 

Russia 

Denmark 

Japan 

Mexico 

New Grenada . 
South America 
Mexico 



I. 
R. 
L 
Ho. 



Brazfl 

Brazil 

Buenos Ayres . 
Buenos Ayres . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

New Grenada . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Buenos Ayres . 
New Grenada.. 
North America 
Po(^ne8ia.. 
Grutnea . . « . . 
Brit America . 

Cefebes 

News. Wales. 
Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America .> 
North Carolina 

Brazil 

South Zetland 
Polynesia .... 
Brit America 
Brit America . 
Southern Ocean 
Asiatic Russia 
Venezuela.... 

FVance 

New York)... 
Eastern Sea.. 

Illinois 

Oregon Ter. . 
Brit America 
New S. Wales 
iBiit America 
Polyi 



Gc 
Wl 
Tc 

Sh 

l^ 
Oc 

Nc 

Nc 

Nc 

Fa 

?f 

Bk 

Mj 
Md 
Vc 
Ob 
Mc 
Vd 
Ee 

?,' 

Ff 

Ji 
Ik 
Hk 
Hk 

Hf 

Hi 
HI 
Hh 
Cc 

9 
Ih 

Fb 
Uh 
VI 
Od 
Eb 
Ge 
Jk 
lo 
Ci 
Ha 
Cb 
Ml 
Wa 

?! 

Gd 
Uf 
Fd 
Dc 
Fc 

Go 



htillmm,a». 



Rocky 

Rocky 

Rocky 

Rocky 

Rocky 

Rocky 

Rocky Mountain 

Rocky Mountain 

Rocky Mountain 

Indians .• 
Rodbar .... 

Rodda 

Rode 

Rodncfy.... 
Rodney. «..< 
Rodney. . . . 
Roebuck . . . 
Roe Buck .. 

Roes 

Roguaguado 
Rokelle .. . . 

Rokol 

Rokd 

Roma 

Roi 



maeuas , 
»mame . . , 



Roi 

Roman T. 



I. 

21^ 

Sha. 

Pt 

Mtsi 

Ha 

Ho. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

Fd. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Bay 

Ld. 

R. 

L. 

R. 

Bk. 

Rk. 

I. 

T. 

C. 



Romandoe 

RomanoY 

Romans 

Romanzoff .... 
Romanzoff .... 
Romanzoff . . . . 
Romanzoff .... 
Romanaov .... 

Romberg 

Rome 

Rome 

Romeiros do0 
Castilhanos.. 

Romel 

Romelia • 

Romen . 



T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

Mt 

Po. 



I. 
Po. 
Pr. 
T. 



Romsdal T. 



Romsdal 
Rona 

Ronda T. 

Ronde .... 
Ronehamn 
Rono-sima 
Rooapooa . 
Roostam.. 
Roper .... 
RornoT 



Rorstad T. 



Rosa 

Rosaretta . 
Rosas .... 
Roecoe ... 

Rose 

Rose .... 



I. 
T. 
I. 
R. 
T. 
C. 



Pt 

Sh. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

I. 



Malaysia .... 
Labrador .... 
Brit America 
Malaysia .... 
New Zealand. 
North America 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Brit America . 

Cabaf 

Arabia 

Iceland 

Mississippi. . . * 
North America 
New Guinea . . 
New Holland.. 
Spitsbergen . . . 
New H<3land. . 

Pern 

Senegambia... 
Atlantic Ocean 
Atlantic Ocean 
Malaysia .... 

Peru 

South Carolina 

Turkey 

Boliria 

Russia 

Florida 

Japan 

North America 

Polynesia 

North America 

Mexico 

Mantchooria . . 

lUly 

New York.... 



Indian Ocean . 
Greenland . . . 

Turkey 

Russia s 

Norway 

Norway 

Scotland 

Spain 

Indian Ocean. 

Gothknd 

Eastern Sea .. 

Africa 

Tartary . . : . . 
Brit America 

Russia 

Norway 

Buenos Ayres 
Australasia... 

Spain 

Brit America 
Polynesia.... 
North AmericalC 



Vg 

I 

Eb 
Ti 
Xm 
c 
Dc 
Ec 

Dc 
Qe 

ll 

Fe 
Ab 
Vj 
Uj 
Ma 

Uj 

u 

Lc 
Lc 
Ul 

5J 

Oe 

Nd 

Oc 
Gf 

Vd 
Ab 

ch 

Ee 
Vc 
Md 
Gd 



Qk 

lb 

Nd 

Oc 

Mb 

Mb 

Lc 

Ld 

Pi 

Nc 
Uf 

^i 
Pe 

H& 

Nc 

Mb 

Hm 

XI 

Md 

Db 



00N8ULTIN6 INDE3L 



Mttnmm,^ 



RowAa. 



Rorier... 
Ro«la?k. 



Rom .... 

Roflwl... 
Roaael*!.. 
Roanena. 



Ro0t 

Roitak 

Rortock 

RoftoT 

Rtmng 

Rottee 

RotteriUm 

Rotumah 

Rouen • •• • 

Raiig««...;.««< 

Room < 

Roand 

Roond , 

Round Hia 

Rooni 

Roramemi . . • . < 
Rovboe. ...... 

Rovno 

Rowley's 

Eoxbarg 

Rozo < 

Roxo ...•.....< 

Royal 

Rafal 

Roffd 

Royal 

Ri^ Company 'i 

Rx^ale 

Rnao 

Rvatan 

Roengaa 

Rnfua 

Rogen 

Rngcnwalde .. . 

Rum 

Rom . . « • 

Run 

Ramby 

Rum Key , 

Runaway 

Rongpore 

Ronning Water . 

RoGTesr , 

Rnpande 

Rupert 

Rupert River . . . 
Rupert River . • . 

Rutierfs 

Rurvtii •••••••< 

RniMa 



T. 
In. 

^: 

T. 

pt 
I. 

Bk. 
, T. 
R. 
L 

^: 

T. 
L 
I. 

^• 

;^- 

. Pr. 

L 

L 

I. 
,T. 

L 
.T. 
.Sha. 
.L 

a 
a 

Pa 
Pa 

,Sa 

■ L 

I. 

,L 

Tr. 
.R. 
.1. 
.T. 
.L 
.R. 

L. 
. Mt 

It. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

mi. 

Ha 
Cr. 
L 

,|Cty. 



Dominiea I.... 

Sooreeby's Ld.. 
Egypt........ 

Lower CUiada. 

RuBsia 

BriL America . 
Brit America 
Australasia . . , 
Bay of Bengal 



Asiatic Russia 
Loffoden Isles 

Arabia 

Mecklenburg' • 

Russia 

Norway 

Malaysia .... 

Holland 

Polynesia .... 

France 

Arabia 

Asiatic TurkeyjO 
Polynesia .... 
Cape Verd Is. < 
Labrador .... 
Knrile Islands 

Rossia 

Norway 



Australasia. 
Polynesia .. 
Mexico .... 
Sene^ambia 
Jatnaica .. . 
South Carolina. 
Isle of Greorgia 
Indian Ocean . 
Southern Ocean 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Polynesia 

Guatemala .. . . 

Africa 

News. Wales. 
Baltic Sea ... 

Prussia 

Scotland . .... 
Wisconsin . . . 
Brit America 

Africa 

Bahamas .... 
New Zealand. 
Hindoostan . . 
Missouri Ter. 
Russia ...... 

Africa 

Brit America . 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Polynesia. . . . 
Europe 



Ka 

Oo 
Hd 
Oc 
Ga 
£a 

^i 

^VA 
Ne 
Mb 
Pf 
Me 
Oc 
Mb 

Uj 
Mc 

Xj 
Md 
Qf 
o 

I C 

Wd 
Nb 
Na 

N« 

Ti 

Bk 

Ff 

K« 

S^ 
6e 

Jn 

Qm 

Vn 

6d 

^« 

Oi 
VI 
Me 

Nc 

Le 

Fd 

Eb 

Mb 

Gf 

XI 

Rf 

Fd 

Nb 

Nk 

Gc 

He 

Gc 

Fc 

Bk 

Oc 



Russian 

Russian Lapland 

Rutland 

Rutlaum 

Rotschuck 

Rutbampore .. . . 

Rntui 

RykYse 

Saade.« 

Saatz 

Saba 

Sabannoa 

Sabanqui 

Sahara 

Sabart 

Sabi 

Sabia 

Sabia 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine's ....... 

Sabinez 

Sabia 

Sable 

SaUe 

SaUe 

Sable 

Sable 

Saboon 

Sabounsky 

Sabrao 

Sacahuchen .... 

Sacalit^ 

Sachanine 

Saebama 

Saekett*s Har. . . 

Sackwa 

Saoramento .... 
Sacramento . . . . 

Sacs 

Sadadoo 

Saddle 

Saddle 

Saddle 

Sado 

Sadras 

Saegiek 

Safe 

Saf^ 

Safsen 

Sagan 

Sagarawida . . . . 

Saginaw 

Sa^aw 

Sagis 

lara 



C. 

Ter, 

Pr. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

L 

T. 

T. 

L 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

Is. 

R. 

Pt 

L 

T. 

T. 

L 

a 
c. 
c. 
Pt 

T. 
T. 

1. 

T. 

R. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

L 

L 

Pt 

L 

T. 

Bay 

Har 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 
Des. 



Japan 

North America 

Russia 

Bay of Bengal. 
Hindoostan . . . 

Turkey 

Hindoostan • . • 

Polynesia 

Spitsbergen . . . 



Anbia 

Austria 

West Indies... 

Borneo 

Mexico.. •.... 

Brazil 

Tripoli 

Azanaga 

Africa 

Mozambique . . 
North America 
Greenland .... 

Louisiana 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Mexico 

Persia 

Nova Scotia. . . 
Nova Scotia... 

Florida 

Asiatic Russia. 
Tartary 
Africa.. 
Asiatic 
Malaysia .. 

Mexico 

Madaffascarc . . 
Nova Zembla. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
New York .. . . 

Soudan 

Uru^|uay .... 

Mexico 

Wisconnn Ter. 
Senegambia .. . 

Malaysia 

Malayan Sea . . 
SjMtsberifen . . • 
Japan ....!... 
Hindoostan . . . 

Labrador 

Spitsbergen . . . 

Morocco 

Sweden 

Prussia 

Java 

Michigan 

Michigan..... 

Tartary 

Lower Canada. 
Africa 



Ve 
Bb 
Ob 
Sg 
Rf 
Nd 
Rf 
Ck 
Na 

Og 
Mc 

?l[ 

f^ 
^. 

Lf 

Ok 

Ok 

Bb 

Ha 

Ff 

Cb. 

£a 

Ee 

Pe 

Hd 

Hd 

Gf 

Xb 

Pd 

Ng 

Rb 

Ui 

li 

Pb 
Pd 
Gd 
Mg 

II 

Ee 

Fd 

hi 

Th 
Ma 

Ve 

Rg 

He 

Ma 

Le 

Mb 

Nc 

Ti 

Gd 

Gd 

Pd 

Hd 

Lf 



9* 



90 



CONSULTING INDSX 



J»Kmm<dnaem,tm. 



S&hul 
SiLid 



Sh. 
T. 



Saidabad T. 



Sailor's Horn . 

Saima 

St Aigoan . . . 
St Alessaodio 
St Amaro.... 
St Amaro.... 
St Ambrodo . 
St Andreia . . 
St Andrew . • 
St Andrew's • 
St Andrew's . 
St Andrew's . 
St Andrew's . 
St AngeUf . . . 
St Anisia ,. . • 

St Ann 

St Anna 

St Anna 

St Anna 

St. Anna 

St Anna.^ . . . 

St Anne 

St Anne's . . . 
St Anthony . . 
St Anthony . . 
St Anttco.... 
St Antoine. . . 
St Antonio . . . 
St Antonio... 
St Antonio .. . 
St Antonio... 
St Antonio .. . 
St Antonio JavitaT. 
St Aagastin. 
St Aagustin. 
St Augustine. . . 
St Aufostine... 
St Augustine. . . 
St. Auffustine's . 

St Barbara 

St Barbara 

St Bamabe .... 
St Birtholomea. 
St Bartholomew 
St Bartolome .. . 
St Bartolomeo .. 
St Benedicto 



Malaysia . 
Syria 



a 

L. 
I. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
L 
C. 
T. 
1. 
Is. 

T. 
C. 
L. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 

^' 

Falls 

I. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

Po. 

His. 



C. 
I. 

^- 

T. 

a 

L 

I. 

I. 

Po. 

I. 

I. 



St Benito |R. 

St Bernardo. 

St Bias IC. 



St Brandon ... Rks 

St Brieoz T. 

St Carlos Oy. 

St Carlos de Ja- 

cuhy 
St Catharine 
St Catharine 



St Catherine . . . C. 



Pa 



r- ^« 

Great BoohaiiaQe 

Me- 

Nb 

Vf 
11 

Jj 

Gk 

Sa 

Si. 
u 

6e 
Ik 
Va 
Gd 
Hj 
Ik 

!j 

Qa 

?! 

Me 

Hd 

Gf 

II 

Kg 

Hm 

Hm 

Hh 

Ji 

Vf 

Gf 

Uh 

Ic 

Ok 

Hh 

Ih 



Denmark 

Russia 

Australasia.... 

Polynesia 

Brazil 

Braal 

S. Pacific Oc... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Madagascar .. . 
N. Bninswiok . 
Caribbean Sea. 

Polynesia 

Florida 

Uruguay 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 

Bolivia 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bnvl 

Brazil 

Lower Canada. 
Nova Zambia .. 

Arabia 

Wisconsin Ter. 

Sardinia 

Lower Canada 

Cuba 

Buenos Ayres . 
Cape Verd Is. . 
Patagonia .... 
Patagonia .... 
Venezuela .... 

Brazil 

Polynesia 

Florida 

Mindanao .... 

Labrador 

Madagascar... 
Venezuela .... 

Guinea 

Polynesia 

Australasia .... 
West Indies. . . 

Mexico 

Polynesia 

N. Pacific Oc . 

Africa 

Brazil 

Florida 

Indian Ocean . 

FAuioe 

Caiili 



Brazil 

Brazil....... 

Guatemala . . . 



I^NUlgD. 



Vi 

Ef 

Eg 
Mil 
Ji 
Gf 

?i 

Hm 

Ik 

k 
G^ 
Ml 



ltaMiarflMi^*» 



St. Catherine . . 
St Charles... 
St Christopber. 
St Christopher 
St Christoval ., 
St Christoral . 

St Clair 

St Clairsville . 
StClara.... 
St demente. . 

St Croix 

StCroiz 

St Cyprian's . 
St David's... 
StDenis .... 
St Diego ..... 
St Diego de Gua* 



C. 

T. 

L 

L 

T. 

L 

C. 

T. 

Rks 

Vol. 

L 

R. 

R. 

L 

T. 

a 



St Domingo. 
8t Domingo .' 
St Elena ... 
St Elena ... 
St Elena ... 
St. Elena . . . 
St Elias .... 
St Elmo.... 
St Esprit ... 
St Esprit . . . 
St. Estaea... 
StEustatius 
St Fadeia. . . 
St Felipe . . . 
St Felipe . . . 
StFeUpedeBen- 

guela 

St Felix .... 
St Felix.... 
St Felix.... 
St Fdix .... 
St Fernando 
St Fernando 
St Fernando 
St Fernando 
St Fernando de 

laSelva.... 

St Foi 

St Francis... 
St Francis... 
St Francis... 
St Francis... 
St Francis ... 
StFrancisQo. 
St Francisco < 
St Francisco . . . 
St Francisco • . . 
St Francisco . . . 
St Francisco « . . 
St Francisco Boija Cy . 
St Francisco de 

Atacama 
8t J^onciKO Bolano 



T. 

2- 

T. 

Ft 

Pt 

Pt 

Mt 

I. 

I. 

Bk. 

•C. 

L 

L 

T. 

T. 



^: 

c. 
I. 

Is. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 
T. 
C. 
C. 
I. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
C. 
I. 
L 
R. 



Pt 



Brit America • 

Missouri 

West Indies... 
Indian Ocean . 
NewGrenada.. 
Australasia.... 
Brit America . 

Ohio 

Madagascar... 
Patagonia .... 
West Indies... 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Azanaga 

Poljmesia 

Bourbon Isle . . 
Patagonia 



Equador 

Hayti 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayies . 

Spain 

Patagonia 

Equador 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Malayan Sea . . 
Malayan Sea . . 

Spain 

West-Indies.. . 
Asiatic Russia. 

ChiU 

Buteos Ayres . 



Bengnela . 
Branl. .. 



Madagascar. . . 
S.PacificOc.. 
S. Pacific Oc... 

Venezuela 

Venezuela .... 

Chili 

Equador 



Chili 

Guiana 

Cape Colony . . 

Labrador 

Australasia . . . 

Arkansas 

Lower Canada. 

Brazil 

Benguela 

Equador 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Uruguay 



Bolivia 

New Grenada 



Fa 

Fe 
Hy 

^l 
6a 
Pk 
Hm 

?J 

Kf 
Uh 
Pk 
Hn 

Hh 

II 

Le 

Hm 

6i 

Cb 

Ck 

Th 

ll 

?^ 

Sa 

HI 
Ik 

Ok 
Gk 
Gk 
Hh 
Hh 
HI 
Hi 

Hk 

Ih 

Nl 

Ic 

Ul 

Fe 

Hd 

Gh 
Ef 
Ik 

ll 

Hk 
Gh 



O0N8ULTINO INDEX. 



ei 



T. 
T. 



I. 
I. 

^' 

c. 

T. 

?' 

Ch. 

cai. 
I. 

R. 

I. 

Bay 

ML 



8t FraneisfiUe 
St* G6orgB • . • I 
SL Geor^ .... 
St George .... 
St Geerge .... 
St Geoige . . . < 
St George . . . 
St. <veorge*e . . 
St George's . . 
St George'fl . • 
St George*fl . . 
St George*fl . . 
St George*! . . 
St George** . . 
StHarioi.... 
St Helenm . . . 
St Helena ... 
St Helen*! . . . 
St HermenegUdo Pt 

St Ignacio 

St ifdeibiiM 

St Ines 

St Jago 

St Jago 

St Jago 

St James 

St James 

St James 

St. James 

St Joachim .... 

St Joao 

St Joao del Rey 

StJoaodoPalmaT. 

St Joaqtum 

St Joaqnim 

St Joaqnim 

St John 



T. 

Is. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

C. 

C. 

Ft 

Ft 

T. 

T. 

T. 



St John 

St John 

St John 

St John 

St John*s 

St John's 

St John*s 

St John's 

St John's 

St Jofan*s 

St John's 

St John's 

St Jose 

St Jose 

St Jose de Maj. 

pure 

St Jose de Mos- 

samedy 



T. 
St Jose d'Encoche'Ft 
T. 
Ft 
I. 
L. 
Pt 



St Joseph. 
St Joseph. 
St Joseph. 
St Joseph. 
St Joseph. 



tmmm. 2£ amml 




T. 
T. 
R. 

a 



a 
c. 

L. 
R. 
T. 
T. 

?^ 

R. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 



New Zealand. 
New Grenada 
Newfoundland. 
Newfoundland. 
Great Britain 
Australasia.. 
North America 
Fata^nia .... 
Asiatie Russia. 
CapeCMony .. 
Southern Ocean 
Oregon Ter. . 
Buenos Aytes 

Equador 

Patagonia ... 
Patagonia.... 

Peru 

St Jaffo 

CapeVerdls. 
Cambodia.... 
Oregon Ter.. . . 
Senegambia .. . 
Oregon Ter. . . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

BrazU 

BrazU 

Bolivia 

Bdivia 

Mezioo 

Staten Island .. 

Africa 

Newfoundland. 
Lower Canada. 

Africa 

N. ftimswick . 
Newfoundland . 
Newfoundland. 
Spitsbergen . . 
West Indies.. 
N. Brunswick 
Michigan.... 
AUstraliksia . . 

Brazil 

Brazil 



Fe 

P. 

Hm 
Od 
Wi 

?/ 

Id 

Lo 

Wi 

Ac 

Hm 

8a 

Nl 

Lj 

Dd 

II 

Hi 

Hn 

(Hn 



Veoeznelt 



Braal.. 
Conffo.. 
Fbnda . 



Senegambia . . . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Brit America 
Florida 



U 

Dc 

K^ 
Dc 

Hi 

Ik 

Jk 

De 

Hn 

Mh 

Ic 

Hd 

gl 

Id 
lo 
Ma 

H^ 

Hd 

Gd 

Wi 

I! 

Ik 

Hh 
Gf 

L,r 

Pi 

Fc 
Gf 



St Joseph's 
St Joseph's 
St Juan . . . 
St Juan . . . 
St Joan . . . 

St Juan fr. 

St Juan T. 

I. 



St Juan 
St Juan 
St Juan 
St Juan 

St Juan 

St Juan Baptista 
StJuandeJaebun 
St Juan de Ulna 

St JuUen 

St Jnlieu 

StKilda 

St KonstantinoT 



Michigan i...< 
Patagonia. • . . 

BoH^ 

Porto Rioo... 
Guatemala ** • 
Blezioo ...... I 

New Grenada 
Polynesia.... 

Poi Guatemala .. . 
Guatemala .« . 

BoUria 

New Gtenada 
Polynesia .... 
Buenos Ayres 
Mezioo...... 

F^ranoe 

Pa 

d. 



R. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Po. 

I. 

T. 



St Korel T. 



I. 

^' 

Is. 
R. 
C. 
C. 
R. 
I. 

^: 

C. 
R. 
C. 

5*y 

I. 



St Laurent 
St Lawrence. 
St Lawrence . 
St Lawrence . 
St Lawrenoe. 
StLazaro.... 
St Lorenza. • . 
StLorenza... 
St Lorenzo. . • 
St Louis .... 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Lucas .... 
StLucta .... 
St Lucia .... 
St Lucia .... 
St Lucia .... 
St Lucia .... 

St Lucia R. 

StLuzia T. 

St Lttzia 

StMaloes |T. 

St Marcelino .. . 
St Margarita... 
St Mtria Maior 

St Mark's 

St Martin 

St Martin 

St Martin's ... 

St Mary 

St Mary 

St Mary 

St Mary 

St Mary's 

St Mary's .... 

StMtry's 

St Mary's 

St Mary's 

i St Mary's .... 



Gd 
Hm 



Ipdian Ocean 
Asiatic Russia 
North America 
North America 
North America 

Bffizico 

Equador 

Brazil 

Peru 

Missouri 

ibia 
Ha] 






T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

C. 

C. 

I. 

C. 
I. 
Is. 



Wisconsin Ter. 

Mezioo 

Borneo 

Madagascar.. . 

Cafihuria 

West Indies... 
Cape y erd Is. . 

Ckfihuia 

Braal 

Brazil 

France 

Brazil 

Mezioo 

Buenos Ayres . 

Florida 

Patagonia ... 
West Indies.. 
CapeCokmT . 
Bourbon Isle . 

Portugal 

Senegambia .. 

Azores 

Georgia 

Newfoundland. 

Africa 

Madagascar. 
Madagascar. 
Labrador ... 



G 
F 
Hh 
Vf 

S« 
Gf 

Hk 

Gh 

Ck 

Hk 

l\ 

Hm 
Lc 

Nd 

Nc 

Pi 

Ab 
Hd 
Ab 
Hd 
Ef 
Gi 

h\ 

Fe 
Kk 

H» 

I c 
Fd 
Ef 
Th 
Pk 
Ok 

Sf 



Ok 

li 

Hh 
Ef 
Ik 
Ge 
Gn 

H«r 

NT 
Pk 
Le 
Kg 
Ke 
Ge 
Id 
Ok 
Ok 

lo 



99 



CONSULTING INDEX 



HAC. 
T. 



tlmndoCy, 



St Matheo .. 
St. Matheos . 
StMaAhiu.. 
St Matthew . 
St Maara... 
St Maurice . 
St Michael.. 
St Michael.. 
St Michaera 
St Michael's 
St Migfuel . . 
StMi^d .. 
St Miguel .. 
St Miguel .. 
St Negia . . . 
St Nicholaa . 
St Nicolas . . 
St Patrick's 
St Paul .... 
St Paul . . . , 
St Paul .... 
St Paul de 
St Paulo de Oli- 

▼enco.. .. 
St Paul's . . 
St Paul's . . 
St Paul's . . 
St Paul's . . 
St Paul's.. 
St Paul's.. 
St Paul's . . 
St Pedro . . 
St Pedro . . 
St Pedro .. 
St Pedro . . 
St Pedro del 
St Pedro de No. 

lasco 
St Pedro de Rio 

Orande 
StPerts. 
St Peter.. 
St Peter's 
St Peter's 
St Peter's 
St Petersburg 17 
St Petersburg 
StPhilHp.... 

St Pierre 

St Pierra .... 
St Pierro .... 
St Pietro .... 
St Roman ... 
St Roqoe .... 
StRoque.... 

St Rosa 

St SalTador . . 
^ Salvador . . 
St Salvador . . 
St Salvador . . 
St Sebastian . 



I. 
T. 

I. 
R. 

c 
I. 

Bay 

Bk. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



ReyT. 



T. 



T. 

a 
a 
I. 



L 
R. 
T. 
I. 
I. 
R. 



2^- 

L. 

T. 
Ft 
R. 
Pr. 

I'- 

T. 
I. 
I. 
L 

a 
c. 

Bk. 
Bk. 
Cy. 



BraxU ... 
Patagonia 
Dahomey 
North America 
Polynesia ... 
Indian Ocean 
6. St Lawrence 

Africa 

Buenos Avres . 
Atlantic Ocean 

Pol^eaia 

Gumea 

BrasO 



Polynesia .... 

Braiil 

Patagonia..'.. 
Bay of Bengal 
Ionian Isles .. 
Lower Canada 
Labrador .... 

Asores 

Labrador .... 
Indian Ocean . 
Guatemala .... 

Equador 

Brazil 

Paraguay 

Equiulor 

Hayti 

Cape Verd Is. . 
V.Diemen'sLd. 
Bourbon Island 
Atlantic Ocean 
North America 
Angola .. 



Ve 

Hm 

Sh 

Ne 

Hd 

Ic 

Ke 

Ic 

Pi 

G^ 

Hi 

Ik 

Ik 

Hi 

Hg 

Vm 
Pk 
Kh 
Be 
Mi 



BrazO. 



Brazil 

N. Pacific Oc . 
Lower Canada. 
G.St Lawrence 
Asiatic Russia. 
Wisconsin Ter. 

Russia 

Russia 

FalkUndls.... 
Martinique .... 

Polynesia 

Indian Ocean.. 

Sardinia 

Venezuela 

Brazil 

Sooth America 

Polynesia 

Braal 



^. Congo. 
T, Brazil. 



Btdiamas 
Spain . . . . 



Hi 

Hn 

Mh 

Ac 

Ei 

Rl 

Hd 

Lh 

II 

Kh 

ti 
1} 

li 
II 

5? 

Hd 
Qc 
Fd 
Nc 
Oc 
In 

Pi 
Me 

?.« 

I 

i 
Vg 

Jj 
Ni 
k 
Gf 
Ld 



St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Sebastian 
St Stephen's ...IT. 

St Susan's Is. 

StThaddeiM.. 
St Thomaa . . . 
St Thomas . . . 
St Thomas'... 
St Thome .... 
St Thome . . . . 

StTomas 

StUbes 

StUist 

St Vincent.... 
St Vincent.... 
St Vincent.... 
St Vincent .. . . 
St Vincent.... 
St Vincent .. . . 

St Xavier 

St Xavier 

StYnes 

Saintes 

Saintes 

Sakharia 

Sakmarskaia .. 

Saktalla 

Sal 

Sal 

Sal 

Sal 

Salaooila 

Saiadillo 

Salado 

Safaulo 

Salado 

Salaka 

Salamanca .... 



Spain , 

Patagonia ... 
Mozambique . 
Oregon Ter. 
Bay Ckpe Cobny 

Brazil 

Chili 



Salamanca .... 

Salanga 

Salangore 

Salas y Gomez. 

Salatan 

SaUyer 

Saldanha 

Saldenha 

Salee 

Salem. 
Salem. 



Salem. 
Salengo... 
Salemo ... 
Sale'Trou. 
Salian .... 



L 
I. 
T. 
C. 
I. 

^- 

T. 

C 

a 
c. 
I. 



T. 

L 

I. 

T. 

Is. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L 

L. 

L. 

R. 



Ba^ of Bengal 
Asiatic Russia. 



Lower Canada. 
West Indies.*. 

Africa 

Buenos Ayres . 

Bnzil 

Polynesia 

Portugal 

Sootknd 

Brazil 

Portugal 

Falkland Is.... 

Patagonia 

West Indies... 
Is. Cape Verd Is. . 

Equador 

Patap^onia.. 
Mezioo .. . • 
France .... 
West Indies 
Asiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Russia. 

Afiica 

Cape Verd Is. 
Soongaria.. .. 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 

T. Soudan 

Buenos Ayres . 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayres . 

Chili 

IT. iNobia 

Spain 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Siam 

Malaya 

a Pacific Oa 

Borneo 

Malaysia 

Cape Colony . . 

Brazil 

Morocco 

Massachusetts . 

New Jersey . . . 

Salem IT. Cape Colony .. 



T. 



L 

Pt 

I. 

Bay 

T. 

T. 

5f- 



T. 
Pt 

^: 

T. 



Ifindoostan .. 

Equador 

Nairfes 

Hayti 

AsiaUc Russia. 



Md 
Hn 
Ok 
Dd 

Nl 
Ik 

nm 

Ge 

ll 

Hd 
H^ 
Mh 
Ik 
Jk 
Ve 
Le 
Lc 
k 
Le 
In 
Hn 
Hg 

^¥ 
Hi 

Hm 

£e 

Md 

S^ 
Oe 

Pc 

Oh 

K 

R 

Fc 

Od 

£e 
Hk 
Hk 
Of 
Ld 
Ff 
Gg 
Sh 
h 
£k 



I 



Ti 
Ui 
Nl 
i 
Le 
Hd 
Ge 
Nl 

Rg 

Gi 

Md 

?^ 
Pc 



OOMflOLTlNG INDEX. 



Sftlibtbo... 
Salid&len... 

SfJine 

Sallsbvry >. 
Salivlmry .. 
^kaew . . . 
Salmoo . . < . 
Salraon.... 
Sslonica • . 
Saloer .... 
Sakette.... 

Salt 

Salte 

SaHa 

Salten 

Saltbidak . . 
SaHKay... 
Sahages... 
Sahralitfrra . 
SalwatCy... 
Salwen . . . . 
dahbu]; . . . 



Samana Kay . 



Samar.... .. 

Samarang... 
Samarar ••• »• 

SamaroT 

Sambas 

Sambaa 

Sainbdoo^ • • 
Sambio. «..•. 
Sambra. •. • . 
Sambulot ... 

SameU 

SamereaiMl .. 
Samffaoooda • 
Samt 



law 

T. 

L. 

I. 

PL 

I. 

H. 

R. 



Samina Con . • 

Samoa 

Samoilovo 

Samow 

Samoyodfl..... 

Samaamia 

Samaomi ...... 

Sana 

Sana 

San Andrea . . . 
San AnloDia. . . 
San Antonio. . • 
San Antonio... 
San Ang^wbtt. . 
SanBaibara... 
San Barbara. . . 
San Bemardi . • 

SanBlaa 

San B u a nawm imiy 
San BoonaTontnnifR. 
SanOatalhie.... 
^9an CMnonna . . 



I. 

L. 

Pr. 

T. 

Pd. 

L 

I. 

la. 

T. 

I. 

IL 

I. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Dm. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

a 
a 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

L 

XV. 

I. 

T. 

Cy. 



Malaysia • • • . • 
Norway «•.«.. 
Texas. r.«..., 
Brit America . 
North Anieriea 
Asaatio Roasia. 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Toikey ...... 

HindoosCan ... 

Asia. 

Africa 

iMienes Ayros < 
Buenos Ayres 

Norway 

North America 

Babamas 

Atlantic Oeean 
Brazil ........ 



Birmah. 
Aostria. 



ViL 



T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
Cy. 



HayU 
Bahaa 

Peru 

Malaysia ... 

Java 

Asiatic Rnssia 
Asiatic Rusiii 

Bornoo 

Malaysia .... 
Bay of Bengal 

Rnssia , 

Nova Scotia .• 
Asiatic Rnssia. 
Arabia 

Great Bncharia 
North America 

Africa 

Soodan 

Polynesia 

Asiatic Rnssia. 

Malapia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Eastern Sea .. . 

Asiatic Turkey 

Arabia 

Pern.. 

Meadeo 

Texas. 

Mexico. 

Mexico 

Texas. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Brazil., 



^ 



Uh 
Mb 
Fe 
Ob 
Dc 
Ta 
Ed 
Ec 
Nd 

S^ 

Nf 

Hk 

Md 

Be 

Hf 

Km 

li 

Ui 

Sf 

Md 

^5 
Hf 

Oi 

Uy 

Ti 

Pc 

Qb 

Th 

Th 

8h 

Nb 

Hd 

Ra 

Pf 

Qe 

Ac 

^g 
Mg 

Si 

Uf 
Od 
Of 
61 
Ed 
Ff 
De 
Ff 
Ee 
Ee 
Ee 
Ee 
Ef 
Ee 
De 
Ee 
Ik 



Sanciaa 
San 

Sanool 

Sancori 

Sand 

Sandalwood . . . 

SMMhina 

Sanday 

Sanders* 

San Diego.... 
San Diego .... 
San Diego.... 

Sandoe 

San Domingos 

Soriano 

Sandomir ...,. 

Sandown 

Sandowey 

Sandusky.. .. 

Sandri|f 

Sandwich 

Sandwich ..... 

Sandwich 

Sandwich 

Sandwich 

Sandwich 

Sandwich 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy. 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

Sandy 

SanFeKps.... 
SanFeMpa.... 
San Fe^pe da 

Austin 

San Fernando . 
San Franeisoo . 
SanFrandsoo . 
San Frasetsoo. 

Sw»g« 

Sanga 

San Gabriel... 

SangaBan 

Sangar 

Sangara 

San Gertmdis • 
Sangexnga .... 
Sangoulina.... 

Sangnay 

Sangwin 

Sanho 

San Isabel.... 



I. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

His. 

I. 

C. 

L 

I. 

T. 

T. 

Po. 

I. 

T. 
T. 
PL 
T. 

§^' 

T. 
C. 

Har 

Ld, 

I. 

Is. 

Bay 

^' 

Des. 

Des. 

Hk. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Is. 

L. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

St 
T. 
I. 

C. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 



Chu^ 

Mexico..... 
Mindanao .. 
Golfof Siam.. 
Brit America . 
Malaysia ..... 

Java; 

Scotland 

Sandwich Ld. . 
M exico .•...«. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Faroe lalands . 

Uruguay .... 

Poland 

Japan 

Birmah 

Ohio 

Norway 

Upper Canada 

[ew& Wales 

Labrador .... 

Africa 

Southern Ocean 



N. Pacific Oe. 
New Zealand. 
Michigan .... 
News. Wales 
Boeoos Ayres 

Mexico 

New Jersey... 
Indian Ocean 
Australasia .. . 
Polynesia .... 
Indian Ocean. 

Mexico 

Brit America 



Mexico • 
Brazil. 




Tf 
Ee 
Uh 

I! 

Ui 
Ti 
Lc 
Kn 
Ee 

Ee 
Lb 

II 

No 
Ve 
Sg 
Gd 
Mb 
Od 

lo 

Mk 

Kn 

Xj 

Bf 

XI 

Gd 

Wk 

HI 

Ee 

Hd 

a/ 

Qi 
Ff 
Fo 
Hd 
Ff 
Hi 

Ff 
Ee 
Ef 
Ee 
De 
Nb 
Vd 
Ee 

Oj 
Vd 
Lh 
Ef 

Uh- 
Lh 
Ue 
Ee 



94 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



T, 
Cr. 



T. 

T. 
L 
Bta. 



Pr. 
T. 
T. 

T. 
R. 
Pr. 
T, 

T. 
T. 
St 
T. 
R. 



SanlaabeUa 
S. Aniuy . . 
Stn Ja^ . . 
San Jago . . 
S«n Ja^ . . 
Suk Joao du dma 

Barrat.. 
San Joae.. 
San Joae.. 
SanJfoaedePimafllT. 
San Juan . 
San Juan . 
San Juan • 
San Juan do la 

fVontera . . . 
Sanki Sampoo 

San Luia 

San Luis 

San Lais de la 

Punta .... 
San Luia Obupo 
San LuisPotoai. 
San Luia Rey • . 

San Maria 

San Marino .... 
San Mig^l .... 
San Miguel .... 
San Miguel .... 
San Miguel .... 
San Miguel .... 
San Patrioa .... 

San Paulo 

San Paulo 

San Pedro 

San Pedro ..... 

San Pedro 

San Pedro 

Sanpou 

San Raphael.... 

SanRoaa 

San Salvador . . . 
Sansanding .... 
SanU Catdina. . 
Santa Chriatiana 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz 

SanU Cruz de la 

Sierra . . 
SanU Cruz do la 

Sierra.. 
SanUFe.. 



Braal 

Mexico...... 

Mexico. 

Biexioo ...... 

Buenoe Ayiea 

Mexioo 

Cuba 



Rep. Italy 



T. 
T. 
T. 
O. 
I. 
T. 
Pr. 

§f 

T. 
L 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
la. 

§r- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Bay 



Po. 



T. 
Pr. 



Cuba.. 
Aaiatic 
Cuba.. 
Mexioo 
Mexico 



Buenos Ayiea 

Thibet 

Boenoa Ayres 
Mexioo ...... 



Buenos Ayres 

Mexioo 

Mexioo •«.•.. 
Mexioo ...... 

Mexioo 



Mexico 

Mexioo ...... 

Mexioo 

Mexico ....... 

Mexico ....... 

Texaa 

Brazil , 

Brazil , 

Mexico 

Mexioo 

Polynesia ..... 

Mexico 

Corm 

Mexioo 

Mexioo 

Cuba 

Africa 

Caribbean Sea. 
PoIyneaU . . . . . 

Morocco 

Venezuela 

Cape Verd Is. . 
Csnary lales .. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Luzon........ 

Mexioo 

Africa 

Mexioo 

Anstralaaia . . . 
Patagonia 



Dep Bolivia. 



Bolivia 

Buenos Ayres . 



Gf 
Wh 
Gf 
Ef 
Ff 

It 

Ef 
Ef 
Ef 
HI 
Ee 
Gf 

HI 

Re 
HI 

Ff 

HI 

De 

Ff 

Ee 

Ee 

Md 

Ef 

Ee 

De 

Ef 

De 

Ff 

Ik 

Ik 

Ef 

F|r 

Ci 

Ee 

Ue 

De 

Ef 

Gf 

h^ 

Gg 
Ci 
Le 
Hh 

if 

pi 

Nk 
Ee 
Xj 
Hm 

Hj 
HI 



SanUFe. 
SanUFe 
SanUFe. 
SanUFe. 



SanU MarU. . 
SanU MarU. . 
SanU Martha. 
Santander .... 
Santarem .... 
SanU Rosa... 
SanU Rosa... 

Santee 

San Teresa... 
San Thomas.. 

Santiago 

Santiago 

Santiago 

Santiago 

Santiago 

Santiago del Ea- 

torro ... 
Santillana. 
Sanlooe... 
Santona... 
Santorino . 
Santos.... 
Sanybel... 
SanYnea. 
Saona .... 



Sapagua 

Sappero 

Saptin 

Sapy 

Sapy 

Saragoasa . . . . 

Saranga 

Sarano 

Saransk 

Sarapoole . . . . 

Sarasoo 

Saratoga 

Saratov 2 

Saratov 

Sarawan 

Saravacn 

Sardinia 

Sardinia 

Saree 

SarepU 

Sargasso 

Sarhou Keim . 

Sarigon 

Sariguan 

Same 

Sammas 

Sarpa 

Sartam Ourei. 
Sartarinov.... 
Sartor 



St 
Cy. 

§f' 

T. 
I. 

C 

T. 
L 
L 
R. 
T. 
I. 
Pr. 

^- 

T. 
T. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 

f'- 

T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
Str. 

2- 

R. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
Pr, 

5^- 

T. 

Km. 

L 

T. 

T. 

Sea 

T. 

T. 

I. 

L 

Tr. 

R. 



Mexioo 

Mexioo 

Buenos Ayres 

Chili 

China 

Chili 

Uruguay 

New Grenada.. 
Spain ........ 

Portugal 

Mexioo 

N. Pacific Oc. . 
South Carolina. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Buenos Ayres . 

Chili 

flquador 

New Grenada . 
New Grenada.. 

Buenos Ayres . 

Spain 

Brazil 

Spain 

Archipelago. . . 

Brazil 

Fk)rida 

Mexico 

Hayti 

Mozambique . . 
Buenos Ayres.. 

RussU 

Oregon Ter. .. . 
Sumbava ... 
Malaysia . . . 

Spain 

MalaysU . . . 

Africa 

Russia 

Russia 

Tartary .... 
New York .. 

Russia 

Russia 

Beloochistan 

Peru 

Italy 

Mediterran. Sea 

Persia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Atlantic Ocean 
Mantchooria . . 

Cambodia 

Polynesia 

Africa 



South America 
Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Norway 



Fe 

Fe 

U 

HI 

Sf 

HI 

II 

?! 

Le 
Ee 
Eg 
Ge 
Ef 
Ee 
Hk 
HI 
Gi 
Hh 
Gh 

Hk 
Ld 

[^a 

Ne 

Ik 

Gf 

Ee 

Hy 

Oj 

Hk 

Nb 

Ed 

Ti 

Ti 

Ld 

Uh 

Oc 

Pc 

Qd 

Hd 

Pc 

Pc 

Qf 

Hi 

Md 

Md 

Pe 

Od 

Je 

Ud 

^. 
fi' 

Od 
Rb 
Qb 

Mb 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



95 



Pk. 
Die. 
R. 
T. 

^- 

T. 
I. 

Bay 
Mary Sir. 



SaiTtcheff 

Saakatchawan . • 
Saskatehawan . . 

Saasari 

Satalia 

SaCalia 

SaUra 

SatisfiuctiaQ 

Sangra 

SaoltdeSt 

Saamares. 

Saimdora.. 

Saonden.. 

Saandanoo'sHope 

Sava .... 

Savai.... 

SaTan... 

Savannah 

Savannah 

Savanna la Mar. 

Save 

Savona .....ki. 

Savonal 

Savoy 

Sawarcarna .... 
SaxeCobarf.l5. 
Saxe G0tha..l4. 
Saxe Weimar 13 

Saxony 

Saya de Halha.. 

Sayansk 

Sayansk 

Sayer 

8»7I»n 

Sbica 

ScanderooD 

Searboro 

Searboro 

Searboroagh*0 . . 

Searbro 

Searcies 

Scarpanto ...... 

Scatari 

Soela Balondo . . 

Schamer 

Schank 

Schemnitx 

Schenectad{y.... 
Schetchmaa .... 

Schewhap 

Sehiaeha 

Schiaahkotan . . . 

Schiatani 

Schirinki 

Scliiflchanaieff • . 

Scfaitka 

Scfaliaaelbarg ... 

Sohoneck 

Sohoo; 

ScfaoomariiM • • . 
Schonten^s 



L. 

T 

T. 
I. 

^' 

T. 
T. 
I. 
la. 



Nova Zembla. 
Brit America 
Brit America 

Sardinia 

Aaiatic Turkey 
Asiatic Turkey 
Hindocatan 
Auatralaaia. 
Arabia ... 
Upper Canada . 
Brit America . 
New Zealand.. 
Falkland la... 
Greenland .... 
Malaysia ... . 
Polynesia. .... 
Brit America . 

Gieorgia 

Hayd 

Jamaica 

Austria 

Sardinia 

Persia 

Europe 

Missouri Ter. 

Germany 

Grermany ..... 
Germany 

ay 

Indian Ocean. 

Asiatic Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Bav of Bengal 

Polynesia 

Ardbia 

S^ 



a 
a 

Is. 

C. 

L 

I. 

L. 

§r- 

T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 

^- 

D. 

D. 

G.D 

Km. Germany 

Bk. 

u 
I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Mt 

Sh. 

R. 

I. 

L 

Pr. 

Mt 

L 

T. 



BoC 



I Ibaaof 




Td 

Polvni 
Malaysia < 
Sene^mbia.. 
Archipelago .. 
Cape Breton .. 



Australasia . 
Austria. . . . 
New York. 



Oregon Ter. .. 

Baica 

Kurile Islands. 

Thibet 

Kurile Islands. 
North America 
Asiatic Russia. 



Prussia 

Polynesia... 
North America 
V.Diemen'sLd. 



Pa 
Ea 
£c 
Md 
Oe 
Oe 

Gd 

Ha 

Xm 

Hn 

la 

Uj 

^j 
Fc 

Ge 

^^ 
25 
Md 
Pf 
Md 
Fd 
Me 
Mc 
Mc 
Me 

fi 

Sc 
Sh 

1^? 
Of 

Oe 

Lc 

?[[ 
ll 

Ne 

Id 

Mj 

Oe 

Wi 

Nd 

Hd 

Pb 

£c 

Nf 

Wd 

Sf 

Wc 

Ab 

Tc 

Ob 

Nc 

Wh 

Be 

Vm 



Sehoulen's 

Schwerin 

Scily 

SciUy 

Scio. 

Scopta 

Sooresby ....... 

Scoresby's 

Scoresby's Land 

Scotknd 

Scotrs 

Scott's 



I. 

2:- 

Is. 

I. 

T. 

a 

So. 

Cly 

Km. 

^' 

Scott's Rf. 



Scutari .... 
Scutari . • • • 
Sdorovskoie 
Seaforth... 
Sea Horse. . 
Sea Horse.. 
Sea Horse.. 
Sea Horse.. 
Sea Horse.. 

Seal 

Seal 

Seal 

Seal 

Seal 

Sea lions.. 

Seals 

Seaof Asov 

Seara 

Seara 

Searle 

Sebaldine . . 
Sebastian . . 
Sebutian Lopes. 



T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Bk. 

L 

I. 

L 

Pt 

a 

L. 
Is. 
R. 
Is. 
Is. 
L 

Pr. 

I'- 

Is. 
C. 
I. 



SebastianVasoaino Bay 

Sebenico T. 

Sebez T. 

Sebha T. 

SebhaRous ....|C 

Se^show 

Sechura 

Seckoo 

Second 

Second Voksano 

Sedang 

Seddon 

Sedgwick 

Seduga R. 



R. 
L 

T. 

P' 
'Mt 



Seg 

Segedden 

Seger 

Sager 

Seghalien 

Seghalien ...... 

Seffhalien Oula 

Hotnn 

Sego *... 

Segunam 

Seguro 



L. 

iT 
JDis. 

•St- 

Sea 

T. 
Cy. 
Is. 
Pr. 



Australasia.... 
Mecklenburg . 

Engbmd < 

Polynesia ..... 
Archipelago... 

Turkey 

Brit America 
Greenland . . , . 
Greenland .... 
Great Britain . 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Or^onTer... 
Auatralaaia . . . 
Asiatic Turkey 

Turkey 

Asiatic Russia 
Scoresby's Ld. 
Malayaia ..... 
Spitsbergen • • 
Spitsbergen . . 
^itsbergen . . 
Brit Ainerica 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America 
Labrador .... 
Brit America 
Nova Scotia . . 
Falkland Is.. . 
Spitsbergen . . 

Russia 

Brazil....... 

Brazil 

Brit America 
Falkland Is.. . 
Madagascar.. 
Polynesia .... 

Mexico 

Austria 

Russia 

Fezzan 

Algiers 

CMna 

Peru 

Little Thibet . 
Madagascar.. 
Polynesia. ... 

Borneo 

Greenland 



Vi 
Mo 
Ld 
Bj 
Ne 
Nd 
Fa 
Ka 
Ka 
Lc 
Dc 
De 

Uj 

Nd 

Nd 

Ra 

Ka 

Tg 

Na 

Na 

Na 

Gb 

Va 

He 

le 

Fc 

Hd 

In 

Na 

0,d 

Ji 

Ji 

Hb 

Hn 

Wf 

Ef 
Nd 
Nc 
Nf 
Me 
Tf 
Gi 
Re 
Ok 
Vf 
Th 
la 



Brit America . C b 

Russia P b 

Russia Ob 



Africa. 
Arabia . 
Arabia . 
Asia ... 
Asia... 



Mantohooria . . 

Africa 

North America 
Brazil 



Mf 

l« 

Vc 
Vd 

Ud 
Lg 
Ao 
Jj 



■aMfci 



mets6mtmte 



'M 



OC»«SULTIN6 INDEIL 



IbMiofltaM^tak 



SehoanOuni 

'Sehwan 

Seine 

Seistan ..... 

Sejini 

Sejini 

Sekle 

Selboe 

Selefkeh .... 

Sdema 

Selemskoi . . . 

Selentai 

Selenti 

Sdime 

Selinga 

Selingra 

Sdinginsk .. 

Sellach 

Sellempora . . 

SeUwood 

SetDuieelnft • 

Semar 

Sembewfhew 

Sembo 

SemeiK 
SemenoT 

Semera 

Semiaivkoe 

Seminoles 

Semi OiitroT ... . 
Semi Palatyne . . 
Semi Polotskaya 
SemisopoBbnoi . . 

Semitach 

Semlin 

Sena 

Sena • . . . . 

Se-nan 

Senegral 

Senegal 

Senegnnbia . . . . 

Se-ngan 

Seng Miaoee.... 

Seno<Mii.. 

Senien . 

Senkemi 

Senlis 

Senna 

Senna 

Sonnaar 

Sennaar 

Sennernt 

Sens 

Senta 

Sentinel 

Separatioii 

Seppings 

Seppinga 

Serajevo 

Serampore 

Serar 



Tr. 
T. 
It 
Pr. 

^- 

T. 
I. 
T. 
R. 

L. 

R. 

T. 

Sta. 

R. 

R. 

Sf- 

T. 

Baj 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

Got. 

T. 

Cy. 

CoL 

R. 

Cty. 

R. 
T. 

^- 

Die. 

?■ 

T. 

T. 

I. 

PL 

C. 

C. 

T. 



Patagonia 
Sinde .... 
France .. 
Cabal..,. 
Barbary.. 
Barbery .. 
Arabia . . . 
Norway . . 
Asiatic Tarkey 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Tartary 

Asiatic Tarkey 

Africa 

Mon||^ia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Hindeestan . . . 
Brit America . 

Brazil 

Asiatic Russia. 

Birraah 

Congo 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Fbrida 

Russia « . 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Aleoutian Arc.. 
Aleouttan Arc. 

Austria 

Africa 

Moambiqao . . 

China 

Africa 

Scnegambia t . . 
Africa .••...•• 

China 

China 

Bolivia 

Norway 

Mantchooria . . 
France ....... 

Persia 

Russia 

Nubia 

Nabia 

Greenhnd ... 

France 

Buenos Ayres 
Baj of Bengal 
Bnt America . 
Brit America . 
North America 

Turkey 

Hindoostan . . . 
Hindoostan . . . 



Hm 

Qf 

Md 

Qe 

Le 

Le 

Of 

Mb 

Oe 

Ta 

Ta 

Qc 

Oe 

Of 

Sd 

Tc 

Tc 

Vb 

Rf 

Db 

li 

Wb 

Sf 

Mi 

Ua 

Oc 

Pe 

Qb 

Gf 

Ob 

Re 

Re 

Xc 

Xc 

Nd 

Tf 

T? 
Tf 
Hk 
Nb 
Vc 
Md 
Pe 
Nc 

S^ 

lb 

Md 

Hk 

1% 

Fa 
Ah 
Nd 
Rf 



Serchuoha 

Serdebd.. 

Serdxe 

Sereana.. 

Sereth... 

Sereth .. . 

Sergatch. 

Sergbeisk 

Sergiev . . 

Sergippe. 

Serp^ppe del Rey 

Serxngapatam 

Seringapatam 

Serinpale ... 

Seritxa 



a 

T. 

a 

Is. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 
T. 



Ser] 

SermatU. . . 
Serraonoua . 

Seroa 

Serouge ... 

Serpa 

Serramobim 
Serranilla.. 
Serreek .... 
Serro Borborema 
SerroCubvtam.. 
Serro Eetrondo.. 
Serro Hibiapaba 

Serroor 

Serro Tabatinga 
Serro Tromba . . 

Seruk 

Servia 

Sesters 

Sctching 

Seteoel 

SetU 

Settee 

Settee 



Senhelipar 

Sevanoe 

Sevastopol .. . . 

Seven 

Seven 

Seven < 

Seven Stones . 

Severn 

Severn 

Severn , 

Severn 

Sevilla 

Seville 

Seyohette .... 
Seychelles .,. 
Seychelles . . . 

Shabee 

ShackletoD . . . 
Shadipore . . . . 
Shadrm 



Caribbean Sea. 

Austria 

Turkey 

Russia 



T. 

L. 

L 

L 

T. 

Is. 

Is. 

Is. 

Rks 

Dis. 

Ft 

Ho. 

R. 

Pt 

la. 
Bk. 

T. 
C. 
T. 
T. 



Asiatic Russia. 

Braal 

Brazil 

Hindoostan ... 
Austcalasia .. . . 
Scnegambia .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Pdvnesia 

Malaysia 

Greenland .... 

Malaysia 

Hindoostan • . . 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Caribbean Sea. 

Persia.. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Brazil. ... 

Hindoostan ... 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Syria 

Turkey 

Liberia 

China* 

Polynesia 

Candia 



T. 

T. 

R. 

L 

I. 

G 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

Mts. 

Mts. 

Mia. 

Mts. 

T. 

Mts. 

Mts. 

T. 

Pr. 

R. 

c, 
r. 

Dis. Africa. 



Africa 

Brit America . 

Asia 

Norway 

Russia 

Russia 

Polynesia 

Lower Canada. 
Jan Mayen Is.. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America • 

Cuba 

Spain < 

Indian Ocean.. 
Indian Ooean.. 
Indian Ocean.. 

Arabia 

Greenland .••« 
fliodocstan <•• 
Asiatic Russia. 



Pb 
Ob 
Ah 
Gg 
Nd 
Nd 
Pc 
Pc 
Pc 

^! 

^1 

Ta 

Cj 

Ui 

Jb 

Ui 

Rf 

li 

Ji 

ff 

Ji 
Ik 

Qg 

li 

ij 

Oe 

Nd 

Lh 

Tf 

Wh 

Ne 

Mi 

Mi 

Fc 

Qh 

Mb 

Od 

Ob 

Wh 

He 

La 

Gc 

6c 

Fc 

Gc 

Oe 

Le 

Pi 

Pi 

Pi 

Pf 

la 

Qe 

Qc 



CONSULTING INDIX 



97 



Skaiep ...•• 
Shahrood .. 
Shakn.... 
ShaUuroiro« 
Shalbw.... 
Shallow.... 



Shamba... 
Shamo«. . . 
Shanagur . 



ShangPecaA. 
Shangra. 



Shaaae .... 
ShajBtebon 

ShaBtODf . 
Shark's... 
Shanaa... 
Sharhaa... 
Sham.... 
Shanoek.. 
Shary .... 
Shat-ulAiab.... 

ShavU It. 

Shawnee T. 

Sfaawoeea Tr. 

Shawpon T. 

Shavvk R. 

Sheb Ste. 



a 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Pt 

R. 

R. 

Dei. 

T, 

T. 

T^. 

Tif. 

R. 

I. 

IV, 

T. 

Fr. 

C. 

S^ 
T. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

Mt 

R. 

R. 



Japan 

Penia 

Arabia 

Aaiatic Russia. 



Seghalaen.... 
Bnt Ameiioa 



She&r. 
ShefteU. 



Shelbome... 

Shellif 

ShelToek's . . 

Shendy 

Shenkewak. 



Sherbro.... 
Sherbrook. . 
Sherdoff**... 
Sheri Sabs . . 
ShersheU.... 
Shersoo^s . . . 
Shethawney . 
Shetland.... 

Shibam 

Shienne 

Shiennee..*. 



Shib-poo Cr. China 



Shikarpore. 
Shikanga . 



ShiUuks 
Shinten.. 



Melinda 

Mongolia 

AsiatieR 

Japan 

Abyssinia. . . . 

China 

Manlchoorim . 

Africa 

Ireland 

Northern Ocean 
China... 
Siam... 
China .. 
China .. 
New 
ArabU 

BCissonri Ter. . 
Mongolia 
Brit America . 



Vd 

Pe 

Of 

Wb 

Xj 

Ve 

Fe 

Oi 

Sd 

Va 

Ve 

Og 

Ue 

Ud 

L c 
Ka 
Te 

%^ 
Te 

Ue 

Tk 



Arabia . 



Missouri Ter. 
ilindoostan 



Uttle Thibet. 

AfHca 

Arabia 

Brit America 

AfUca 

NoHL Scotia .. . 
Algiers 
Mexico 
Nobia. 



T. 

a 

R. 

I. 

T. 
T. 

Pr. jChina 

L Senegambia .. 

T. Nora Scotia. . 

L Polynesia.... 

T. Great Bacharia|Q 

T. Alffiers.. 

I. Polynesia 

L. Brit America . 

Is. Scotland 

T. Arabia. 

R. Missouri Ter. . 

Tr. Missouri Ter. 



T. 
T. 
Tr. 
T. 
ph. 



Sinde 

Afiica 

Asiatic Rossia. 

Africa 

Tonquin 



^5 

Sd 
Gc 

Pf 
Nc 
Ge 
Fe 
Rf 
Re 
Of 
Of 
Hb 
Og 
Hd 
Me 
Ef 



8f 

Te 
Lh 
Hd 

5J 

e 
Me 
Xi 

Fc 
Lc 

li 

Fd 

Uf 
Qf 

Nk 
Vo 

T£ 
Gf 



■ •rriMsaa. 



Ship , 

Shipako ... 
Shippegan . 

Shiraz 

Shire 

Shinreff... 
Shirvan... 



Shoal Haven.. 
Shoal Water.. 

Shoban 

Shoomaee .. .. 



Shourlong. • . 

Shoaya 

Showy 

Shrewsbury . 



Shun-te. . . . 
Shurali .... 
Shurukhs . . 
Shusier.... 

Siak 

Siak 

Sialutok ... 

Siam 

Siam 

Siam 

Siang-yang. 



Siao 

Siapia . . . . 
Siattoke .. 

Sibb 

Siberia . . . 
Sibicia.. . , 
SibiUeto.. 
Sibungoo . 
Sicasica .. 
Sichoui... 
SicUy .... 
Sickly. 



Sidby 

Sidmouth 

Sidney 

Sidney 

Sidney's 

Sidon 

Sidra 

Sienega 

Sienna 

Sierra Aricna. . . 
Sisrra Chappada 
Sierra de Aeho.. 
Sierra de las 

GruUas 

SierradelosMim- 

bras 

Sierra Leone 
Siena Madrs 



Africa 

N. Brunswick. 

Persia 

Africa 

South Shetland 
Aaiatie Russia. 
New & Wales. 
New & Wales. 
Brit America . 

Barea 

Birmah 

Oregon Ter.... 



Mts. 

Mts. 
CoL 
Mts. 



L 
T. 
L 

c. 

Pr. 

^ 

L. 

Sta. 

R. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^• 

^: 

T. 

&• 
Dis. 

T. 

I. 

^• 
T. 

G. 

§?■ 

I. 

R. 

L 

T. 

Cty. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

R. 

§?• 

C. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

G. 

T. 

T. 

Mts. Guinea'. 

Mts. 

Mta 



Mexioo* 

Mexico. 
Africa.. 
Mezieo. 



Ff 

Nj 

Hd 

Pf 

Oj 

Ho 

Pd 

Wk 

Wl 

He 

Ne 

Bf 

Ed 

Bf 

Oc 

Ng 

Lc 

Nd 

Te 

Pd 

Qe 

Pe 

Sh 

8h 

Jb 

l« 

li 
Te 
Ob 
Uh 
Hh 
Gb 
Qf 
Tb 
Lf 
Ee 
Ti 

Ud 
Me 
Ed 

Nb 



^1 



1 

Ai 
Ai 
Oe 
Ne 
Hg 
Md 
Ih 

'^\ 

Ee 

Ee 
Lh 
Bf 



98 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Sierra Verde .. 
Sierra Valcan 

SiefBk , 

Si&ns 

Siflunen ...< 

SiboQ 

SiKiang.... 

SikirUk 

Sikki 

Sikkim |T. 

Sikni.. 
Sikoke 
SUan 



Mts. 

Mfci. 

T. 

Tr. 

a 

R. 
IL 
L. 



T. 
T. 



T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
I. 
.Sh. 



Sileda.. 
Silhet .. 
Siiimpdi 

Silipica T. 

Siliatria. . . . 
Silima .... 

Silla 

Silova 

Silver 

Silver Kaja 

Simari 

Simbirak....38 

Simbirak 

Simooe 

Simimo 

Simla 

Simo 

Simpang 

Simpheropdl... 

Simpeon 

SimpeoQ 

Siinpeon*a 

SimpaoQ'a 

Sinai 

Sinaloa 

Sinaka 

Sincapore 

Sineapore 

Sincai 



Sinde .... 
Sinde .... 

Sinde 

Sine* 

Si-ngan... 
Sinhoa.... 

Sinia 

Siniaveiw . 
Sinjar .... 
Sin-kae . . . 

Sinkel 

SinkeM... 
Sinnamaii 
Sinope. . . . 

Siolka 

Sion 

Siout 

SioQZ 



MexioQ 

Buenoe Ayrea . 

Roaaia 

Mongolia .... 

Iceland 

Tartarj 

China 

Tartary 

Arabia 

Hindoostan .. 

Gniana 

Japan 

Mezioo 

Sumatra .. . . « 
Hindooatan . • 
Mantchooria . 
Buenoe Ayrea 

Turkey 

Turkey 

Africa 

Ruaeia 

Polyi 



VoL 

Pr. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Ft. 

R. 

I. 

Is. 

Mt 

s^- 

St 

St 

T. 

I. 

Ch. 

a,. 

R. 

a 

^- 

R. 
C. 
T. 

I. 

T. 

St 

T. 



Buenoe Ayrea 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Upper Canada . 
Asiatic Ruaaia. 
Hindooatan . . . 
Russia .*..... 

Sumatra 

Ruaaia 

Brit America 
Brit America 
Polyneaia. ... 

Polyneaia . . . . . 

ArabU !o f 

Mexico .. . . 
Mexico .. . . 

Asia 

Sincapore L 

Asia 

Asia 



Ed 

HI 

Oc 

Se 

Kb 

Qd 

Tf 

Qd 

Pf 

Rf 

Ih 

Ue 

Gf 

Si 

Sf 

Uc 

Hk 

Nd 

Nd 

\i 

Xe 

Hf 

Hk 

Pc 

Pc 

6d 

Wa 

Re 

Nb 

Si 

Od 

Db 

Dc 

lAh 

IXh 



Sinde . 



Ef 
Ef 
<Sh 

;sh 

Sh 
Qh 
Qf 
Qf 

Kaschgur Qe 

Le 
Te 

51 

Vd 

Oo 

Ue 

Sh 

Si 

Ih 

Oe 

Td 

Md 

Of 

Fd 



Portu^ 

China 

Cochin China. 
Asiatic Ruaaia 
Seghalien .... 
Asiatic Turkey 

China 

Sumatra 

Malayaia ... . 

Guiana 

Astatic Turkey 

Mongolia 

Switxerland . . . 

Egypt 

Wisoanain Ter. 



R. 
T. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
I. 
Cy. 



Sioux 

Sipalay 

Siparoonee . . 

Sir 

SiraKilla... 
Sira Mouren . 
Sira Pouritoa 
Sir Bibya . . . 

Sire 

Sir Ed. PeUevra .IGV. 

Sif«t Bay 

SirG. Clerk'a... I. 
SirG.Cockburn's Bay 

Sirgoojah T. 

Sirguntchi 

Sirhind |T. 

Sir H. Martin's 

Sirohi 

Sisal 

Siaal 

Siatera 

Sistera 

Sitchevsk 

Sitka 

Sitka 

Sitoe 

Sitomlia 

Siutei 

Siverna . . 
Siwah . . 



Siwas 

Sizeboli 

Skagen 

Skagcn 

Skager Rack . 

Skalholt 

Skara 

Skaw 

Skedatskoi ... 

SkeUeft 

Sketeftea 

Skeoch 

Skiddy*8 

SkiddyV. 

Skin] 

Skioer 

Skopin 

Skougsoe .... 

Skvira 

Sky 

Sh 

Slave 

Sleeve 

Sleswick 

Sligo 

Sline 

Slipper Table. 
Slobodskoya.. 
Skmvm 



Wisconsin Ter. 
Ne^rros ....... 

Gttuina 

Tartary 

Cabul 

Mantchooria • . 

Mongolia 

Brit America . 

Abyssinia 

Australasia.... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit Amenca . 
Brit America . 
Hindoostan 



I. 

5^' 

Bk. 
Is. 
I. 
T. 
Is. 
L 
C. 
T. 
C. 
R. 
..ICy. 



Idy V. 

( Lodge .... 
erstad 



Hloayn 
Smoky 
Small 



^- 

T. 

C. 

Str. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Gr. 
Sh. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 

^- 

Str. 

§^- 

Hd. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L 



Mongolia .... 
Hin<k»ostan .. 



Polynesia 

Hindoostan . . . 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Arabian Sea.. . 
S Pacific Oc. . 

Russia 

North America 
North America 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Barca ... 
Asiatic Turkey 

Turkey 

Denmark ..... 

Iceland 

Denmark ..... 

Iceland , 

Sweden , 

Denmark .... 
Asiatic Ruaaia 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Brit America 
Polyneaia .. .. 
Polyneaia. . . . 
Miaaouri Ter. 

Norway 

Roaaia 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Scotland 

Morocco 

Brit America 
Denmark ..... 
Denmark .... 

Ireland 

Ireland 

Bay of Bengal 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

New SWalea . 
N. Pacific Oc. . 



Fd 
Uh 
Ih 
Qd 
Qe 
Ud 
Sd 
Fb 
O^ 

Eb 
Fb 
Rf 
Se 
Re 
Ci 
Qf 
Gf 
Ff 

Am 

Oc 

Cc 

Cc 

Ma 

Oc 

Vc 

Ub 

Nf 

Oe 

Nd 

Mc 

Kb 

Mc 

Kb 

Mc 

Mc 

So 

Nb 

Nb 

Gb 

Wh 

Vh 

Ed 

Mb 

Oc 

Nb 

Nd 

Lc 

Le 

Eb 

Mc 

Mc 

Lc 

Lo 

Pc 

No 
Wi 
Af 



OONSULTING INDEX. 



99 



Smaloe '*.. 

Smith 

Smith 

Smith*s 

Smith's 

Smith's 

Smith's 

Smoelen 

Smoke 

Smokj Hill... 
Smolensk . . .36 
Smolensk ..... 
Smooth Rock .. 

Smyrna 

Smyth 

Smyth's 

Snake 

Snake 

Snapper < 

Snares 

Saeenw Bergen . 



Snow 

Snowy .... 
Snowy .... 
SnneComer Core 

Soak 

Sobair .... 
Sobboo ... 
Society . . . 
Society . . . 
Sockatoo.. 
Soekna .... 
Socorro. . . . 
Socorro. • . • 
Soootra.... 
Socovalo... 
Sodankyla 
Soderfors . . 
Soderhamn. 
Sodiya ..., 

SoeTig 

Soiala .... 
SofaU.... 
So&la.... 

Sofde 

Sofin 

Sofestote. • 
Sohagepote 

Sobar 

Sobcrab.... 
Sohnpore .. 
Soijam .... 
Soimovuov • 

Soin 

SokeAssa . 
Solander*s.. 

Solar 

Soldin 

Soleim .... 



R. 
C. 
Ft 

U 
L 

L 

a 

Fk. 
Fr. 

^• 

L 

Tr. 

R. 

L 

Is. 

Mt 

Ft 

PL 

I. 

Mts. 

Mts. 



Asiatic Russia 
Brit. America 
Missoori Ter. 
Brit. America . 
Brit. America 



Soathem Ocean H o 



T. 

Dis. 

Sta. 

Is. 

Is. 

Cy. 

^- 

L 
L 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

^'■ 
^' 

Dis. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

L 

T. 

I. 

L 

T. 



Ua 
6b 
Fe 
Db 
Ga 



Sooresby's Ld.. 

Norway 

Africa 

Afissonri Ter.. 



Russia 

Brit America 
Asiatic Turkey 
North America 

Polynesia 

Oregon Ter. . . 
Oregon Ter.. . . 
New & Wales. 
Bnt America . 

Africa 

Wisconsin Ter. 
North America 
Sonth Shetland 
Oregon Ter. .. 
New Zealand. . 
North America 

Persia 

Barbary 

Bergoo 

Brit America . 

Polynesia 

Soudan 

Tripoli 

New Grenada.. 
N. Pacific Oc . 
Arabian Sea. . . 

Benguela 

Russia 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Hmdoostan . . . 

Norway 

Africa 

Mozambique . . 
Mozambique . . 

Norway 

Celebes 

Afi'iGa 

Hindoostan . . . 

Arabia 

Beloocbistan . . 
Hindoostan . . . 
Mantchooria . . 

Seghalien 

Polynesia 

Suae 

Australasia • . . |X m 
Malaysia 
Prussia. . 
Norway iMb 



Ka 

Mb 

Ok 

Fe 

Oc 

Oc 

He 

Ne 

Ba 

£§ 
Ed 

Fa 
Nl 
Fd 
Dc 
Hd 
Ee 
Xm 
Cb 
Pe 
Le 



Mr 

N? 
Hh 

Ml 
Nb 
Nb 
Nb 
Sf 
Mb 

^i 

Ok 

Ok 

Mb 

Ui 

Ma 

Rf 

Pf 

Qf 

Rf 

Vd 

Vd 

Vh 

Lf 



.Ui 

.\Sc 
.Ml 



Solitary 

Solo lUrU 

Sokmibo 

SokNuon's 

Solomon's ...... 

Solomon's 

Sokwebkoi 

Solsogan 

Sdt 

Sol Vitobagodsk 

Solway 

Somanlies 

Somberete 

Sombokbut 

Sombrero 

Somer 

Sompil 

Sondre Grande. . 

Sondrevalle 

Songari 

Songari Oula . . . 
Songa Songa . . . 



■ oriiMi^ai. 



Solenoe 

Sol Galitskaya . 
Solianoi 



Sonmeanee .. 
Sonmeanee .. 

Sonora 

Sonora 

Sonsonate . . . 

Soohoy 

Sooka Congo 
Soolimana... 

Sooloo 

Sooloo 

Soongaria •• . 

Soor 

Soosoo 

Sophia 

Sophia 

Sopoehna ... 
Soposbna ... 

Sorat 

Sorata 

Soratchie.... 

SoreU 

Sorelle 

Soroe. ...... 

Soroto 

Sorotoanga .. 

Sorsele 

Sosimola.... 
Sosnovets . . . 
Sosnovskoe*. 

Sosva 

Sothin 

Soto de la Marina 
Sou 



Mt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

Arc 

Fk. 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Fth. 

Peo. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

?*^ 

St 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Cty. 

Arc. 

I. 

T. 

T. 
Cy. 



Tartary 



T. 

R. 

C. 

Mt 

T. 

C. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 



Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Polynesia 

Ja^a 

Malaysia 

Indian Ocean.. 
Australasia... . 
Missouri Ter... 

Russia 

Luzon 

Austria 

Russia 

Scotland 

Africa 

Mexico....... 

Cambodia 

West Indies... 
Atlantic Ocean 

Thibet 

Polynesia 

Norway 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Indian Ocean.. 

Malaya 

Congo 

Bel^histan . . 
Beloocbistan.. . 
Mexico .....^ 

Mexico 

Guatemala 
Asiatic Russia. 

Congo 

Africa 

Malaysia 

Malaysia ..... 

Asia 

Arabia 

Sumatra 

Turkey 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Tunis 

Bolivia 

Asiatic Russia. 
V. Diemen's Ld. 
Lower Canada. 

Norway 

Mongolia 

Monflrolia 

Sweden 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 

Mexico 

Persia 



Re 
Oc 
Tc 
Pc 

Ti 
Ti 
Qi 
Wi 
Fe 
Ob 

Nd 
Pb 
Lo 
Oh 
Ff 

S« 
Hg 
He 

Sf 

M^b 

Ud 

Ud 

Oi 

Sh 

Ml 

Qf 

Qf 

Ef 

Ef 

ii 

Mi 
Lh 
Uh 
Uh 
Rd 
Pf 
Sh 
Nd 
Oc 
Wc 
Wc 
Me 

5J 

Tc 

Vm 

Hd 

Ni 

Sd 

Sd 

Nb 

Nb 

Ob 

Re 

Qb 

Ud 

Ff 

Pe 



100 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Souadou AtoUon 

Soabotina 

SOQO 

Soachoff 

SoQchoy 

Soa-chow 

Soachow 

Soachokale 

Soudan 

Soudeiskoe 

Soudogda 

Souicboot 

Soui-chow 



I. 
T. 
T. 
C 
C. 

9^' 

§!^- 

T. 
T. 

SoakhoroakondEo T. 

Sookoac L. 

Sookoum-kale . . Cy. 
Sounma T. 

^^ 
T. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

s^- 

^' 
1b. 

L 

I. 

I. 

I. 

Fk. 

C 

U. 

la. 



Soulmene . . . . 
Soulondenaia . 
SoumostroT . . 
SoumT ...... 

Soumy 

Soapoa 

Sour 

Soorabaja.... 

Soore 

Sourman 

South 



South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

Southampton 

Southampton 

South Arran... 



South Branch... R. 



South Branch . 
South Branch. 



South Cape 0. 



South Carolina . 
South Eaat, 
South Eaat. 



St 

Bay 

Ld. 

South East Pt 

Po. 
MtaJ 



Southern. 
Southern Alps . 
Southern Aoatraha Cty . 
Southern Georeia 
Southern Thnw . 
South Greenland Cty. 
South Hook.... |a 
South Hook . . . 
South Hook . . . 
South Natunaa. 
South Orkney . 

South Peru 

South Poyas... 
South River . . . 
8outh*s 



R. 

Hai 



a 
a 



I. 
li. 

Rep 
TV. 
Ho. 
Bay 



Asia.. 
Asiatic R\ 

Thibet 

NoTaZemUa.. 
No?a Zemhla. , 

China 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 

Africa 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Mongolia 

China ........ 

Asiatic Rasaia. 

Mongrolia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Liberia 

NoraZembl^ .. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

MongoBa 

Syria 

Java 

BrazU 

Thibet 

Greenland .... 
Spitsbergen . . . 
I^lUandls.... 

Ptdynesia 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Australasia . . . 
Miasoori Ter. . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 

IreUnd 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Caledonia 
United States.. 
Greenland .... 
Spitsbergen ■ . . 

Japan 

New Zealand. . 
New Zealand. . 
Australasia ... 
Southern Ocean 
Sandwich Ld. . 
Antarctic Oc. . 
Jan Mayen I... 
Spitsbergen . . . 
Spitsbergen . . . 

Malayaia 

Southern Ocean 
South America 
Patagonia.... 
Brit America 
Brit America 



Qh 

Qb 

Se 

Pb 

Pa 

Te 

Ue 

Od 

Mg 

Ra 

Oe 

8d 

Tf 

Qb 

Sd 

Od 

Lh 

Pa 

Tc 

Oh 

Oe 

Re 

Sd 

Oe 

Ti 

Ji 

Se 

lb 

Ma 

In 

Vf 

Vf 

Ve 

SJ 
Fe 

6b 

Gb 

Le 

Dc 

Be 

Ec 

Xk 

Ge 

lb 

Na 

Vd 

Xm 

Xm 

VI 

Jn 

Kn 

lb 

La 

Ma 

Na 

Th 

lo 

HJ 

Hm 

Gc 

Eb 



South Shetland 
South SoothWest 
South Waygat . 
South West . . . 
South West . . . 

Souworoff 

Souzel 

SoTcl 

Soverek 

Sowallick 

Soyoti 

Spafarieft 



Sponberg • • 
Spandau . . . 
Spanish.... 
Spanish.... 
Spartan.... 
SpartiTento. 

Spask 

Spask 

Speaker's . . 
SpeodweH .. 
Speight's... 



Speneer... 
Spencer^ 



Spice 
Spirido Nova 

Spiti 

Spitsbergen . 
3pitsbergmk(Wert) 

^lit 

Split 

Spokain 

Spokain 

Springfield 

Springfield 

Spry. 

SquaUy 

Squiilace 

Sredny i^olymsk 
Sredny Novgorod IT. 
SrednyVilluisk " 
Sredny Yanskoi 

Snda 

Staalbierr 

StadtJand 

Staetans 

Stair ..., 

Stall 

Staminberg . . . 

Stanis 

StonnoToy 

Stanova 

Stapylton 

Star 

Staraya Rusia . . 
Starbuck^s ..... 



Is. 

^^ 

Str. 

a 
Pt 

Is. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Mte. 

Tr. 

T. 
T. 
Pks. 

i. 

C. 

T. 

T. 

Bk. 

C. 

T. 

a 
c. 

^' 

Is. 

T. 

Dis. 

I. 

Dis. 

a 

Ft 

R. 

Ho. 

T. 

T. 

C. 



Southern Ocean 
Caribbean Sea 
Spitsborgen . . 
V.Diemeo'sLd. 
Lower Canada 
Polynesia.... 

Bruil 

GulfofToaqwin 
Asiatic Turkey 
Brit America 
Asiatic RussM 
North Ameriea|B 
Europe 
Japan 



lo 

Gg 

Na 

Vm 

Hd 

fl 

Ha 



Jamaica 

Mexico 

Polynesia..'*.. 

Naples 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
Indian Ocean . 
Nova ZemUa. 
Barbadoes . . . 
North America 
Brit America . 

Africa 

New & Wales. 

Malaysia 

Asbtic Russia. 



Cy. 



C. 

c. 

Tr. 

Bk. 

C. 

L 

C. 

T. 

Mts. 

T. 

Bay 

Bk. 

T. 

Gr. 



Little Thibet . . 
Arctic Ocean. 
Spitsbergen . . 
Oregon Ter.. . 
Brit America * 
Oregon Ter. . 
Oregon Ter. . 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Nova Scotia . 
Australasia... 

Naples 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 

Japan 

Iceland 

Norway 

Missouri Ter... 
Indian Ocean.. 
Brit America . 

Sweden 

Russia 

Austria 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Brit America 
Indian Ocean 

Russia 

Polynesia .... 



o 

b 

Ld 

Vd 

Mo 

s« 

Eo 

Wh 

Ne 

Oc 

Pc 

Qi 

Pa 

Cc 
Fa 

Mk 

VI 

Ui 

Ra 

Re 

Na 

Ma 

Dd 

Fc 

Ed 

Ed 

Ge 

Fe 

Hd 

Wj 

Ne 

Wb 

Oc 

Ub 

Vb 

Ve 

Kb 

Mb 

Fd 

Pi 

Ha 

Nb 

Oa 

Nd 

Wb 

Qc 

Eb 

Ok 

Oc 

Bi 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



101 



Starback^B 

SUmrd.. 

Staritza... 

Starochantabkoe 

Storotsooroukai- 

looerkoi .... 

Staroy 

Stall 

Stalen 

Staten 

SUten 

Statef of the 

Church 

State Foreknd .. 

Staunton.. 

Stavanger . 

Stavropole. 

Stavropole. 

Starum... 

Steel 



L 
T. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

L 

L 

Hk. 



SteUenboeeh... 
Steoeele 



Stephens... 
Stephens... 
Stephens.., 
Stephenson 

Stettin 

Steabenvflle ...« 
SteTonsoa..... 

Stewart 

Stewart 

Steyer 

Stinkinr Water 
Stockhdm .... 

StoektoB 

StoIboYoy 

Stolpe; 

Stooe.j. 

Stone Wan.... 

Stony 

Stor 

Stora 

Stora 

Stordal 

Storko 

Storm 

Strait of Dover . 
StraitofGibraltar 
Stralsond . 
Strasbnrg . 
Streaky... 
Strekatda . 
Strelitz ... 
StrogonoT. 
Strom .... 
Strome .... 
Strommen.. 
Strong's . . , 



Polynesia.... . 

Prussia 

Rossis 

Asiatic Russia. 

Asiatic Russia, 

Russia 

Liringston ... 
Patagonia . . . 
KurUe Islands. 
Gfeenland 



C, 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
C. 
T. 
L. 
C. 

c. 

L 
I. 

Pa 
T. 

C. 

Is. 

L 

T. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

Cr. 

Des. 

L. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

I. 

Bay 



T. 

^' 

I. 
T. 
I. 



Italy 
Si" ■ 
hina 
Norway 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Norway 

EestemSea... 
New Holland.. 
Cape Colony . . 

Sweden 

New Zealand.. 
North America 
Oregon Ter..... 
Australasia... . 
FalUandls.... 

Illinob 

Prussia 

Ohio 

Sooresby*sLd.. 
Anstralssla... . 
Australasia... 

Austria 

Missouri Ter. 

Sweden 

Liberia 

Asiatic Russia 

Prusria 

Brit America 

Misiouri 

Africa 

Sweden...... 

Algiers 

Sweden 

Norway 

Rusria 

V.Diemen*sLd. 
England 



Prussia 

France 

NewHoUand.. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mecklenburg .. 

Japan 

Sweden 

Faroe Islands . 

Norway 

Polyi * 



Bi 
Nc 
Oc 
Sb 

Td 
Oc 
Ho 
Hm 
Vd 
Jc 

Md 
Na 

Ue 
Mc 

Od 

Pc 

Mb 

Uf 

Tk 

Nl 

Nb 

Xm 

Bb 

Dc 

Vi 

Hn 

Fd 

Mc 

6d 

Ka 

Wi 

Vi 

Md 

Ed 

Nc 

Lh 

Va 

No 

E c 

Ed 

Mf 

Mb 

Me 

Nb 

Mb 

Nb 

Vm 

Mc 

Le 

Mc 

Md 

Ul 

Ub 

M c 

Vd 

Nb 

Lb 

Mb 

Wh 



Stuart , 

Stuart 

Stuart's , 

Stukka 

Sturgeon 

Sturgeon 

Stuttgaxd 

Suabo Grande . 
Suadiva AtoUon 
Suakem ... .. 

Subzawar ..... 

Succadena .... 

Success....... 

Sucbitepio . . . . 

Suehtelen 

Suckling ...... 

Sucuru 

Soderoe , 

Soenhoa 

Sues 

SnfiVen 

Snfkowallick . . 

Sngaree 

Sugar Loaf.... 
Sugar Loaf.... 

Suick 

Suifong 

Suigutoi 

Suipacha 

Sukkertdp 

Sukkot 

Solen 

Solimania 

Sullapilla 

Sulphur 

Sulphur 

Sultania 

Sultin 

Sultus 

Sumasinte .... 

Sumatra 

Sumbatikila 

SumbaVa 

Sumbava. 

Sumbhulpore . . 

Sumachu 

SnniYam 

Sunda 

Sunday 

Sunday 

Sundsio , 

Snndswald . . . . . 

Sunflower 

Soomossalmi . . . 

Super 

Surat 

Suriago. 

Soriago. 

Surinam 

Surinam 

Surinam 



R. 
L. 
I. 
T. 
L. 
L. 

'^ 

I. 

5^- 

T. 

Bk. 

T. 

^' 

R. 
I. 

§^' 
^' 

T. 

I. 

Pt 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L 

L 

T. 

Pt 

Des. 

R. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

L 

T. 

Str. 

Is. 

L 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

^- 

Is. 
CoL 
T. 
R. 



Oregon Ter. . . 
Brit America . 
North America 

Suae 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Wirtemburg . . 

Afiica 

Asia 

Nubia 

Cabul 

Borneo 

Indian Ocean . 
Guatemala .. . . 

Japsn 

North America 

Brazil 

Faroe Islands . 

China 

Bprpt..r.... 
Mantchoona . 
Brit America 

Liberia 

Australasia... 
St Helena . . . 

Arabia 

Mantchooria . . 
Asiatic 'Russia 

Bolivia 

Greenland ... 

Nubia 

Norway 

Asiatic Turkey 
Hindooetan 
Polynesia .. 
Eastern Sea. 

Persia 

Africa 

Little Bucharia 

Mexico 

Malaysia 

Africa 

Sumbava 

Malaysia 

Hindooetan ... 
Kurile Ishuids. 

Persia 

Malaysia 

Malaysia 

Polynesia 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Mississippi. . . . 

Russia 

North America 
Hindooetan . . . 
Mindanao .... 

Malaysia 

Guiana 

Guiana 

Guiana 



Do 
Dc 
Bb 
Lf 
Fd 
Fd 
Md 

Qh 

Qe 
Ti 
Pi 
Fg 
Vd 
Cb 
Ik 
Lb 
Td 
Oe 
Vd 
Ha 
Lh 
XI 

Lj 

Pf 

Ud 

Qb 

Hk 

lb 

Of 

Mb 

Oe 

^i 
Vf 

Uf 

Pe 

Nf 

Rd 

li 

Lh 

Ti 

Ti 

Rf 

Wc 

Pe 

Ti 

Si 

Ak 

Nb 

Nb 

Fe 

Nb 

Gd 

Qf 

Uh 

lh 
lh 
lh 



9» 



103 



CONSULTING INDEX 



afflMi^te. 



Surra 

Soaa 

Sose 

SOflOCM 

Soasez 

Sussex 

Sussex. ....... 

SuUege 

Sutton Mm.... 
STentzitna . . . . 

Sviask 

Syiatoi 

Snatoi 

Smtoi 

Svilainskoy.... 

STinoe 

STinoe 

Svrains 

Swampy 

Swampy 

Swampy Lake . 

Swan 

Swan 

Swan River . . . 
Swan River . . . 

Swan*B 

Swearah 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Swedes 

Sweini 

Swift*s 

Switzerland . . . 

Syang 

Sydney 

Sylt 

Sylte Tig 

Sylves 

Syracuse 

Syria 

Syrian 

SaecDuen 

Szegedin 

Steredna 

Sxisakit 



Tkbalak ... 
Tabarea . . . 
Tabasco . . . 
Tsbasoo ... 
TtLbaoour .. 
Tabatinni.. 

Table 

Table 

Table 

Table 

TaWe 

Taboo 

Tabootaboo. 

Tkboa 

Tkbra 



T. 
T. 

Tr. 

L 

L. 

Har 

R. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

C. 

C. 

T. 

L. 

L 

I. 

Is. 

Pt 

Ho. 

I. 

Ho. 

Die. 

Col. 

I. 

Km 

Div. 

Is. 

T. 

Bk. 

Rep 

T. 
I. 
C. 
T. 

&• 

T. 
Pr, 
T. 
R. 
R. 

T. 

T. 
St 
T. 
R. 
T. 
Bay 

^' 

L 

Mt 

T. 

L 

Pt 

T. 



Asanaga. 

Tunis 

Afirica 

Sonogambia • . . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New a Wales. 
Hindoostan . . . 
Brit America . 

Russia 

Russia ....... 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Farde Islands.. 
S. Pacific Oc. . 
Caspian S^. . . 
Buenos Ayres.. 
Brit America . 
Falkland Is.... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New Holland.. 
Caribbean Sea. 

Morocco 

Europe 

Sweden ....«.< 

Polynesia 

Darfbr 

Indian Ocean.. 

Europe 

Poljrnesia 

Cape Breton I. 
Denmark ..... 

Norway 

Brazil 

Sicily 

Asia 

fiirmah 

China ........ 

Austria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Mongolia 



Asiatic Russia. 

Tunis 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mantchooria . . 

Equador 

Labrador 

Cape Colony .. 
New Zealand. . 

Polynesia 

Mantobooria . . 

Africa 

Pdynesia 

Guinea 

Soudan 



Lf 
Me 

Lf 

Lh 

Hb 

Eb 

Wi 

Qe 

Gc 

Nc 

Pc 

Pb 

Va 

Ob 

Ub 

Ob 

Lb 

Fn 

Pd 

HI 

Fe 

Hn 

Fc 

Fc 

Tl 

Gg 

L e 

Nb 

Mb 

Vh 

Ny 

Qi 

Md 

Uh 

Hd 

Mc 

Oa 

li 

Ne 

Oe 

Sg 

Te 

Nd 

Ub 

Sc 

Vb 
Me 

l« 

^5 
Hi 
Ic 
Nl 
XI 
Aj 
Vd 
Mg 

ti 

Mh 



1^ 



Tkbreez 

Tkbua 

Tabusemann . 

Tabnai 

Tabucana.. 

Tkcai 

Tbeanova . • . . 

Tkcazze 

Tkoootche To 

Tkdmor 

TulsoDg 

TafelBerg... 

Tkfilelt 

Tkfilelt 



TVigai 

TkgangTOff .. 
TkganTala. 

Tkgbe 

Tagoulla.... 

Tagua 

Tagua 

T^uira . . . . 

Tagura 

Tagus 

TaBaa 

Tahiti 

T^oora . . . . 
Tahuata • . . . 

Taiba 

Tai-chow ... 
Taigooos.... 
Taimour .... 
Taimoora . 



Taimourska^a .. 
Taimourskoi . . . 

Tainotskoi 

Taipein 

Tai-ping 

Taiping 

Taissughan . . . . 

Ttitong 

Taitsing v 

Taiwan 

Tai-yuen 

'^—:::: 

Taka 

Takang Besseys 

Takhma 

Taki 

Tak-mao 

Takokaguin... . 

Takoo 

Takoo 

Taksul 

Tkknm 

TaU 

Talabo 

Talarho Kara . . 

Talavera 

Talbot 



§^- 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

L 

R. 

R. 

Rns 

T. 

Mt 

T. 

R. 

L 

Cty. 

^: 

Tr. 

R. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

L 

T. 

&• 
C. 

Prm 

R. 

C. 

I 
I 

7: 

Dis. 

T. 

L 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^: 

T. 
T. 
R. 
C, 
T. 
T. 
C. 



Persia.... 

Brazil.... 

Polynesia . 

Polynesia. 

Guatemala 

Asiatic 

Pd: 



lynesia 

Nubia 

Oregon Ter. .. 

Syria 

lliibet 

Spitsbergen ... 

Barbaiy 

Barbery 

PolyneBia 

Russia 

Monffdia 

Mindanao 

North America 

Aftica 

Africa 

Tripoli 

Mantchooria .. 

Spain 

Polyneaia 

Polynena 

Sandwich Is.. . 

Pol^esia 

^ma 

Ciiina 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 'S a 



Pe 
V- 

S«^ 
Dc 

Oe 

Se 

Na 

Le 
Le 

ll 

Sd 
Uh 
Ac 
Ng 
Ng 
Me 
Uc 
Le 

^i 

Ck 

Bf 

Ci 

Oe 

Te 

Wc 

Sa 

Sa 

Sa 



Asiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

China 

Tartary 

China 

China ........ 

Formosa 

China 

Russia 

NubU 

Japan 

MalaTsia ... . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Monffolia 

Cambodia 

Asiatic Russia. 

China 

Caffiraria .... 

Algiers 

Rustta 

Tartary 

Celebes 

Mongolia 

Spain 

New Holland. . 



Wb 

Uf 

Te 

Tf 

Pd 

Sd 

Se 

Uf 

Te 

Pc 

Og 

Ue 

Ui 

Vb 

Sd 

Th 

Ab 

Te 

Ol 

Me 

Nc 

Qd 

Ui 

Sd 

L e 

Oil 



00N8CLTIMG INDEX. 



108 



Tatoa 

Takahaaaa . . • . 

Talootin • 

Tdootins 

TaU 

TUig 

Taliffiitn 

TaUah«Mee ... 

Talorka 

Talaam's 

Tama 

TamaJma < 

T^marida 

Tamatave 

TamauUpaa . . . . 
Tamaolipaa . . . . 

Tambelan 

Tambcz 

Tambobamba.. 
Tambookiea . . . . 
Tlmiboo ....86 

Tamboir 

Tamoon 

Tamboa < 

IVmiagoa 

Tampa , 

Ttimpioo 

Tamueh J 

Tana 

Tana 

TWna 

Tana 

TananariToa ••. 



Sambar C. 
T. 
T. 



Tandaff 

TtodJ 

Tandeb 

Tanoga^tma 

Tangra 

Tkngalla.... 

Tangia 

Tangier .... 
Tangiera ... 
TuiiongDato 
Tttnfoag " — ' 

l^niore 

Tankerlbng • . . 

Tankisw 

Tuma. 

Tbnnas 

TanaeT 

TantaJem 

Tantamane.... 

Taos 

Taotchmn .... 

IVooi 

Taoninaka #^ . . 
Taouinakoi .... 

Tapajoa 

Tapojoa 



T. 

&• 

L 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

8t 

T. 

la. 

T. 

T. 

TV. 

Pr. 



R. 
L. 

^^ 
T. 

a. 

L 
L 
R. 
R. 

^- 

T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

^- 



T. Cbifi 

BavCaiiH 

YiL 'Oregon Ter. 
TY. Or^tmTer. 
'^ China 

Aflioa 

Tkztarj ... 

Fbrida.... 

Asiatic 

Polyneaia . . 

Thibet.... 

Afrioa 

Boootra .. • . 

Madagascar 

Mexico 



HI 

HI 

De 

Do 

9f 

Lf 

Qe 

6e 

Wb 

Xh 

Btf 

Nf 

P 



Mexico . 



\ 

Ff 
Th 
6i 
Hi 



I. 
T. 



T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 

T. 
R. 
Tr. 



Malaysia . . 

Pern 

SonthPera 
Caffiaria... 

Russia .... 
Little BncharialR 
Mantohooria 

Mexico 

Florida 

Mexioo..... 

Boliria 

Norway 
North ' 
Rossia 

Asiatie Rossia. 
Madagascar.. . 
Eastern Sea... 

Siam 

Mindanao 

Bnenes Ayres . 
Hindoostan . . . 

Japan 

Zangnebar .... 

Ceylon 

Arabia 

Moroeoo 

Africa 

Borneo 

Celebes 

Hindoostan . . . 

Thibet 

Africa 

Anstrakuna ... 

Sweden 

Missouri Ter... 

Malaya 

Madagascar... 

Mexico 

Corea 

Asiatie Russia. 
Asiatie Russia. 
Asiatie Russia. 

Brazil 

South America 



loriiMH^as. 



"J 

Nl 

Oc 
Oc 
d 
Ud 
Ff 
Gf 
Ff 

Hj 
Na 

Ac 
Nb 
Vo 

l\ 
li 

II 

Rf 

Ue 

Oi 

Rh 

Of 

Le 

Lh 

Th 

Ti 

IT 

S 

Xj 
Mb 
Ed 
8h 

Ue 

Wb 

Wc 

Wb 

li 

li 



f 



l^pi 

TVpicatay 

TVpisa 

Tappanooly . . . . 

Taptse 

Taqnari 

Taqnari 

Tara 

Tkra 

Taracapa ...... 

Taramandi 

Taranto 

Taranto 

Tarapcl 

Tkras 

Tnibe 

Tarchinskoi ... 

Tarei , 

TkPei 

Taremdsong'... 

Tarifo 

Tarija 

Taritzin 

Tkrku 

Tkrma 

Tama 

Tamopol 

Tamow 

Tamowitx 

Taroucyorndsou 

Tarquin 

Tarragona .... 

Tarsus 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Tuenpoi < 

Tashkent 

Tasmania..... . 



Cona 

Brazil. ... 

Pern 

Sumatra .. . 
Hindoostan 

Brazil 

Brazil 

Asiatie Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
South Pern. . . 

BrazU 

Naples 

Naples 

Asiatic Ruaria 

Tartary 

Fkvnce...... 

Asiatic Russia. 
Mongolia .... 

Mongolia .... 

Hin<KMistan .. 
Cochin Cbina 

Bdiria 

T* Russia 

Asiatie Russia. 
Peru.... 
Sweden .. 



Taswell.. 
Tkswen*8 
Tktee . . . 
Tate*s . . . 
Tatonijr.. 

Tatta 

Tattah . . 
Tau«. . . 
Tauakeke 
Taodeny . 
Tiunu... 
Tiurm .... 
Tanra ... 
Taurida . . 

Tinrus 

Tayai Poenamoo 

TaTastelius 

TaTda 

TaTdinsk 

TaTclam 

Tavoy 

Tavoy 



.51 



T 
T, 
T. 
T, 
T. 
T. 
L. 
I. 
T. 
T. 

^- 

T. 
T. 
I. 

S- 

I. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

I. 

Pr. 

Mts. 

I. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L 

I. 

T. 



Austria.. 

PkuBsia.. 

Thibet.. 

Polynesia 

Spun . 

Asiatic 



TterkeyO 



Mantehooria . . 
Russia ..... 
Tartary ... 
Austnlasia. 

Bootan 

Pc^ynesia .. 
Polynesia . . 
Polynesia... 
Australasia 

Corea 

Suae 

Sinde 

North America 
Celebes.. 
Africa .. 
Birmah.. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Sandwich Is. . . 
Russia . . 
Asiatic Turkey 
New Zealand. 

Rossia 

Asiatie Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Sardinia. 
Birmah.. 
Birmah «-. 



Ud 

li 

Hi 

Sh 
Qf 

U 

Qc 

Qe 

Hk 

Ik 

Nd 

Ne 

Wb 

Qd 

Md 

Tc 

Td 

Td 

Bf 

Si 

Od 
Pd 

®i 

Nb 
Nd 
Nc 
Nc 
Re 
W| 



mS 



e 
Qd 
Vd 
Nc 
Qd 
Vi 
Rf 
Xi 
Xi 
Uh 

Vi 

Ue 
Lf 
Qf 
Ac 
Ti 
Lf 

So 
Bf 
Od 
Oe 
Xm 

s; 

Qo 
Md 

l« 



104 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Tawally 

Tawee Taweo • • 

Tay 

Tayf 

Tax 

Taxovskaya . . . . 
TazoYskaya .... 

TazoTskoo 

Tchaoota 

Tchftd 

Tohadobeka .... 

Tchadobeta 

Tchagan 

Tcbaff ma 

Tchahaia 

Tchahan Poulac 
Tcbahaaaan .... 

Tchaiteng 

Tehalei 

Tchamnayomdoa . 
Tchang-dia .... 
Tchang<«how .. . 
Tchangchow . . . 

Tchang-te 

Tchang-te 

Tohankour 

Tchantai 

Tchany 

Tchao-chow ... . 

Tchao-king 

Tchaon 

Tchaoanakaia . . 
Tchapoginka. . . 

Tchaptou 

Tchara 

Tcharin Nor . . . 
Tchelyabinak... 
Tchemacbevako. 

Tcbempol 

Tcberdyne 

TcheremcbaTkoi 
Tcberemi ...... 

Tcboreporetz • • • 

Tcberkuk 

Tcherikov 

TcherikoTs 

Tcbemaia 

TcbeniigoT..44. 

Tcbemi^v 

Tchernoi 

Tebemoretakoi.. 
Teberoorank . . 

Tebertaua 

Tcheskaya 

Tchetaea 

Tcbija 

Tchin-ohow . . 
Tohtng.4^w . 
Tcbingbench . 
Tohing-hiang. 
Tching-kiang. 



I. 

la. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

6. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

C. 

Pt 

L. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

^• 

5y- 



la. 
L. 

a- 
&• 

L. 
R. 
L. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
I. 
R. 
Pp. 



9l' 

a- 
Cy. 



Malaysia 
Malaysia 
Scotland. 
Arabia .. 
Aaiatic Rouia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia 
Mongolia .... 

Sondan 

Aaiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 
Mon^ia .... 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 

Mongolia 

Mantcbooria . . 

Mongolia 

Mantcbooria . . 

Tbibet 

China 

Cbina.. 

Corea 

Cbina 

Cbina 

Tbibet 

Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 



Mon^lii 
Anatio Russia 

Thibet 

Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Aaiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Russia , 

Asiatic Russia 

Russia 

North America 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Russia 

Mantchooria .. 

Thibet 

China .. 
China .. 
Tartary 
China.. 
China .. 



Ul 

Th 

Le 

Of 

Rb 

Rb 

Rb 

Rb 

Se 

Ng 

Sb 

Sc 

Td 

Wc 

Vc 

Td 

Ud 

Se 

Dd 

Se 

Tf 

Tf 

Ud 

Tf 

To 

So 

Vc 

Ro 

Tf 

Tf 

Xb 

Xb 

Tb 

Td 

Tc 

Se 

Qc 

Qb 

Uc 

Pb 

Re 

Ub 

Oc 

Od 

Oc 

Be 

Tc 

Oc 

Oc 

Re 

Re 

Pd 

Pc 

Pb 

Ud 

Se 

Te 

Tf 

Qd 

Sf 

Te 



Cy. 



Tching-ting . 
Tching-ton.. 
Tchinnan •. . 
Tchinsk .... 
Tchinskaya .... 

Tchinypoa 

Tchiraki 

Tchiriki 

Tchirindeakoi . . 

Tchirkin 

Tchistopobyie.. . 

TchitU 

Tchi-ynen 

TchoanflT 

TchoU Hotun. . . 

Tchona 

Tchongking... . 

Tchontori 

Tchori 

Tchomaja 

Tchosan 

Tchougatchi.... 
Tchougatchi....' 
Tcbougonlkbak. 
Tchouktoma . . . 

Tchoulgue 

Tcboulgne 

Tchoulkora .... 

Tchouna 

Tchoorinakoi .. . 

Tchouskoi 

Tchudskoe 

Tchuiso^a 

Tchuktcbi 

Tchuktchi 

Tchuktcbi 

Tchusa 

Tci^how 

Tci-nan 

Tcitchouam .... 

T^'W 

Tebes.. 

Tebur 

Teoolatlan 

Tedeles 

Teen-tsin 

Teenfimg 

Teerawitle 

Teetenguy 

Teex 

Tefebeh.. 
Tefflis. . . . 

Teae 

Tegaxxa .. 
Tegerhy . . 
Tegorarln. 
Tegorarin. 
Tegulet... 
Tehama.. 

Teheran Uy. 

Tehoantepee ...JT. 



C. 

§^- 

R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

R. 

^: 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Pen. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

Pr. 

a 

C. 
R. 

T. 
I. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

?"- 

C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

^- 

T. 

9?' 
Dis* 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

C 



China 

China 

China 

Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

China 

Mongolia 

Mantcbooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Abyssinia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

Itfantcbooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 

China 

Mongolia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Corea ........ 

North America 
North Ameiica 

SooD^raria 

Russia 

Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria .. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia 
Aaiatic Russia 

Russia 

Russia 

Aaiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Aaiatic Russia. 

China 

China 

Mongolia 

Polynesia 

Algiers....... 

Arabia 

Mexico 

Algiers 

Chma 

Hainan 

New Zealand. . 
Mantchooria . . 
Beloochistan .. 

Morocco 

Aaiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Africa 

Fezzan 

Barbery 

Barbary .. 

Abyssinia. 

Arabia .. 

Persia. . . . 

Mexico .. . 



Te 

Se 

Tf 

Wc 

Wc 

Se 

Td 

Uc 

Tb 

2* 
Pc 

Tc 

Tf 

Se 

Ud 

Tb 

Tf 

Sd 

Re 

Xb 

Ue 

Cc 

Bb 

Rd 

Oc 

Ud 

Ud 

Sb 

Sc 

Ub 

Tc 

Nc 

Pc 

Xb 

Wa 

Ab 

Uc 

Te 

Te 

Sd 

£k 

Me 

Of 

Ff 

Me 

Te 

Xm 
Ud 
Qf 
Le 
Pd 
Hi 
Lf 
Nf 
Me 
Me 
..Oh 

2«f 



Pa 



OOiNBULTING INDEX. 



■aa 
105 



Teha«atepeo.( 

Tehual 

T»hy 

Tbiinott 

Tein^show .* 

Tejam 

TejoM 

Tfeittoo 

TekM 

Tekrit 

Telak 

Telar 

Telebiaskoi . 
Tdeoats .... 
TalliagMH. . 
Tdlioharry.. 

TeUin 

TelmtB..... 
Telouoe.... 

Tebh 

Tembe 

Tembe 

Tembo 

Temdegoe . . 
Temeiiak . . . 



TemesTar 

TemeUm 

TemiseamiBf . 
Temiacamiiig. 

Tempett 

Tenacai 

Tench's 

Teadcnni . • • • . 
Tenoinbor. • • • < 
TenetiAi •• • • • 
Teneriffb.. • . • 

Teneiy 

xenes •••••■* 

Tenia 

Tenkonrgoui • 
Ten new ea.... 
Tenn e n e e .. . . 

Tensift 

Tepulo 

Tepie 

TepoO 

Teimmo 

TeraAfe 

Terbeo 

Tereaira 

Teroero 

Tereboli 

Teres 

Terefta 

Terek 

Terkiri 

Tennea 

Terminee .... 

Teraaj 

Ternenia .... 



Bay Mexioo 

L. Patafoota... 

Tripoli 

Naples 

China •...•- 
Mantohooria 
Mezieo..... 

Brazil 

Soonraia. . . 
Asiatic Tarkej 
Asiatie Russia. 
Asialie Russia 
Asiatic Russia' 
Asiatie Russia 

Africa 

Hindeostan .. 
Rossia ....... 

Mantchooria . 
Norway 

AfKca..'.*!!*.! 
Tembe ...... 

Moaambiqne . 
Mantchooria . 
Greenland . . . 

Oandia 

Austria 

Polynesia 



T. 
T. 

^: 

Tr. 

or- 

T. 
L 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

Oty. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

L 

T. 

T. 

I. 

L. 

Ho. 

T. 

I. 

T. 

L 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

Pt 
.St 
.R. 
.R. 
.T. 
.T. 

R. 

T. 
,h 

T. 

I. 

R. 

T. 
.T. 

I. 

R. 
.L. 

T. 

L. 

Bay 
.Bay 



Fg 

Hm 
Me 
Nd 
Tf 
Ud 
Fe 

Oe 
Wb 
Pd 
To 
Re 
Mf 
Rg 
Nc 
Vc 
Na 
No 
Ok 
Ok 
Oj 
Ud 
lb 
Ne 
Nd 
Wh 
Lower Canada. 6 d 



Lower Canada. 
NewfooBdland. 

Mongolia 

Australasia.... 

Africa 

Aostralasia.... 
New Grenada.. 
Canary Isles .. 

Psraguay 

Algiers....... 

Twtary 

Asiatie Russia. 
United States. . 
Umted States. . 
Moroooo 



Mezioo.... 
Paraguay.. 

Italy 

Australasia 
F< 

As>res .. 
Buenos Arres.. 
Asiatie Turkey 

Cabul 

Ba^ of Bengal 
Asiatic Russia 

Thibet 

Great Bucharia 

Mezico 

Mantchoona 
Segfaalien . . . 



Gd 

Id 

Sd 

Wi 

Nh 

Ui 

Hh 

Kf 

Ik 

Me 

Qo 

Ab 

Ge 

Ge 

Le 

Nb 

Ff 

Ik 

Md 

Vi 

Nf 

Ke 

HI 

Od 

Qe 

8h 

Pd 

Se 

Qc 

d 



§r- 



L 
R. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 



..r 



Terodant • . . 
Terraoina... 
TerreHanUe 
Torres des Arsa- 

cides . . . 
Tersekan . 

Tersi 

Terwok.. 
Tesohen.. 
Teshoo Loomboo 
Teshoo Loomboo'Cy. 
Tessermint 

Tessowa 

Tet 

Teta 

Teie 

Tetuan 

Tetaaroa 

Teulada 

Ter^go 

Tezada 

Tezas 

Tezeiros 

Tezel 

Tezupa 

Teyoa 

Teyren 

Teacueo 

Teniras 

Thames 

Tharatouglia . . . 

Thasos 

Thectinafa 

Theiss 

TheopoHs 

Theresienstadt. . 
The^eholekved.. 
Theyeholekyek . 
Thian-ohan .... 
ThianChan ...'. 

Thibet 

Thiers 

Thieweyarayeth 

Thineh 

Third 

Third Volcano .. 
Thirteen bw . * . 

Thistle 

Tholiosary 

Thorn 

Thomas's Kay .. 

Thompson 

Thompson 

Thompson's .... 

Thorn 

Thousand 

Thousand 

Thousand (the) . 
Three Brothers'. 
Three Kings . . . 
Three Pape . . . 



Moroooo. 
Ital^. 



Austndaaa. 
Tkrtary .... 
Tartary .•• 



C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T, 
L 

a 

T. 
Pt 

ay. 

T. 

t 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

L. 

Mt 

Mts 

T. 

L. 

T. 

L 

I. 

la 

I. 

T. 

L 

I. 



Austria 

Thibet 

Thibet ..«.. 
Greenland .. 

Fezaan 

Moroooo .. . . 
Benguela . . . 
Moaambique 
Morocco..., 
Polynesia. . . 
Sardinia ...... 

Paraguay 

Buenos Ayres • 
North America 
Atlantic Ocean 

Holland 

Mezico....... 

Polynesia 

Coiea 

Mezico 

Brazil 

England 

Asiatic Russia. 
Archipelago. . 
Brit America 

Austria 

CapeCokmy . 

Austria 

Brit Ameriea 
Brit America 
Soongaria. . . . 
Mongolia .... 



Har 

R. 

T. 

Is. 

L. 

Is. 

L 

L 

Mt 



France 

Brit America 

Madagascar.. 
Polynesia .... 
Polynesia.... 
New a Wales 



Greenland 



Le 
Md 

Ge 

Wi 
Qc 
Qd 
Nb 
Nb 
Re 
Rf 
lb 

Le 

Le 

Cj 
Me 
Ik 
HI 
Fe 
Jg 
Mc 

^^ 

Ue 

■/. 

Tb 

Nd 

Eb 

Nd 

Nl 

Nd 

Fb 

Fb 

Rd 

Rd 

Se 

Md 

Eb 

Oe 

Ok 

Vf 

Vli 

Vi 

Pc 

la 



Caribbean Sea. 6g 



Ft Oregon Ter. 



Brit America 
Oregon Ter.... 

Prussia 

Malaysia 

Brit America . 
Spitsbeigea . . . 
Indian Ocean.. 
Australasia.... 
Oregon Ter. . . * 



Do 
Gb 
Dc 

Ne 
Ti 
Fd 
Na 
Qi 
XI 
Dd 



106 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Three Pointo . . 
Three Rivers . . 
Three Sisters .. 
Thrum Cap ... 
ThsooDg-Ung . . 

Thurso 

Tiacka 

Tiaoyu-su 

Tiara 

Tibboo Berffoo. 
Tibboo Rschade 

Tibboos 

Tibboos 

Tiber 

libesty 

Tibnron < 

Tickeley 

Ticunas > 

Tider 

Tider's 

Tidon 

Tidsi 

Tiepenna 

Tieret 

Tierra del Fuego 

Tiete 

Tiev 

Tiger 

Tiger 

Tiger's 

Tiger's 

Tiggerinduma 

Tigidia 

TigU 

Tigil 

Tigre 

Tigre 

Tigris 

Tikhvm 

Tilapa 

Tllear 

Tilla don Madon 
TilladouMatis. 
Tillanchong .... 

Tillen 

Tilsit 

Tim 

Tim 

Tima 

Timballier . 

Timbo 

Timbuctoo . 

Time 

Timoka.... 
Timoa .... 

Timor 

Timorlaoet . 
Tirapanagos 
Tinareh . . . 
Tiqching .. 
Tiodel..,.. 



a 

T. 

Is. 

L 

Mts. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

Mts. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

R. 

?" 

T. 

Tr. 

L 

Is. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

T. 

Is 

R. 

T. 

I. 

Is. 

L 

I. 

T. 

T. 

T, 

R. 

Pr. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

Is. 

I. 

Hd. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

^' 
^: 

T. 
T. 
L 
I. 
L. 
T. 

s^- 

Bay 



Ashantee 

Lower Canada. 
Australasia ... 
Polynesia ..... 

Mongolia 

Scotland 

Polynesia 

Eastern Sea. . . 

Seghalien 

Amca 

Africa 

Africa 

Senegambia .. . 

Italy 

Africa 

Mexico 

Hindoofltan • . . 
Eauador..... . 

Africa 

Brit. America . 

Celebes 

Morocco 

Russia 

Tripoli 

South America 

Brazil 

Russia > 

Australasia.... 

Malaysia 

China Sea 

Eastern Sea. . . 

Africa 

Fezzan ....... 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Abyssinia 

£2quador 

Asiatic Turkey 
Russia .... 
Mexico .. . . 
Madagascar 
Maldives .. 
Maldives .. 
Bay of Bengal. 

Ireland 

Prussia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia 

Arabia 

Louisiana.... 
Senegambia • . 

AiHca 

Africa , 

Florida 

Thibet 

Malaysia 

Australasia... 

Mexico 

Nubia 

China 

Africa 



T 



Lh' 
Hd 

S^ 

Re 

Lc 

Cj 

Uf 

Vc 

Ng 

Ng 

Nf 

Lh 

Md 

Nf 

Ef 

R? 

Hi 

Kff 

6c 

Uh 

Le 

Ob 

Me 

Hn 

Ik 

Oe 

Vi 

Ui 

tI 

Mf 
Mf 

Wc 
Wc 
Og 
HI 
Oe 
Oc 

ll 

Qh 
Qh 
Sh 
Lc 
Nc 
Oc 
Rb 
Of 
Ff 
Lg 

ll 
Gf 

^f 
Ui 

Uj 
Fd 
Of 
Te 
Kg 






Ting-hae 

Tinhoea 

Tinian 

Tinney 

Tintuma 

Tiouk KarsBou. 
Tiouk Karagfn . 

THraspol 

Tireymeg ...... 

Tiriberskoi 

Tiroon 

Tirroe 

Titicaca 

Titmeg 

Titoe 

Tiumene 

Tivoli . 

Tiak 

Tlemsen 

Tlinpieskaya . . . 

Tobago 

Tobin 

Tobol 

Tobolsk 

Tobdsk 

Tobolsk 

TobuGO 

Tocia 

Tocuyo 

Todos k)s Santos 
Todos Santos .. . 
Todos Santos 

Tokat 

Tokay 

Toker 

Toktoi 

Tolaga 

Toledo 

Toledo 

Tolo 

Tolten 

Tolu 

Tolu 

Tduco 

Tom 

Tomb 

Tomchina... 

Tomio 

Tominee.... 

Tomo 

Tom's 

Tomsk 

Tomsk 

Tonala 

Tonamaea .. 

Tonca 

Tondano.... 

Tonder 

Tondon 

Tonga 

Tonga 



I'- 

I. 

Pt 

Des. 

G. 

C. 

T. 

L. 

C. 

Dis. 

L 

L. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

C. 

R. 

Gov 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

Bay 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

R. 

Bay 

^• 

T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
I. 
T. 
T. 

T. 

L 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

^- 

Is. 



China 

Hainan 

Polynesia .... 
Brit America 

Africa 

Tartary 

Tartary 

Russia ...... 

Brit America 

Russia 

Borneo 

Scotland 

Bolivia 

Brit America 

Patagonia 

Asiatic 

Italy 

Sweiden 

Alters , 

Asiatic Russia 
West Indies.. 
Scoresby's Lfl., 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Asiatic Turkey 
Venezuela .... 

Polynesia 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Asiatic Turkey 
Austria. ...... 

Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 
New Zealand.. 

Spain 

Ohio 

Celebes 

Chili 

New Grenada . 
New Grenada . 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 
Persian Gulf . . 
Asiatic Russia. 



Celebes 

Venezuela .... 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Asiatic Russia. 

Celebes 

Denmark 

Mantcbooria . . 
Polynesia ..... 
Polynesia 



Tf 
Tg 

£b 
Mg 

pJr 

Pd 
Nd 
£b 
Ob 
Th 
Lc 

?i 

Hm 
Qc 
Md 
Nb 
Le 
Sb 

'ka 

Qc 

Re 

Qc 

Qc 

Ff 

Od 

Hg 

Ve 

Ee 

Ef 

Oe 

Nd 

Db 

Wb 

XI 

Le 

Gd 

Ui 

HI 

Gh 

Gh 

Re 
Pf 
Tc 
Lf 
Ui 
Hh 
Gb 
Sa 
Re 

Sc 
Uh 
Mc 
Vd 
Ak 
Ak 



OONSULTING INDEX 



lo: 



TongalU 

ToogmUboo ... 
Toqg-chow.... 

Tongoi 

Toqg-chan .... 
Tooff-tiog Hon. 

Tanlien 

Tonquin 

Tonqoin 

Toosbei^ 

Toojn , 

Tonyn 

TOOAT 

Toofiia 

Tooia 34 

Took 

Toomalooa . . . . , 



Toonheex 

TooM 

TooUwney.... 

Tootooez 

Top 

Topbam 

Topinambu .. 

Topolevia 

Toqaedos 

Tor 

Toraito 

Torapa 

Tofda 

Torftae 

Torgi Bazar... 

Torna 

Tornea 

Tomea 

Tornea 

Tomea (Upper) 

Toro 

Torom ....... 

Toromaiiaa. . . . 

ToromUr 

Toronto 

ToropeU 

Torp 

l.rrenate 

7jirea 

Torres 

Torres 

Torres 

Torro 

Tortola 

TortoratiUo.... 

Tortosa 

Tortaga 

Tortagas 

Tortoga Salada . 

Tory 

Tostaek ... 

Tot 

ToUra .... 



T. 

L 

^- 

I. 

L. 

T. 

Cty. 

G. 

T. 

T. 

C. 

Sta. 

L 

Pr. 

T. 

I. 

I. 

T. 

T, 

L. 

R. 

L. 

C. 

Tr. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Bar 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Tr. 

L. 

§r- 

T. 
T. 
T. 
L 
Is. 
8tr. 



Soodan... 
Polynesia. 
China .... 
Mongolia . 
China .. .. 
China .... 



Asia 

China Sea 
Norway... 

Wales 

Seghalien.. 
Tibesty . . . 
Polynesia.. 



Russia > 
Polyn 
Polynesia . 
Persia... . 



Japan 

Brit America . 

Mexico 

Sooresby*s lid. 
Soath America 
Asiatic Russia. 

Peru t... 

Arabia 

Mongolia 

Siam 

Mexico 

Barca 

Soongaria 

Rossia 



T. 
T. 
L 

Is. 

I. 

I. 

R. 

R. 

iBay 



Sweden 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Spain 

AiBtatic Russia. 

Peru 

Asiatic Russia. 
Upper Canada. 

Russia 

Sweden 

Mexico 

BrazU 

Polynesia 

Australasia . . . 
News. Wales. 

Bra?a 

West Indies... 

ChiU 

Spain 



Florida ... 
Venezoela 
Ireland . . . 
Asiatic Russia. V b 
Mantchooria . . |U c 
New Zealand 



11 

Ue 
Rd 
Tf 
Tf 

IF 

Tg 
Mc 
Lc 
Vd 
Nf 
Ak 
Oo 
Oc 

Pe 
Ve 
Fc 
Ed 
Ob 
Ka 
li 
Pd 
Hi 
Of 
Sd 
Sh 
Ff 
Nf 
Rd 
Ob 
Nb 
Nb 
Nb 
Nb 
Ld 
Qb 

Qb 
6d 
Oc 
Nb 
Fe 
Ik 
Wb 

^) 

a 
gf 

Md 
Hf 
Gf 
Hg 
L c 



NnHflfflMi^te. 



Totma 

Totnam 

Totoman 

Totska 

Totza 

Touchamska .. 

Toudsong 

Toucr 

Tougianski.... 

II Touglemsk.... 

Toukoulan .... 

Toula 

Touloma 

Toulon 

Toulouse 

Touman 

Toumani ..... 
Toumateck.... 

Toumen 

Toumet 

Tounge 

Toungouinskoi . 

Tounkat 

Tour 

Toura 

Tourbede 

Tourcban 

Tourinsk 

Touroukhan... 
Touroukhansk. 

Toura 

Touryga 

Tousea 

Toutsitchamsia^ 

log 

Too-yuen ..... 

Toozant 

Tovsa 

Towa 

Towerga 

TowuMnd .... 

Towson 

Toier 

Tracy's 

Traftlgar 

Trail 

TraiU 

Trajeet 

Transfiguration 
Transynrania . . > 
Thmqnebar . . . , 

Trap , 

Trapani , 

Traps 

Trasarts , 

Travancore. 



T. 

a 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Mts. 

T. 

R. 

T. 
L 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

^^ 

L. 



Russia 

BriL America 

Formosa 

Japan 

Afuatic Rossia 
Asiatic Russia 
Hindoostan .. 

Tartary 

Asiatic Rossia 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 
Mon^folia 



^: 

T, 
I. 
T. 

a 

Ft 

T. 

I. 

C. 

PL 

I. 

T. 

In. 

Pr. 

T. 

Rk. 

T. 

Rks 

iTr. 

T. 



France 

France 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 

Mongolia 

Missouri 

Asiatic Russia. 

Tartary 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

France 

Asiatic Russia. 
Thibet 



Tliibet 

China 

Tripoli 

Russia 

Australasia.... 

Tripoli 

New aWales . 

Missouri 

Tunis 

Polynesia 

Spain 

Brit America • 
Scoresby'sXid.. 

Africa 

Asiatic Rossia . 

Austria 

Hindoostan . . . 
Kurile Islands. 

Sicily 

Australasia... • 

Africa 

Hindoostan 



Traven L. iWisconsin Ter. 

Traversay Bay Nova Zembla . 



Traverse. 
Trebisonde. 
Tree 



Is. .Southern Ocean 



Oc 
Fc 
Uf 
Ve 
Pc 
Sc 
Sf 
Pd 
Qb 
Pb 
Ub 
Se 
Ob 
Ml 
Mc 
Qb 
Wl 
Ua 
Ud 
Td 
Ed 
Sc 
Qd 
Qc 
Qc 
Ud 
Ud 
Qc 
Rb 
Rfa 
Ml 
Sb 
Re 

Se 
Tf 
Me 
Nb 
Ui 
Ne 
Wl 
Fe 
Me 
Xi 
Lo 
Da 
Ka 
Mj 
Ah 
Nd 

Rg 
Wc 
Me 

Xn 

ki 

Fd 
Pa 
Kp 



. py. Asiatic Turkey O d 
. |I. jPolyneaia. 



108 



OQNSULTINO INDEX. 



uctntemttH. 



^' 
^^ 

T. 
R. 
I. 
C. 
Is. 



Trees 

Tregonei.. 
Trcmoiiille • 

TVent 

Trenton • • . 
Trepaney.. 
Treptow ... 
Tre« Bams .... 
Tres Colunas . . . 
TretForcas.... 
TresBfarias.... 
TresMontoa.... 
Tres Montes ... . 

Trevenians 

Treves 

Triangles 

Tribe 

Tribulation 

Trichinopolj . . . 

Triego 

Tridrte 

Trincala 

Trineomalee.... 

Trinffano 

Trinidad 

Trinidad.. 

Trinidad 

Trinidad 

Trinidad 

Trinidad 

Trinidad 

Trinity 

Trinity 

Trinity 

Trinhy 

Tripasore _ . 

TripoU py. 

Tripoli Cy. 

Tripoli... 
Tripolina. 
Tristan d*Aeunha 
Troenen ....... I. 

Troilem I. 

Troitsk T. 

Troitska T. 

Troitzk ,..T. 

Tronbetas . . • • • R. 

Troue Pt 

Troosthoek Pt 

Troppau T. 

Trooskoe T. 

Trout L. 

Troat R. 

Troat Lake Ho. 

Troy Cy. 

Troyes Cy. 

Truro T 

TruziUo Dep 

TruriUo T. 

TruxUlo T. 

Trtixilio T. 



T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 

I. 

R. 

?' 

Is. 

T. 



Celebes.... 
Australasia 
Australasia 

Austria 

Ne V Jersejr . . . 
Newfoundland. 

Prussia 

firazil 

Polynesia 

Morocco 

Mexico 

Patagonia 

Pen. Patagonia .... 

Polynesia 

Prussia 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
News. Wales. 
Hindoostan . .. 

Darfur 

Austria... .... 

Ceylon ....... 

Ceylon 

Malaya 

Cuba 

BoUvia 

Guatemala .... 

Mexico 

West Indies. . . 
Southern Ocean 

Texas 

New a Wales . 
NewfiHmdland. 
Brit America . 
North America 
Hindoostan ... 

Africa 

Tripoli 

Syria 

Cfreeoe 

Southern Ocean 

Norway 

Poly] 



Wj 

Tk 

Md 

Hd 

Id 

Nc 

li 

Wf 

Le 

Ef 

6m 

Gm 

Ci 

Md 

Ff 

Dc 

Rg 
Ng 
Md 
Rh 
Rh 
Sh 
Gf 



Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Brazil 

Madagascar.. . 
NovaZembla .. 

Austria 

Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Now York.... 

Frimce 

NoTB Scotia... 

Peru 

Peru 

Guatemala .. . . 
Venevnela .... 



S5 
if 

Ff 

U 

Gb 
Be 

Me 

Me 

Oe 

Ne 
LI 
Mb 

l« 
Oc 

Sb 

Qc 

li 

Si 

Nd 
Qb 
Fc 
Db 
Fc 
Hd 
Md 
Hd 
Gi 
Gi 

u 



Tryal 

Ttyal 

Tsadda 

Tsahai Kiamen 

Tsakildan 

TbchaharNor. 

Tscfaclya 

Tschdotiska . . . 
TKhinkotan. . . 
TschirikoT .... 
Tschoudsong . . 
Tschourkin . . . 

TschnUn 

Tsebid 

Tseoulka 

T. Siampa .... 

Tei^how 

Tsifbuy 'f 

IVin^show 'T. 

Tsingel .... 

Tbita 

Tsitchicar.. 
Tsitehicar.. 
Tsotforkeng 
Tsung.min| 

l^un.j 

Tsu^sima . . 



Bay 

Rks 

R. 

T. 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

L 

C. 

T. 

C. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. 

Cy. 



NewS.Wafes. 
Australasia... . 

Africa 

Mantchooria . , 
Mongolia .... 
Mon^itd .. . . 

Asiatic Russia 
Kurile Islands 

Japan 

Thibet 

Asiatic Russia 
Asiatic Russia 

Barbary 

Asiatic Russia. IQ b 

Anom S g 

China IT e 

GulfofTonquinTg 



R. 
L. 
Pr. 
T. 
T. 
L 

?' 

R. 

Sta. 

Pen. 

Dis. 

L 

T. 

T. 

VoL 

I. 



Tuabei .. 
Tuaricks. 
Tuat.... 
Tubai... 
Tnbbus.. 
Tubeldie. 
Tucapel . 
Tuck*s . . 
Tuck's iRk. 

|Rf. 

Dis. 

L 

Pr. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

Ls. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

Sea 

Tr. 

R. 

R. 

Cty. 



Tuck's 

TUdawi 

Tooopia 

Tueuman 

Tucuman 

TudeU 

Tuggala .....:. 

Turgert 

Tufamg Rawing. 

Tulbagh 

Tule(the). 

Tttlneer 

Tumbul 

Tuna 

Tunbat 

Tung Hai 

Tungouses 

Tungouska 

Tungaragua . • • 

Tunu 

Tunis 

Tunja 

Tumuyan 

Tupisa 



R. 
T. 



Wl 

Tk 

Mb 

Ud 

Td 

Sd 

Pb 

Sc 

Wd 

Ue 

Sf 

Va 

Re 

Me 



Corea 

Mongolia 

Thibet ....... 

Mantdiooria . . 
Mantdioona • < 

Thibet 

China 

China 

Corea 

Asiatic Russia. 

Afiica 

Africa 

Africa 

Polynesia 

Penia 

Darfur 

ChiK 

Polynesia 

Australasts... 
Polynesia..... 

Africa 

Australasia... 
Buenos Ayres 
Buenos Ajrres.. 

Spain 

Kordo&n .... 

Afiica 

Sumatra 

Cape Cokmy . 

Mexico 

Hindoostan . . 

Africa 

Sweden < 

Indian Ocean. 



Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatic Russia. 

Eouador 

Anica 

Tunis 



New Grenada.. 
Buenos Ayres . 
Buenos Ayres . 



Uo 

Rd 
Re 
Ud 
Ud 
Sf 
Ue 
Tf 
Ue 
Tc 
Mf 

^f 
Mf 

Sj 

Pe 

N^ 
HI 

Wfr 
Wl 

Xf 

2? 

Xj 

Hk 

Hk 

Ld 

Og 

Mf 

Si 

Nl 

£e 

Qf 

O^ 

Nb 

Oi 

Ue 

Sb 

Sb 

Gi 

Me 

Me 

Hh 

HI 

Hk 



00N8DLT1MG INDlEaL 



109 



'I\ireoiiiaBaa . 

THiHbi 

TaHui 

Ttarpi 

Tnrm 



Torke.... 
TnrkwUa 
TsrkMUa 
Turlmtaii (Chi- 



Cty. 
Dis. 
T. 
R. 

a- 

Ste. 
T. 



Turkey. 

Turkey 

Turkey 

T\irk'« 

TanuigMB .. 
TuniBgain •• 

TuroD 

Tuna 

Turtfe 

Turtle 

Turtle 

TUrtk 

Turtto 

Turoe Duf e • 
Tury. 



(VMk) 



TuMuiy .. 
TUscumbia. 
Tttflkni... 
Ttopui.... 
Tufltepee... 

Tustb 

TutuilU... 

Tuy 

Tu^ 

Tuxor • •• • • 

Trer 21. 

Tw 

TweheApoBtlM 

Twin 

Twine 

Two 

Two Beye 

Twclbki 

Two Groupa. • . . 

Two Peaks 

Twunt 

Tydore 

Tyniakaya 

Typansan 

Tyre 

Tyrol 

Tymn 

2>f. • 

Tzai 

l^BTOTokokovM 

Tolima 

Tiokurin 

IW 



Little 

Little 

Tartaiy 

SardinMi 

Afrioa.. 

AaU... 

Tartaiy 



Die. Chineae Empive R 
~* Tartaiy . 



Die. 

S2 
Oty. 

le. 

la. 

C. 

Ft 

R. 

T. 

He. 

L 

la. 

la. 

L. 

Pt 

Rk. 

T. 

^d- 

T. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

L 

T. 

L. 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

la. 

R. 

la. 

la. 

a 

Mta. 

T. 

L 

T. 

L 

T. 

Pr. 

R. 

Fd. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

Dea^ 

L. 



New Zealand. 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Cochin China 
^fy^l^ tn Ciiina 
PolTneaia. .. 
Malayaia . • • . 
Aaatralaaia ... 
Brit America . 

Java , 

Aaatralaaia 
Braxil 



BnchariaQ 



Pd 
Rd 

d 

Md 
Njr 

qS 



Malayaa . 



Italy 

Alabama ... 
Little Bucharla 

Mexico 

Bfexioo w.. 



Polyneaia 

Spain 

Aaiatie Ruaaia 
Mantehooria .. 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia 

Wiaconain . . • , 
Wisoooain ... 
Brit Ameriea . 

Polyneaia 

Patafonia..... 
New&Walea. 
Polyneaia. .... 
Brit America . 

Algiera 

M uayaia 

Aaiatio Ruaaia. 
EaatemSea... 

Syria 

Auatria 

little BuchariatR 
Norway. 
Tbfftary . 



Ruaaia... 
Meo^rolia. 



d 

Oe 

Nd 

Ti 

Hf 

Xm 

£b 

De 

Ui 

V 

Eo 

Ti 

Tk 

Ji 

6e 

Md 

Ge 

Qd 

Ff 

l« 

^} 

Ld 

Oe 

Vc 

Oc 

Oc 

Fd 

Fd 

Gc 

Wh 

Hm 

VI 

SJ 

Ec 
Le 
Uh 
Rb 
Vf 
Oe 
Md 
d 
Nb 
Qd 
Pc 
Pb 
Sd 
Ob 



• oriiMH^aa. 



Uaupea 

Ubai 

Ubataba 

Ueayale 

Udakai 

Udiai-milai. . . 

Udiriek 

Udoma 

Udoma 

Udoma Croaa. 

XJelJUe 

Uitenhage .. . . 
Uian 
Ulanr 
Ulea 

Ulea 

Uleaborg 3. 

Uleaborg 

Ulentai 

Ulia 

Ulkan 

Ulm 

Umba 

Umbra 

Umea 

Umea 

Umea 

Umerapoora .... 
Ummeaofier.... 

Umg ua 

Uniritair 

Unaub 

Underoot 

Un^Ta... .... 

Unicom 

Union 

Union 

Union 

Unjigah 

Unmak 

Unat 

Upalte 

Upemarik 

Upemavik 

Upola 

Upper 

Upper Abbetibbe 
Upper Canada . . 
Upper Haliz.... 
Upper Irtyah . . . 
UpperKamiehalka 
Upper Nippewan 
Upper Oudinak 
Upper Torneo . 

Upright 

Up« 

Upaa 

Upeal 

Upatart 

Urak 

Ural 



R. 

L. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

L 

L 

L. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

U 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

L. 

R. 

^: 

R. 
L 

a 
Biy 

Rka 

Sta. 

Str. 

R. 

L 

L 

T. 

Die. 

Bla. 

L 

L. 

L. 

Pr. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

Ho. 

T. 

T. 

C 

L. 

R. 

T. 

a 

R. 
R. 



Venezuela .... 

Bolivia 

final 

Equador 

Anatic Ruaaia. 

Polyneaia 

Pcdyneaia .. . . . 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Aaiatie Ruaaa. 
South Peru .. . • 
Cape Colony . . 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Ruaaia 




Indian 

MiaaouriTer... 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
North America 

Scotland 

Buenoa Ayrea . 
Greenland .... 
Greenland . . . . 

Polyneaia 

Oregon Ter. .. . 
Brit America 
North America 

Sweden 

Mongolia 

Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Brit Ameriea . 
Aaiatie Ruaaia. 
Sweden ...... 

North Ameriea C 
Mongolia .... 

Mongolia .... 

Sweden 

NewaWalea 
Aaiatie Ruaaia 
Tartaiy 



Hi 
Hj 
Jk 
Ui 
Uc 

Vb 
Vc 
Vc 

Nl 

Uc 

Wb 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Qc 

Vc 

Vc 

Md 

Ob 

Ni 

Nb 

Nb 

Nb 

Sf 

Nf 

Dd 

Qe 

Vh 

Q? 
He 
Na 
Ol 
Fe 
Eb 
Ec 
Ac 
Lc 
HI 
la 
la 

^J 
Ec 

Gd 

Gd 

Nb 

Rd 

Wc 

Eo 

Tc 

Nb 

a 

Sd 

Sd 

Nc 

Vc 
Pd 



10 



no 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



Ural MU, 

Urartnaa p , , T, 

Umtuppa T, 

Uf bana T, 

Or«a T. 

Orfwi Daba.... Mts. 

Urgoji D&gn Mts. 

Urghervdj ...... T» 

Ur^hundab ». . . , R- 
Urj ungumo- . . . , U 
Urracaa,,,..!** 1- 

Umii Hd. 

Ufuba...., T. 

Urucuja R' 

Urug^uay ^ - * Rep. 

Uruguay ♦ R* 

Urumia. .♦ T* 

TJnimia *.-.!* 

Urup , * . * * , I- 

Urupadi H- 

Usbck Turkestan Cly 
Ueetese 

Uitica . 

n«Mayo 

Uft Yan^oi 

Uturi.. . 

Utica 

Utrecht 

UtWIlB ...... 

Uyandma . . . 



^7 

. T* 

r. 

, T. 
T. 

R- 

a. 



Europe ... 
Equador . 
Great Bucharia 
Venezuela ...» 
Mexioo ....... 

Tftrtary 

Mongolia . , . . . 

Tartary , 

Cabul 

Mongolia 

PoLyneBim^ .... 
Ireland ....... 

Brazil 

Brazil 

South America 
Uruguay ,,.,,. 
Permia ........ 

Persia. ..,.,.. 
Kurile Iplanda. 

Brazil 

Tartary ,,,,,, 
Palagoaia ■ * . . 
Tartary .,*,., 
Ashantee .... * 
Meditcrran. Sea 
Asiatic Russia- 
Asiatic Russia, 
Mantchooria . 
New York .,, 

Holland 

Low<sr Canada 
Asiatic Russia- 



Vaearapi * . . ^ . > 
VucoBaar. . . . . . 

Vach 

Vachoarei .... 

Vada ...I 

Valday , 

V^ddeSp. ...,,< 

Vddivia ..... 

Valence ...... 

Valencia ...... 

Valencia 

Valencia ...... 

Vnlentia ..... 

Valelta 

Valtnco ..... ^ 

Valk 

Volladolid 

Volladolid 

Valladolid. .. < 

ValladoUd 

Vallca , 

Vallej Town* . 
Vallona. ..*... 
ValpuraiAO . ^ . 
Valsche ....... 

Van ., 

Van Buren . .. ^ 
Van-choiw^. . . , . 



. R. 
. T. 

,c. 

. T, 
. Ft. 

. T. 



, T. 
. I. 

:&■ 

, T. 

.Cy. 

:^- 

. T. 

. T. 

"t. 

. L. 
. T. 
. T. 



Brazil ....... 

Jtlorida . . . p . . 
Ajiallc Russia 
Aiiatic Ruaeia 
Tunis ..-.,.. 

Ruflfiia * 

North America 

Chili 

France ....... 

Spain 

Bj^ui ....... p 

Venezuela ^ . . . 
Ireland ....... 

MalU 

Corsica ....... 

Ruis^la 

Spain 

Mexico ....... 

Mexico. ...... 

£k[uador ...... 

Mexico. ...... 

North Cajolina 
Turkey....... 

Chili... 

New Guinea . . 



Pc 
H i 

Qd 
Hh 
Ef 
Qd 
Sd 
Qd 
Qe 
Rd 
Vf 
Lc 

J] 
U 
Pe 
Pc 
Wd 

I t 

Qd 

II n 

Qd 
Lh 
.Me 
Vh 
Va 
Ud 
Gd 
Me 
G d 
V b 



li 

G f 
Rb 
Qb 
Me 
Oo 
Cb 
Ml 
Md 
Le 

Ji 

Hg 

L c 
Me 
iMd 
Nc 

Ld 

fg 
Gf 
Gi 
Ff 
Ge 
Nd 
Hi 
V i 



Astatic Turkey^ e 



Missouri, 
ff ainan . 



Fe 



4 QrFtiCtVr'^ 



Vancouver ..... 

Vancouver'* .... 

Vancouver** . * . . 
Vandalia ....... 

VonDiemcn^a Ld. 
Van Dicmen^a . .- 
Van DienienV . . 
Vanhcim ....... 

Van Keulcn^a .. . 

Vanncn 

Vannes. ..,..,... 

Vanaittart 

Vanve ,,,....,. 

Vapua ... ,. 

Varaiadei ^.. 

Varbot 

Varcla. 

Varina^. ....... 

Variiiae. ....... 

Varrm ..... 

Voroe ...,...,. 
Varoonda ...... 

Vasil. 

V^asquez ,...,., 

VOSBC ......... 

Vassigan ....... 

VasisikoT 

Vaujaaj.. 

Vavov ..*,..... 
Vciscnetcin. . .. . 
Vekahina ...... 

Vel..„ 

Vda 

Vela^rcts. . . . I'. . 
Vela^co ....,..* 
Veldho ........ 

Vefika.. 

Vc'likaya Looki . 

Vdak 

Vcfek 

Venden 

Vendome 

Venezuela ...... 

V^enezuela ...... 

Venice .,.,.,.,,. 
Vepery ,.....*. 

Vera Cruz 

Vera Cruz ...... 

Vera Pai . . . , . . 

VeraPai 

Verde ......... 

Verde 

Verde 

Verde — ...... 

Verdon ..... i . . 

Verinejo .....,, 

Verkholen«koi . . 
Verkho Onralak. 
Verkhotouriye . . 
Vcrko Yannkoi.. 
Verleegan Hook 



C. 

1. 

I-^ 

Cy. 

I. 

G. 

Sir. 

Cy. 

Bay 

f. 

I. 

L 

Fd, 

T. 

R. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

^^' 

Cty. 

T. 

1. 

Ft 

R. 

T. 

PU 

L 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Rka 

I. 

T. 

R. 

Bay 

T. 

^/- 

T. 
T. 

Rep 

Dcp 

Cy. 

T. 

SL 

Cy. 

SL 

T. 

a 

a 

R. 
I. 

|T, 
R. 
T. 
T. 

It. 

T. 

IC. 



North America 
Oregon Ter. . . 
Oregon Ter. . . 
lUiuoia ....... 

AufitrnlaaJa.... 

New Holland.. 
Japan ........ 

China 

Spitsbergen . . .. 

Norway ...... 

France ,.,,... 
BriL America . 

Norway * . 

Iceland 

Russia ....... 

Asiatic RjAisia^ 
Palagoniii. . , , . 
Venezuujia .... 

Equador ...... 

Turkey 

Norway 

Africa .., 

RsflRia 

Polynesia 

New HollArid. . 
Ai$iatic RuHijia. 

Ruai^ia 

Montchooria . . 
Polynesia. . . . . 

Russia . . . . . . 

Asiatic Rusaia. 

Ruiisia 

PoIynei>i^ia . . . . . 
Eaatern Sea. . . 

Texas 

Asiatic Russia . 

Russia 

Russia ....... 

Russia ....... 

Russia ....... 

Russia ....... 

France ...... 

South America 

Venezuela 

Italy 

Hindoostan . . . 
Mexico ....... 

Mexico . — ... 
GuDtemala .. - . 
Guatetnala — , 
Senega mbm .. . 
SC Thomas's I. 
Brazil ........ 

New Grenada . 
France ....... 

Buenos Ay rem . 
Astatic RuBriia, 
Asiatic Rusi^ia. 
Asiatic Ruaeia. 
Asiatic Russia. 
jSpilsbergtn . . . 



B b 
Dd 
Dd 
Gc 

Vm 

Uj 
Ue 
Te 

Ma 
Na 
L d 
Gb 
Mb 
Kb 
Pb 
Vc 
Hn 
Hh 
Hi 
Nd 
M b 

^J 
Pc 

Ak 

T i 

Re 

Oc 
Vc 
Aj 

No 
Qc 
Ob 
Vf 

'U f 
Ff 
Vb 

Pb 

Oc 
Ob 
Pc 
Nc 
M d 
Hh 
Hh 
Nd 

S« 

Fg 

Mh 
Ik 

Md 
Hk 
Tc 
Pc 
Pc 
Ub 
Na 



00NSULTIN6 INDEX. 



11] 



(^ewnburr . 
ITeflod 



Yennelha. 

YemiillioB 

yenailtion 

Vflrmoot.. 

Verona ... 

Verro .... 

VenaiUes. 

Venhny KolynMk 

VenhnyyUkiiak 

Vewnr 

V< 

Verter Horn... 

Vesaviiu 

Veezprin 

VedoQga 

Veray 

Veyrm ....,,. 

Vhytogr* 

y iana 

Viasma 

Viasniki 

Viatka IS 

Viatka 

Viborjr 9 

VihoTg 

Vichada 

y icioaaa 

YickslNirg 

Vicaa 

Victoria 

Victoria 

Vidai 

Vidal 

Vieiiiia 

Vieaca 

V ifferoo ••.•.«. 

Vigia 

Vi^ria 

Vigo 

Vigo 

Vi|^ 

Vijima 

VUcabamba... 
Vilkomir. ..... 

Villa Bd]a.... 

VilUBoa 

Villa Boim . . . . , 

Villach 

Villa Clara 

Villa de a Frio. 
Villa del Forte . . 
ViUadeUPorifU 

cacioQ ••..•• 
Vina del Faerte 
Villa del Principe 
Villa do Contas 
Villa do Principe 
Villa Gniana 
Villa Maria. 



Ben^roela . 



Mexico .. • 
Mezioo... 

Cuba 

Braiil..... 
Braiil.... 
Venenwla. 
Brazil 



t tt TIaamf tbc. cu« 



T. 



Villa Nova da 
Princexa .... 

Villa Nora da 
Prinoeza.... 

ViUaNovadelBeylT. 

VUUNova "■ 

Villaret 

ViUaRioa 

Villa Rica 

Villarica 

Villa Salado... 

Villui , 

Vinoennec*. ... 

Vingocla 

Virgin........ 

Virgin... ••... 

Virgin Gorda .. . 

Virginia 

Virgin's ...... 

Viririri'B ....... 

Vi:; T 

Viflcavna 

Viflcher*a 

Viseu , 

Vistok 

Vitohegda 

Vitebsk 27 

Vitebsk 

Vitim 

Vitioiekaya.... 

Vittoria 

Vizagapatem . . 
Vizianagnam .. 
VizieraM ... 
Vladimir.... 33 
Vladimir. ..... 

Vladimir , 

Vofaen 

Vogenoe , 

Vobemaire .... 

Voikoeki 

Voja 

Vojigorska ..... 
VoknaTolotz .... 

Volcano 

Volcano 

Vdcano 

Volga 

Volgina 

VolS7nia....45. 

VolkW 

Volmar 

Vdogda....ll. 
Vologda . . 
Volomki.. 

Volte 

Voltes.... 

Vollri 

Volimteer . 
VomaTin . 



^: 

T. 

ViL 
R. 

§f 

Is. 

Bka 

L 

St 

^' 

L. 

a 
I. 

T. 
R. 
T. 
Pr. 

2" 

T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
Pr. 

L. 
T. 
T. 

L 
R. 
T. 
Pr. 
R. 
T. 
Pr. 

^- 

R. 



Brazil •••• •• < 

Brazil. ••. .».. 

Brazil 

Brazil 

New Holland.. 

Brazil 

Buenos Ayres > 

Chili , 

Mexico ....... 

Asiatic Russia. 



Hindoosten . . . 
West Indies.. 
Newfoundland. 
West Indies.. 
United States . 
Mexico....... 

Pata^fonia..... 



T. 




orway 
Madagascar .. . 
Asiatic Russia. 



Russia . .r 

Russia ....... 

Japan 

Polynesia 

Polynesia .. . . . 

Russia 

Asiatic Russia. 



Russia . 
Russia . 
Russia . 
Russia 



Guinea ... 
Africa. . . . 
Sardinia.. 
Polynesia. 
Runia . . . 



Ik 

Ji 
li 
Jj 

U 

HI 
£e 
Tl 
Ge 
Qg 

£e 
He 

Nc 
Dc 
Wl 
Hj 
Nc 
Pb 
Nc 
Oc 
Tc 
Tc 
Ld 

5* 
Re 
Oc 
Oi 

Nc 

Na 

Ml 

Pj 

Qt 
Oil 
Pb 

Nil 
Vd 

Vf 

wi 

Oc 
Ra 
Nc 
Oc 
Nc 
Pb 
Oc 
Oc 
Ml 
Nk 
Nd 
Pf 
Pc 



113 



xxxxmuraiG'.nsBBSL 



Vorofrkaya 

Vbronei ...»41i 

Vorones 

Vofonez 

Voronia....^... 

y OfODOT 

Vofya 

VoBminsk...... 

VoBPece n a k oe .. . 
Voutchang • • • • . 

Voa-tine , 

Voz 

Vym 

Vjn 



WaagQ.. ..... 

Wabash 

Wadan 

Waday 

Wadreag .... 

Wadaoe 

Wady al Kon 
WadyOakhe 
WadyelKbargafa 
Wady el Li^li- 

Ihaman 

Wady Fanfidb . 
Wady Kawar... 
WadyNooQ.... 
Wady Zoaam, .. 

W|i^r 

WaiixDsa 

Wakaah 

Wake'a 

Wake*s Ledge. < 
Wlddeck....S3. 

Walk 

Walet 

Walgnind 

Walgomas ..... 

Waller 

Walker 

Walkcr'e 

WaUace 

Wallachia , 

WaUah Wallah 

WalUs'a , 

WaUis's 

Walmsley 

Walpole , 

Walsbak 



Walflinghain.. . . 
Walter BathuTBt 

Walwich 

Wamba 

Wamkrore ..... 

Wamwaz 

Wanipl 

Wapticacoos.... 

Wara 

Waranger 



T. 
Pr. 

^: 

R. 

a 

R. 

Bay 
T. 

R. 
R. 

L 

R. 

T. 

T. 

IHb. 

T. 

T. 

Oe. 

T. 

T. 

a 

L. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

Cty, 

Tr. 

I. 

Bka 

9^ 

T. 
I. 
L. 

a 
a 



Asiatic Ra 
China.... 
China.... 



Faroe lalands 
United J 
IVipoa. 
Africa .. 
Barbery 



Arabia . 
Egypt.. 
Egypt.. 

Fezzan. 

Avica. . 



Asiatic 
Rassia 
Russia 



Asiatic Russia. 



Asiatic Rn 



Sose 

IVipoti 

Brit America 

Africa.. 

Oregon Ter. .. 
Polynesia. . . . 
Polynesia .... 
Germany..... 
Great Britain •• 
Africa 



Sweden 

Brit America 
Greenland . . . 
Colooiy . 
^sLd. 
Turkey 
Oregon Ter.... 

Polynesia 

Isle of Georgia 
Brit America . 
Australasia .... 

loeUnd 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 

Africa 

Africa 

Senegambia • . . 
Australasia.... 

Sweden 

Oregon Ter.. .. 

Beigoo*. ...... 

Russia 



Bay Ospe 

Bay ScoresbyV 

Pr, "" • 

R. 

I. 

L 

L. 

L 

I. 

C. 

a 

Dis. 

T. 

L 

R. 

R. 



Wc 
Oc 
Oe 
Ob 
Ob 
Ob 
Qb 
Pb 
Re 
Te 
Te 
Ob 
Qb 
Pb 

Lb 
Ge 
Nf 
Ng 
Me 
Na 
Of 
Nf 
Nf 

Mf 

Nf 

?/ 

Me 
Gb 

Ng 
Dd 

Xg 
Mc 

Lc 

^! 

Nb 
Fc 
la 
Nl 
Ka 
Nd 
Ed 

Jn 
£b 

Xk 
Kb 

J?^ 
Ga 

Mk 

Ni 
Kf 
Vi 
Nb 
Ed 
Ng 
Na 



I 9mmtinmm*». 



Warangol 
Warasdia ^ • • • 

Warberg 

Watdehma ... 
Waffdoe....... 

WSMC 

Wargala 

Wargala ...... 

Wargek 

Warning 

WsfTeeonne .»• . 

Warren > 

Warren 

Warren. ••%»»•, 
Warrender ..... 

Warrow 

Warsaw 

Warsaw 

Wasa A 

Wasa... 

Wasahny < 

Wash (the).... 
Washagamy .. . 
Washington .. . 
Washington ... 
Washington .• • . 
Washington.... 
Washington .. . 
Washington .. . 
Washita (False) 

Waahoo 

Waailieflfo 

Wasiliefiskoy . . 

Waskayow 

Waskur 

Wassaw 

Waaseen 

Wassela 

Wsssiboo 

Wisteras 

Watchman*^.... 

Waterford 

Watlings*Kay. 

Wawa 

Waygat 

Waygat 

Waygatch .... 

Waygatch 

Waygeeoo .... 

Webbe 

Webuck 

Weeks' 

Weeks' 

Wehisk 

Wei 

Weide 

Weide 

Weihai-wei..... 
Weldychuok . . . 
Wellesley's.... 
Wellington..... 



T. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
\t 
Qy. 
Ola. 
T. 
Sta. 
Mts. 
R. 
T. 
R. 
Pt 

a 

Pr. 
T. 
R. 



Sweden. 



fiarbary 

Barbaiy 

Africa 

New & Wales. 
WiseonsinTer. 
Pennsylvania, m 
Bait Ameriea • 
Brit America •. 
Brit America • 
Guiana. ...... 

Poland 

llUnois 

Ri 

Ri 

Brit America . 

England 

Brit America . 
D. of Columbia 
Pennsylvukia. . 
Arkansas ..... 

Texas 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Western Ter.. . 

Seudan 

KurUe Islands. 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Ashantee 



L. 

§f 

T. 

T. 

Is. 

L 

R. 

T. 

C. 

L 

R. 
Dis. 

Pks.|Africa. 

^' 
T. 

T. 

C 

T. 

I. 

T. 

L 

Sta. 

L 

Sir. 

L 

R. 

C. 

L 

L 

R. 

Pr. 

T. 
L. 

Is. 
Ch. 



Africa. . . . . 

Africa 

Sweden.... 
Patagonia., 
Ireland .... 
Bahamas . . 
Soudan .... 
Greenland . 
Greenland . 



Polynesia 

Africa.... 

Labrador . 

PdyD 

Polyi 

Brit America 

Thibet 

Spitsbergen . . 
Greenland ... 

China 

Brit America 
Australasia... 
Brit America 



5! 

Mc 

Oa 
Oa 
Mh 
Me 
Me 
Mf 
Wk 
Fd 
Gd 
Fb 
Db 
Ga 
Ih 
Nc 
Fd 
Nh 
Nb 
He 
Mc 
He 
Ge 
Gd 
Fe 
Fe 

Bh; 

Fe 

Mh 

Wd 

Ua 

Fc 

Qb 

Lh 

Oi 

Lg 

Lg 

Nc 

Hm 

Lc 

Hf 

Mh 

la 

la 

Pb 

Pb 

Uh 

Oh 

lc 

Wf 

5« 
Gc 

Sf 

Ma 

lb 
Ue 

Eb 

V 
Fa 



CONSULTING INDEX. 



113 



WeOington. 

WellB' 

Webfixrd... 
Wener .... 
Wenerborg. 
Wenman's . 
Wemer.... 

WeMl 

Weaet 

WesteTTille. 
VemtTm... 



I. 

Rf. 

C. 

L. 

T. 

b. 

Mte. 

T. 

R. 

Sto. 

Ii. 

I. 

a 
a 

L 

Pt 

R£ 

FA 



WeaBePi 

Weit 

West 

Weirt 

W«t 

W«t 

West 

Weit Bothnia 

Weit Cape HowejC. 

Weilem 

Weitem 

Weitem 

Weitem 

Western 

Weatem 

Weitem Aoitral- 



Ter. 

Ii. 

k. 

I. 

Pa 

Ter. 



Weitem Spiti- 



Weitenrdti 
Weit Fork . 
Weetmanna 
Weit Mt. Birron 
WeitoD... 
Weit Fane 
Weitra] 
Weit 
WeetVaagen 

Wetter 

Wettem 

Wezfoid 

Werio 

iVeyniaiitu «... 
Wejwongy . . . 
Wbaco Indian! 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale 

Whale RiTor . . 

Whale'i 

Whale'i 

Whaneekas . . . 

Wheeling 

Whidbey 

Whidbej 



Patagonia . . . . 
Aoitralaiia.... 
Brit Ameriea . 

Sweden 

Sweden 

Gallapagoi .... 
Sooreaby'iLd.. 



Germany 

Caffiraria 

Anitralaaia... . 
Aoitralaiia ... 
New Zealand.. 
Coronation .. . . 
Falkland Ii.... 
Brit America . 
South Shetland 
Norway 



Dia. Sweden. 



Cty. 

Dia. 

Gr. 

R. 

I. 

Mt 

C. 

Ii. 

I. 

Ii. 

L 

I. 

L. 

T. 

T. 

a 
I. 

Tr. 
Bay 

£^ 

PL 

Ii. 

R. 

Bk. 

Ha 

hZ 

T. 
C 



Ii. 

White .1 Sea 



New Holland.. 
United SUtee. . 
Atlantic Ocean 

Scotland 

Anitralaaia.... 
NewS.Wak». 
United Statee. . 

Aoitrahuna. .. 

Spitaber^fen ..« 

Polyneaia 

Oregon Ter. . . 

Iceland 

NewHdhnd.. 
Brit America' . 
Brit America . 
Scothmd ...... 

Brit America . 
Loffoden lalea. 
Malayria . . . 

Sweden 

Ireland 

Sweden 

NewaWalea 
Malayaia .... 

Tezaa 

Africa 
Kergiielen*B 
Brit America 
Brit America 
Greenland .... 
Brit America . 
Newfoundland . 
Brit America 
Spitsbergen . . 
Spitsbergen . « 

Africa 

Virginia 

Oregon Ter... 
Anitralaaia . . 
Roaaia 



Ld.Q 



H 

Wj 

Gb 

Me 

Mc 

Fh 

Ka 

Mc 

Mc 

Nl 

^i 

Ui 

Xm 

lo 

In 

Hd 

lo 

Mb 

Nb 

Tl 

Fe 

Ke 

Le 

Vm 

VI 

Fe 

Ul 

Ma 

Wh 

Ed 

Kb 

Tl 

6b 

Fc 

Lc 

Gc 

Mb 

Ui 

Mc 

Lc 

Mc 

^\ 
Ul 

Fe 

Mk 

b 

Ha 

Gb 

lb 

He 

Id 

Gc 

Na 

Na 

Oi 

Ge 

Dd 

VI 

Ob 



11 NMMiornM^a 



White 
White 
White 
White 

White 

White 

White 

White 

White 

White 

White Bear . 
White Earth 
White Fish . 
White Fiih 
White Fiih 

WhitehaH 

White Harotrii 

Whitahed 

WhitaoDtide... 

Whittle 

Wholdvahad... 

Whydah 

Whylootacke.. 

Wick 

Wickk>w 

Wide 

Wideroe 

Widm 

Wight 

Wi&at 

Wilberfbroe . . . 
Wilcox ....'.•. 

WUd 

Wilkeabarre... 
WiUersted .... 

WiUey'a 

William 

William 

William 

William 

William 

William IV.^s.. 

Williama' 

Willow Lake.. 
Wilmington .. . 

Wilna 99 

Wihia 

Wilaon*a 

Wingooa 

Wincheater.... 
Wincoop's .... 
Wincoop's .... 

Windalo 

Windaa 

Windior 

Windward 

Windward 

Winebah < 

Winnebago . . . . 
Winnebago .... 
W^mnefaagoei •• < 



R. 

R. 

L. 

L. 

L 

Ii. 

Cr. 

Mta. 

R. 
L. 
Lake Ha 
T. 
Mta. 
C. 
I. 

a 

L. 
T. 
L 
T. 
T. 

^ 

T. 

I, 

C. 

C. 

Pt 

la. 

T. 

L. 

L 

C. 

Pt 

Mt 

Ft. 

Ft 

Ld. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Pr. 

^: 

L. 

Pt 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Ch. 

la. 

T. 

L. 

Ft 

Tr. 



Newfbnndland. 
Brit America . 
Asiatic Ruaaia. 

Misaoori 

Mongolia 

Brit America . 

Bolivia 

Anatralaaia . . . 

Miaaoori 

NewS.Walea. 
Bnt America • 
Wiaoooiin Ter. 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New York.... 

Africa ........ 

North America 
Anitralaaia.... 

Labrador 

Brit America . 

Dahomey 

Polyneaia 

Scothnd 

Ireland 

New&Walea. 
Faroe Idanda 

Turkey 

England 

Se^alien..., 
Moiambique . 
Greenland . . . 
Greenland ... 
PenniyWania. 
Brit America 
Southern Ocean 

Celebea 

Moxambique . 
New Holland. 

Sootknd 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
Miasonri Ter. . 
Brit Ameriea . 
North Carolina 

Ruaaia 

Ruaaia • . 

News. Wales. 
Brit America . 

Virginia 

Java 

Java 

Ruaaia 

Ruasia 

Vermont 

Western Ocean 
West Indies. 
Aahantee . . . 
Wiaconain Ter. 
Wiaoonain Ter. 
Wiaconain Ter. 



lo 

Ha 

Xb 

Fe 

Sd 

Fb 

Hk 

XI 

Fd 

VI 

Hb 

Fd 

Ec 

Ec 

Ec 

Hd 

Nf 

Cb 

He 

Fb 
Mhj 

Lo 

Lc 

Wk 

Lb 

Nd 

Lc 

Vc 

Ok 

la 

lb 

Gd 

Fb 

Kb 

Ti 

Tl 
Le 
Fd 
Fb 
Ed 
Db 
Ge 
Nc 
Nc 
VI 
Fc 
Ge 
Ti 
Ti 
Nb 
Nc 
Hd 

5* 

Gd 
Gd 
Fd 



10 • 



114 



C0MBtJI.TIN6 INDEX 



• tflhMiite. 



Wamepeok.. 
Wimnepeek.. 
Wmabw.... 

Winter 

Winter 

Winter 

Wirtembonr. 
Wi8b«den .. . 

Witby 

Wiflconain .« 
WiflcoQUa •• 
Withelow... 
Wittangi.... 
Wittenberg . 
Woahoo .... 

Wodio 

Wogadeen.. 
Woleliich . . . 
Wolchoosky. 



WoledAbooMebftTr. 



WdedAlyArabB 
WoledDelejm. 
Woled Deleym . 
Woled Gormeh 
Woled HMhem 

Wolf 

Wolf 

W^oHaston • • • • « 

WoUaston 

WoUaiton 

Wolgtenhofane . 
Wol«tenh<^6 . 
Wobtenholiiie . 
WoHerThymens 
Woman^s 
Womba.. 
Wood... 
Wood 



R. 

L. 

L 

L. 

I. 

Hh. 

Km. 

T. 

T. 

Tor. 

R. 

L 

T. 

^- 

h. 

tr. 

Mta. 

I. 



Tr. 

Tr. 

Sta. 

Tr. 

Tr. 

L 

I. 

L. 

L. 

I. 

C. 

So. 

I. 

Fd. 

Is. 

T. 



Brit America 
Brit America 
Polynesia.... 
Brit America 
Brit Ameriea 

Rosaia 

Germany... .. 

Naasaa ...... 

Gothland .... 

United SUtea. . 
Wisconsin 
Nova Zembla .. 

Sweden 

Pnisaia 

Sandwich Is.. 

Russia 

Africa 

Brit America 



Polynesia. 
Afika.... 



Bay SpiUbergen . 



Wood T. 



C. 

Bk. 

Bay 



Wood 

WoodalTs. 

WoodboTf 

Woodbury |C. 

Woodia - 

Woods 

Woody Head 

Worth*s |I». 

Wrath la 

Wopperthal 
Wnrzboig.. 

S^rf.::: 



T. 
L. 

a 



rynn 
Wyrag:iir IT. 



Xagua 

Xanacy .... 
Xarayes . . . 

Xerez * • • • • 
Xkign..... 
XiqaeziqiM. 
Xolotas.... 



Barca 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 

Labrador.... 
Labrador .... 
Brit Ameriea 
Brit America . 
Patagonia .•• 
Brit America 
BtiL America 
Brit America 
Spitsbergen • . 
Grreenland ... 
Soadto 



Bay 



Sta. 

a 



R. 
L. 
T. 
R. 
T. 
T. 



Jan May en L.. 

Nubia 

Sooresby*s Ld« 
Atlantic Ocean 
New Guinea . . 
NewCkunea .. 

Soudan 

Brit America . 
New Zealand. . 

Polynesia 

SootUnd 

Cape Colony . . 

Bavaria 

Denmark 

Scoresby's Ld.. 



Bay Caba 



BrazU 

Bolivia . . • . 
Guatemala. 

BrazU 

BraxU 

Bolivia 



Fc 
Fc 

Eb 

Gb 

Ob 

Md 

Md 

Nc 

Fd 

Fd 

Pa 

Nb 

Mo 

Bf 

Ob 

Oh 

He 

Cj 

Lf 

Ne 

Lf 

Lf 

Lf 

Lf 

lo 

He 

Fc 

Eb 

Hn 

Gb 

Ha 

Ha 

Na 

la 

Mg 

Ma 

La 

2« 
Ka 

Kd 

Vi 

Vi 

Mg 

Fc 

XI 

Wh 

Le 

Nl 

Md 

Mo 

Ka 

Rf 

Gf 

y. 

li 

'A 



XuUa Bessey . . . 
XnllaMangola.. 
XoUa Talyaboo . 

YaUanoy 

Yachan 

Yaekman 

Yacobetot 

Yaoootat 

Yacay 

Yagoari..^.... 

Yawshow 

Yakontes 

Yakoatsk 

Yakoutsk 

YaD 

YalnsnesB 

Yak> 

Ya4ong 

Yaloatorovsk . . . 

Yamayas 

Yambo 

Yamburg 

Yamekaya 

.Yamskoi 

Yamycbe«koy . 

Yana 

Yandy 

Yang-ohow . • . . 

Yangomez 

Yaag-tae Kiang 

Yanni 

Yao-chow...«. . 

Yao-ngsn 

Yaoorie 

Yap 

Yapelhne 

Yaranak 

Yarboro 

Yarcou Tsanpoo 

Yarensk 

Yari 

Yarkand 

Yarkand 

Yarmoath 

Yarmouth 

Yaroslavl... 15. 

YarosUvl 

Yarriba 

Yartobe 

Yasashna 

YathKyed 

Yaioo 

Y^ow 

Yedinsk 

Yeh 

YeB 

Ydl 

YeUow 

YeUow 



L 
I. 
L 

Mts. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

^^ 
T. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

Pir. 

T. 

R. 

C. 

R. 

R. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T. 

Sr^ 

T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

§f 

s. 

R. 
^■ 

s- 

^- 

T. 

T. 

In. 

R. 

T. 

R. 

&• 

T. 
T. 
Pr. 
T. 

^• 
T. 

R. 

L. 

R. 

§f- 

T. 
So. 
L 

Sea 
R. 



Malaysia . 
Malaysia . 
Malaysia . 



Aidatie Rosaia 

Corea 

Oregon Ter. . 

Russia 

North America 
Asiatic Russia.. 

Brazil 

BrazU 



Asiatic Rvosia 
Asialio Rossia 
Asiatic Russia. 
Mantchooria .. 

Iceland 

Mantchooria .. 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 

Mexico 

Arabia 




Russia .. 
North America 
Thibet .. 



BrazU.... 
Little Bucharia 
Little Bucharia 
Nova Scotia. . 

E2ngland 

Russia 



Soudan 

Little Thibet . . 
Asiatic Russia. 
Brit America . 
Mississippi. . . . 

China 

Asiatic Russia. 

Birmah , 

Scotland 

Scotland 

Chma 

Africa. 



Ui 
Ui 
Ui 

Vo 
Ue 
Dd 
Na 
Cc 
Uc 
Ik 
Ik 

Sf 

Ub 

Ub 

Ud 

Kb 

Ud 

Sf 

Qc 

Ee 

Of 

Ne 

Wb 

Wb 

Re 

Vb 

Mh 

Te 

tl 

Ve 

Vc 

Tf 

Sf 

Mg 

Vh 

HI 

Pc 

Ca 

Re 

Pb 

Ik 

Qd 

Rd 

Hd 

Mc! 

Go 

Go 

Mh 

Re 

Vb 

Fb 

Fb 

Te 

Vb 

Le 
I/e 
Ue 

Nk 



CX)NB0LTIN6 INDIQC. 



n& 



tifbrng,^ 



Yellow 

YeHow 

YeUow Knife. . • 
Yellow Moogib 
Yellow Stone .. . 

Yemaiia 

Yomen 

Yen 

Yen chow 

Z^: 

Yenisei 



R. 

L. 

R. 

Tr. 

It 

T. 

Pf. 

Ste. 

a. 

T. 

^' 

Tr. 



Yeoieei... 

Y< 

y! 

YhirriU.... 
Yikarova . . . 

Ylina 

Ylifaaka.... 

Ymile 

Yobaly 

Yo^chow* • . . 
Yomfif-chow . 
Yong-ning-chow K^y, 
YoD-ping .... '^ 

Yopez 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

York 

Yo^Minrter 

York'i 

Yorobievm* 



Yongfaaa 
ou .... 



R. 
T. 
T. 
T. 
R. 
T. 

g: 



Diib 

^' 

T. 

a 
a 
a 



Sa 

Ft 

L 

Pen. 

T. 

T. 

I. 

Yoon^ William's Lk 

Yoorin C. 

Yoozpell L. 

Yoie.... R. 

YpiUy T. 

Yrcoo T. 

Yrconkm T. 

Yshoek Pt 

Yucatan Sta. 

Yo-cbow Cy. 

Yoen^show .... Cj. 

Yuen Kiang.... R. 

Yoen-yang Cy. 

Ynma I. 

Ynngepe Cjr. 

Yang Ling .... Mta. 



Caiina 

WbcoBsinTer. 
Brit. Amerioa • 

Mbogolia 

Missoori Ter... 

Aiabia 

AraMa 

Africa ....... 

China 

Cotea 

Asiatic Russia. 
Asiatie Raaiia. 
Asiatic Rassia. 

China 

China 

Soadan 

Missouri Ter... 

Persia 

Persia 

New Grenada . 
Asiatic Roasia. 

Mindanao 

Russia 

Mantchooria . . 
Ashantee . . . . . 
Chma .• .« .«^* • 

China 

China 

China 

Mexico 

Brit America . 
England ...... 

New Holland. . 

Virginia 

Brit America . 
Brit America . 
New a Wales. 
Australasia.... 
New Holland .. 
Brit America . 
Patagonia .... 
New S. Wales . 
Asiatic Russia. 

Ireland 

Polynesia 

Polynesia 

Brit America . 
Oregon Ter. .. 
Mantchooria .. 
Paraguay..... 
Mantchoona . . 
Mantchooria . . 
Nova ZemUa. . 

Mexioo 

China 

China 

China 

China 



China .. 
Thibet. 



Te 
Fd 

Eb 
Se 
Fd 
Pf 

2« 

S« 

Te 
Ue 
Ra 
Se 

Se 
Te 
Tf 

E(f 

Pe 

Pe 

Hh 

Sc 

Uh 

Nb 

Vc 

Lh 

Tf 

Tf 

Tf 

Te 

Fc 
Lc 
Tl 
6e 
6a 
Ha 

y\ 

SJ 

Ec 

Hn 

VI 

Sc 

Lc 

Uh 

Wh 

6b 

Ed 

Vd 

Ik 

Ud 

Vd 

Qa 

Te 
Tf 
Tf 
Te 

6f 
Sf 
Se 



|iMMiarilMi%*^ 



Yuavning 
Yung-nini 
Yu-nhing 

Yunnan- < 

Yunnaii •••««•< 

Yunshaa 

YuB4aii0haii .« 

Yupee 

Yuileveli 



^-nii^-chow Cy. 
Pr. 



Zab 

Zaban 

Zacatecas . . . 
Zacatecas... 
Zaeatula.... 
Zacatula . . . . 

Zacheo 

Zachi?ersk . . 

Zagany 

Zaguanagas. 

Zaue 

Zaitsova . . . . 
Zaizan.. • • . . 

Zkk 

Zambese.... 
Zambexi • . . « 
Zanguebar . • 

Zante 

Zwnribar . . . . 
Zanzibar .. . 

Zaria 

Zamsk 

Zayara 

Zawaja 

Zealand 

Zebato 

Zeboe 

Zefaid 

Zebu 

Zechoe 



Zeghawa. 
Zeghen.. 

Zekhova. 



Zelania.. 
Zemee. . . 
Zendero.. 
Zerbi.... 
Zerib.... 
Zeyla.... 
Zhe-hd .. 
Slimba... 
Zimbao.. 
Slimbuaa. 
Zimora .. 
Zinti . . . . 
Zirianea . 
Zirmie .. 
Znaym .. 



Thibet. 
China*. 
niiltMi. ,. 

China.. 
China .. 
Birmah. 
China.. 



Barbaap 

Afabift 

Mexico 

Mexico 

Mexico • 

Mexioo 

West Indies. . 
Asiatic Roana. 

Soadan 

Mexioo 

Congo 



Dia. 
T. 

St 

^: 

R. 
L 
T. 
T. 
R. 
R. 
T. 
L. 
R. 
R. 
R. 

«,. 

ct, 

T. 

T. 

Pt 

L. 

L 

L 

R. 

T. 

L 

R. 

Sta. 

T. 

T. 

Dis. Soudan. 

^' 

T. 

T. 

T. 

T. 

Tr. 

T. 

T^. 

T. 

T. 

R. 

T. 

T. 



Mongolia .... 

AMca 

Caxembe 

Mozambique • 

Africa 

Ionian Isles.. 

Africa 

Indian Ocean. 

Soadan 

Roasia 

Mozambique . 

Africa 

Denmark .... 
New Grenada 

Afiiea 

Arabia 

Malaysia .... 

Africa 

Sahara 

Darfbr 

Fe 



NovaZemUa 

Birmah 

Africa 

Tripoli 

Barbary .« . . 
Abysshua. • . 
Mantchooria 

Africa 

Motapa 

South America 

R) 

Bolim 

Asiatic Ri 

Soudan 

Austria 



Sf 
Te 
Te 
Sf 
Sf 
Sf 
Te 
Ud 
Oc 



Me 
Pf 
Ff 
Ff 

Hg 
Vb 
Mg 
Ee 
Mi 
Sc 
Rd 
Nk 

Oi 
Ne 
Oi 
Oi 
Mg 
Oc 
Ok 
Oh 
Mo 
6h 
Oh 
Og 
Uy 
NT 
Lf 

^? 
Nf 

Mfl 

Pb 
Qa 
Sf 
Oh 
Me 
Me 

?! 

?i 

No 
Hk 
No 
Ma 

Nd 



116 



CONSULTING INDEX. 




■ offtaeHbte 



L. 
T. 
6. 
T. 



Zurich 

ZorpaiiA •,. 
Zwnh ...< 
Zoorebink < 
Zuyder Zee 
Zvenigorod 
Zveri]KigoleTikAyA|T. 

Zyomik 

Zwartlintiee . . . 
Zwarten Kock. 
ZweDendam . . . 

ZwoU 

Zytomir 



T. 
R. 
C. 
T. 
T. 
T. 



Switxerland . . . 

Polynena 

Cabal 

Cape CGlooy . . 
Gennan Ocean 

Rosaia 

Aaiatic Roasia. 

Turkey 

Cape Colony • . 
Nova ZemUa .. 
Cape Colony . . 



Md 

l« 
Pe 

Nl 

Mo 

Oc 

Qc 

Nd 

Nk 

Pa 

Nl 

Me 

Nc 



BIfD OP CONBULTINO IRDBZ. 



saat 



GENERAL VIEW 



THE WORLD. 



l^^-l^BBBSBBSMSSBBSBBBBBSMaBBSSBBSSBBBS^^ 



sss 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE WORLD. 



AMERICA. 

AuuoA. 18 a T8st oootinent compruing one of the grand divisioDB of the globe; 
it contaiiM an extent of territory nearly equal to half of the other three conti- 
nental diviaiona, conatitating about three-tenths of the dry land on the aur&oe of 
the earth; k ia washed on bath sides by vast oceans, on the east 1^ the Atlantic, 
and on the west by the Pacific. It ranges from north to south through 125 
degrees of latitude, and in its widest part 113 degrees of longitude, being in 
length about 9000 miles, and in average breadth about 2000 ; the extent of sur- 
fiice has been variously estimatpd at from 17,903,000 to 14,622,000 square miles, 
but in every estJBMte allowance most be made for the uncertainty of tne northern 
limits, and oar still imperfect acquaintance with some of the coastsi 

Aiaerica comprehends the whole of the tropical and temporate dimatea, with 
paA of tiie arctic on both sides of the equator. The whole of the continent north 
of latitude 65^ may be considered as a fioaen region. In Greenland and around 
Hudson*s Bay, mercury freezes in winter, and ice and snow accumulate on the 
land and water and covers a great part of the country throughout the year. The 
winter begins in August and continues for nine month& In summer the heat is 
as great as in New England ; it continues however for too short a period to bring 
grain to maturity, and cultivation ia very little practised. Vegetation is too 
scanty to supply the inhabitants with any considerable part of uieir food, they 
therefore live chiefly on seals and other productions of the sea. 

Between 55^ and 44^ north the climate of North America is still severe. In 
winter the odd is intense, and the snow, which be^fins to fidl in November, remains 
till May. The summer advances with such rapidity that the season of spring is 
hardly known. In June the fields and forests are covered with luxuriant verdure ; 
gnift is abundant and in some portions is cultivated with success. The temper- 
ate portions of North America may be considered as extending fh)m 46^ to 37^ 
north latitude. These repons are prolific in grass, the various descriptions of 
grain, and a variety of fruits are produced in great abundance. From 37^ north 
to the latitude of A degrees south the climate ia hot, and the producta constitute 
some of the most valuable articles of commerce, bein^ chiefly tobacco, cotton, 
rice, indigo^ coflfee, sugar, and Ihe various tropical firuits. Beyond latitude 40^ 
aooth the climate again becomes cold, and at Tierra del Fuego it is severe ; at the 
South Shetland Islimds, in latitude eS^ and 64<> south, the climate ia that of 
Greenland and Spitabergen ; iaUnda of ice are tossing through the sms, and the 
land is peopled only by those animal forms peculiar to the Antarctic Circle. N9- 
ture in this continent assumes an aspect of peculiar magnificence, for whether we 
consider its mountains, its rivers, its lakes, its forerts, or its plains, America 
appears to be distinguished in all those leading features by a gnmdeur not to be 
fimnd in the other parta of the gk)be. This continent contains a great variety of 
wild animals, and since its discovery the species usually domesticated in Europe 
have been introduced and are now found in great abundance. The birds are 
exceedingly numerous, and are said to be more beautiful in their jdumage than 
those of the old continent, but in their notes less melodious. 



120 



AMERICA. 



The regetaUe kingdom ib in the highest degree rich and yaxM^ many of the 
^trees are amongst the meet ornamental and useful, the fruiti are rich and in great 
profusion, the plants and flowering shnriM exceedingly dirersified and beautiftil, 
and almost aU the Tarioua species of grain necessary to sustain life are cultivated 
and affi)rd abundant ciups. In mineral treasures America surpasses i^ the other 
quarters of the globes 

South America snd Mexico abound particularly in the predoos metala» and 
such ample supplies have been carried to European markets that their value has 
been gi;eatly dimimsfaed ance the discovery of the American mines ; all the niore 
common metals, minerals, and precious stones, are found in great profosioo, and 
manv of them fbmiah the materials for eztenshre and important manufactures. 

The inhabitants of this ocntinent have been estimated bv various writers at 
from 20 nullions to 60 millions, but are probabljr about 44 mUlioos; of this num- 
ber about 18 millions are supposed to be whites, 10 millions of the aboriginal 
race, 8 millions cf negroes, and 8 millions of the mixed race, as mulattoes, zam- 
boes, &C. The whites are chiefly English in the north, and Spaniards in the 
south, with seme French, Portuguese, German, Dutch, Danes, Swedes, te. The 
negroes are Africans^ whom the cupidity of tike Bnrspean races but dragged into 
slavery, or desceDdaalB of the earlier ^ictiDH of a barbarous traffic. 

The aboriginal populatioo oons in t s of two distinct racea^ the Baqmioaux, inhab- 
iting the maritime districts of the Arctic reg^ioa^ and the coppePcoJoured Indians, 
who are spread over all the rest of the contineot; their origm has been a si^ect 
of much mvestigatioQ^ but the total absence of historical records amooff the 
Indians themoolvesy renders it diilcnit to arrive at aiqr satisftctoiy result it has 
been discovered that there are remarkable resemblances between some of the 
languages of Asia and those of the Indians, and hence it beeomes nearlj certain 
that they cane from the Asiatio continent, but at what period they enumted it 
is impNOSsible to determine. It is evideaC that they are a distinct peopte, being 
essentially di^rent in several respects fiiom any of the existing races on the 
eastern oontiMnt 

The natives in some partem particukrly Mexico and Pem» were considerably ad- 
vanced in civilization. Those inhabfitiBg Mexico were denominated Aztecs ; their 
government was a sort of feudal monarchy, in vdiich Che nobles and priests mono- 
polized the power, the mass of the people being mere serfii attached to the soiL 
The Aztecs had neither tame animau, money, nor artificial roads; but they were 
acquainted with the arts of weaving cloth, hewing stone^ carving in wood, and of 
modelling in soft substances. Their method of picture writing, though rude, com- 
pared with the alphabets of the nations of the old world, was suferior to any 
diing else found in the new, and enabled them to transmit inlelligenbe and to re- 
cord* events with sufficient distinctness Thek calendar was more aocurate than 
that of the Greeks and Romans, and evmced a degree of eciefitific sldll that has 
created suspicions of a foreign origin. 

The government of the Peruvians, or Quichuas^ was a theocracy of the most 
despotic character; the sacred Incas, descendants of the sun, were at once tern- 
pond and spiritual sovereigns, and the people, or children of the earth, were kept 
in a state (» complete servitude^ living according to minute regulations which re- 
duced them to mere machines, labouring^ in common, and holding no property. 
The Quichoas employed the lama as a beast of burden ; constructed roads of great 
extent and solidity ; built suspension-bridges of a most ingenioos kind ; formed 
chisels of a hard alloy of copper and tin; understood the art of moving large 
masses, and excelled the Aztecs in the perfection of their masonry, bat were in- 
ferior to the latter in their mode of computing time and in their method of record- 
inf eventSi 

The political state of America presents some strikmg featares and contrasts. 
The native tribes who still survive, are partly held in subj^ion bv European 
Americans ; but the greater number wander over their extensive wim, either in 
rude independence, or ruled despotically by their chiefs and cack^ues. The Eu- 
ropean colonists, who form now by far the most numerous and hnportant part of 
the population, were long held in subjectbn to the mother countries, the chief of 



NORTH AMERICA. 



ISl 



which were Spain and Great Britain ; but the greater part of them have Jiow es- 
tablished their independence, and have generally adopted the republican form of 
government. 

Another political element is formed by the negroes, who are mostly in a state 
of slavery ; a numerous body of them, however, in one of the finest West Indian 
Islands, have emancipated themselves and become a firee people-; while Great 
Britain has recently bestowed restricted liberty on the large numbers by whom 
her islands are cultivated. There yet remain about 5 millions of blaak slaves in 
Brazil and the United States, besides a considerable number in the other European 
colonies. 

Many of the indigenous tribes have become, at least in name and outward 
forms, converted to-Christianity ; but a great number still cherish the crude no- 
tions and rude ceremonials of their native faith. The European Americans have 
commonly retained the religious creed of their mcither country, so that, while in 
the French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies, the Roman Catholic is the prevail- 
ing system, those countries that have been settled by English colonists are chiefly 
of the Protestant persuasions. The negroes have generally been instructed in 
the elements of Christianity. The whole number of Roman Catholics may be 
estimated at about 25} millions, of Protestants 15 millions, and of unconverted 
Indians 1^ millions: on this estimate, however, the negroes are considered as be- 
longing to the denomination embraced by their masters. 

No part of the world presents 90 great a number of languages spoken by so 
few individuals, as the American continent It is estimated that more than 438 
languages, and 2000 dialects, are here spoken by about 10 millions of indigenous 
natives, and consequently, about one half of the known tongues in the world are 
spoken by about one eighth of the population. An analogy of structure, however, 
so remarkable, has been found to pervade all the American languages as far as 
they are yet known, that they have been designated polysynthetic, a term descrip- 
tive of their remarkable powers of composition. No class of languages equals 
the American in its astonishing capacity for expressing several ideas and modifi- 
cations of ideas, in one word ; and idioms of naked savages are not less regular 
and complicated in structure than rich in words. From the country of the Esqui- 
maux to the Straits of Magellan, mother tongues, in their roots have, if the ex- 
pression may be allowed, the same physiognomy. It is in consequence of this 
similarity of structure, that the Indians of the missions could learn the tongue of 
a different tribe much more easily than the Spanish, and the monks hod once 
adopted the practice of communicating with a great number of hordes through the 
medium of one of the native languages. 



NORTH AMERICA. 

North Ambrica comprises that portion of the New World extending from 8° 
to 70^ north latitude, and from 55^ to 168^ west longitude. The area of this vast 
region is about 7,200,000 square miles, exclusive of the islands lying west and 
north-west of Baffin's Bay and Barrow's Strait. Presenting a brood front to the 
Arc^c Seas, it gradually expands in width to about 50^ north latitude, when it 
again contracts its dimensions until it terminates in the Isthmus of Darien. 

Its winding outline presents a great extent of sea coast, which is estimated to 
amount to about 9500 miles on the eastern, and somewhat more on the western 
side, exclusive of those on the frozen shores of the northern border. ^ 

Mountain ranges, peculiarly distinguished by their magnitude and continuity, 
pervade this quarter of the world. Those of North America consist of two great 
chains, the eastern and western ; the latter, or Rocky Mountain nufge, known 
also as the Chipewayan. Passing through Guatemala from the Isthmus of Darien, 
it spreads out, in Mexico, into extensive table-lands, crowned by lofty volcanic 
peaks : running Uience through the western regions of the United States, and the 

n Q 



122 NORTH AMERICA. 



British possessions, it finally sinks to a level on the shores of the Polar Sea, west- 
ward of the Mackenzie River. Its extent is probably hot less than 5000 miles, 
and in its general course it is nearly parallel to the Pacific Ocean, forming the 
grreat dividing ridge, or Ijne of separation, between the eastern and western 
waters, the principal of which have their origin in its rugged declivities. 

The only other extensive range is the Alleghany or Appalachian, which, run* 
ning parallel to the eastern coast of the United States, throws off some irregular 
and rather ^lightly connected branches diverging into Canada, Labrador and the 
vicinity of Hudson's Bay. This consists principally of two parallel chains, the 
Alleghany and the Blue Ridge. These, however, are not so extensive in their 
rungfe, nor do they attain tlic elevation of the great western chain. 

The rivers of America constitute perhaps her grandest natural features, or at 
least those in which she may claim the most decided pre-eminence over the other 
quarters of the globe. They are unequalled, both in their length of course and 
in the vast masses which they pour into tiie ocean. The principal of these take 
their rise in the great western chain, from its eastern side, whence, being swelled 
by numerous streams, they roll, brood and spacious, across the great interior plain, 
I until they approach the eastern range of mountains : thence they derive a fresh 
* and copious series of tributaries, till, bearing, as it were, the waters of half a 
continent, they reach the ocean. Thus, the Missouri (which, notwithstanding the 
error which has given the name of the Mississippi to the united channel, is un- 
doubtedly, in a physical view, the main stream) takes its rise in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, then flows eastward into the great central valley, where it is joined by the 
Mississippi, and Uicre receives, from the Alleghany chain, the copious tribute of 
tiie Ohio. In its course thence southward, it receives tributaries both firom the 
I eastern and western range. 

The St. Lawrence and Mississippi proper derive their ample stores not from 
any mountain chain, but from that cold watery region of swamps and forests 
which forms the northern prolongation of the great central plain. The Mackenzie 
and Great Fish River which flows through the north into the Arctic Sea, have a 
long diversified course, but, from the barren regions which they traverse, are of no 
commercial value. 

The Lakes of North America are numerous and important ; they are not, how- 
ever, mountain lakes, nor formed by mountain streams. They originate in those 
I great wooded and watery plains whence tlie Mississippi and the St. Lawrence 
take their rise. The chain of connected lakes on the upper course of tlie latter j 
river, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior, form the largest bodies of 
fresh water in the world. Communicating with the sea by the broad channel of 
the St Lawrence, and in a country whose population is rapidly increasing, they j 
are becoming of the greatest importance to commerce. Similar lakes extend to \ 
the northward as far as the Arctic Soa ; the Lake of the Woods, the Athabasca, 
the Great Slave, and the Great Bear Lake ; but these, unconnected with any 
other sea» and frozen for the greater part of the year, cannot serve any commer- 
cial purpose. 

The Plains of the New World form almost as great and remarkable an o)|)ect 
as its mountains. In North America, of those more especially worthy of atten- 
tion, the first is the plain along the Atlantic, between that ocean and the eastern 
range of mountains. To that belongs the original territory of the United States. 
It is a region of natural forests ; of mixed, but rather poor soil, and of but mode- 
rate fertility. The second is that on the opposite side of the continent, between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean ; a country with a mild and humid 
atmosphere, as far north as 55^, but inhospitable beyond that latitude. The most 
extensive is the great central valley of the Mississippi, rich and well wooded on 
the east side ; bare, but not unfertile in the middle ; dry, sandy, and almost a 
desert on the west This vast plateau is prolonged without interruption, from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the shores of the Polar Sea, so that, as has been observed, one 
of its borders is covered with the palms and the splendid foliage of the tropics, 
while, in the other, the last buds of arctic vegetation expire. The area of tliis 
great plain is estimated at 3,240,000 square miles. 



NORTH AMERICA. 123 



It was formerly believed, on the authority of Bufibn, that the animals of Ame- 
rica were inferior in size to those of the eastern continent The researches of 
modern naturalists have not only refuted this error, but have established the fact, 
that where any difference of size exists in animals of the same class, the superi- 
[ority in most cases is on the American side. The animal kingdom of North Ame- 
rica embraces a considerable variety of species, some of which are not found in 
other parts of the world. j 

Of the Bear species those peculiar to North America are the Griezly, Barren 
Ground, and Black Bears. The great Polar, or White Bear, is found also in the 
Arctic regions of £urope and Asia. In North America it inhabits the continent 
as far south as Labrador and IIudson*s Bay, its principal residence is on fields of 
ice, with which it frequently floats a great distance from land. These huge crea- 
tures feed mostly on animal substances, and as they swim and dive well, they 
hunt seals and other marine animals with great success. The White Bear pos- 
sesses prodigious strength, and often attacks sailors who visit the Arctic seas. It 
is also remarkable for its attachment to its young, and is of a dirty or yellowish 
white colour. The Grizzly Bear, the most powerful and dangerous animal of North 
America, inhabiting both sides of the Rocky Mountains, is, when full grown, 
reported to exceed 800 pounds in weight, and its strength so great tliat it has been 
known to drag to a considerable distance a buflalo weighing 1000 pounds; the 
cubs of this species can climb trees, but the adult animal cannot: the hunter may 
thus escape, but the infuriated beast will sometimes keep wateh below, and thus 
confine his enemy for many hours. This is a carnivorous species, but will occa- 
sionally eat vegetables. The Barren Ground Bear receives its name from the 
circumstance of its inhabiting only that section of the continent called the Barren 
Lands, or grounds situated north of 60° ; this is a formidable animal, and is much 
dreaded by the Indians, who are very careful to avoid burning bones in their en- 
campmenta, or any thing that might attract it-s notice. It frequents the sea coast 
in autumn in considerable numbers, for the purpose of feeding on fish. In size it 
is between the Grizzly and the Black Bear. The Black Bfear of North America 
is difierent from the European animal of the same name. It has a milder disposi- 
tion, and lives more on vegetables : its favourite food is the different kinds of ber- 
ries, and it will not, except from necessity, subsist on animal substances. The Cin- 
namon Bear of the traders, and found in the vicinity of Hudson's Bay, is consi- 
dered only an accidental variety of the Black Bear. 

Of the Deer kind there are several species not found in the old continent. The 
Moose Deer resembles the Elk of Europe, but is of a different species ; it is the 
largest of the Deer kind found in America, and perhaps in the world, being in 
height to tlie shoulder full six feet, and weighs when full grown from 1000 to 
1200 pounds; it is a solitary animal, and the most shy and wary of all the Deer 
species : it was formerly found as far south as the Ohio River, but now occurs 
most frequently in the countries north of the great lakes and in the unsettled 
parts of Canada, and also occasionally in the northern sections of Now Hampshire, 
Maine, &c. The Wapiti or American Elk is second in size only .to the Moose, 
and formerly ranged over all the middle parts of the continent: it i^ now found 
only in the remote western districts of the United States and Canada, and also 
west of the Rocky Mountains. The size and appearance of the Elk are imposing ; 
his air denotes confidence of great strength, while his towering horns exhibit 
weapons capable of doing much injury when ofiensively employed. The Elk is , 
shy and retiring, and has very acute senses ; the flesh is highly prized as food, and I 
the horns when in a soft state are considered a delicacy. The Indians make bows | 
of the perfect horn, which are highly serviceable from their elasticity ; and from 
their skins they prepare various articles of dress, and apply them also to other 
purposea The Caribou, or American Reindeer, is a different species from the 
Reindeer of the old continent; it is found in all the high northern latitudes of 
North America, and has never been domesticated or used as a beast of draught 
by the natives, being considered only as game ; there are two species, the Wood- 
land and the Barren Ground Caribou. The Virginia Deer is one of the most ele- 



124 NORTH AMERICA- 



gant of the Americaa animals of its class ; it lives in large herds, and is found 
over a considerable portion of North America; it is said to display great enmity 
to the Rattlesnake, which it contrives to crush by leaping with its rore-feet con- 
joined and dropping perpendicularly on the serpent, bounding away with great 
lightness, and repeating this attack until his enemy is destroyed. 

One species of Antelope, the prong-homed, is peculiar to America ; it is a 
graceful and fleet animal, so swiil that it seems rather to fly than leap from rock 
to rock in the rugged regions which it inhabits ; they live in small families, and 
are found in the vast plain of the Missouri and Saskatchawan, in the vicinity of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The American Bison, or Bufliilo, once common in the United States, has gra- 
dually disapptfbred before the white population ; it now only exists to the west of 
the Mississippi, and loams over the vast grassy plains in the vicinity of the Rocky 
Mountains; here it is found in immense herds, amounting, it is said, oflentimes 
to from 5000 to 10,000 head ; the flesh is tender and juicy, and the tongue and 
hump, or wig, are in particular esteemed great delicacies. The Musk Ox derives 
its name flrom its flesh, when in a lean state, smelling strongly of that substance. 
It is truly an Arctic animal, being found only in the barren lands beyond the 
Great Slave Lake, and as far north as Melville Island in 75°. In size the Musk 
Ox scarcely equals that of the small Highland cattle, the carcase when cleaned | 
not weighings more than 3 cwt. ; it assembles in herds and flees at the sight of 
man ; it is much hunted both by the Indians and Esquimaux. 

Herds of wild Horses roam over the great plains on both sides of the Rocky 
Mountains, and like those existing under similar circumstances in the southern 
continent, are.the offspring of the European animal, imported soon aftser the first 
settlement of the conntry. They are found from Texas to the plains of the Sas- 
katchawan, and are of great importance to the Nomadic Tribes, who train them \ 
not only for transporting their tents and families from place to place, but also for 
the purposes of war, the chase, and of food ; the flesh of the horse being thus 
mostly used by the Spokains and several '^ther trihes, and likewise at times by the 
residents of the Hudson's Bay Company s posts on the Columbia River and its 
branches. A few individuals of the Wild Horse purchased by citizens of the 
United States from the Indians, have been found remarkable for their speed and 
bottom. 

Of the Cat kind this continent contains several species, all equally remarkable, 
like their congeners of the old work), for the beauty and diversity of their colour, 
and tho treachery of their disposition. The cougar, or puma, called also the pan- 
ther, is the largest and most formidable of its class found in North America ; it is 
about one-third less in size than the lion, and of sufficient strength to carry a^man 
up a tree ; though now rare in the more settled parts of the continent, it is occa- 
sionally met with in the remote districts of tlie United Slates. It preys upon 
calves, sheep, &c., but has also been known to attack man. The jaguar, an ani- 
mal of the cat kind, resembling the panther, is found, though rarely, in Mexico ; 
also the ocelet and tiger-cat. 

The Rocky Mountain sheep and goat inhabit the same range of mountains 
."^om which they derive their name; the latter is about the size of the domestic 
sheep, its fleece hanging down on both sides like that of the merino breed, the 
hair is long and straight, coarser than that of the sheep, but finer than that of the 
domestic goat ; \he l£)cky Mountain sheep is larger than any domestic sheep ; the 
horns of the ram are immense, in some of the old ones so much so as to prevent 
the animars feeding on level ground. The hair is like that of the reindeer, at 
first short, fine and flexible, but as the winter advances it becomes coarse, dry and 
brittle, though it feels soft ; it is then so close as to become erect ; they collect in 
flocks from three to thirty, the young mms and females herding together, while 
the old rams form separate flocks. 

The principal fur-bearing animals of North America are the beaver, musquash, 
or muskrat, pine-marten, pekan, or fisher, the Canada lynx, raccoon, and stoat, or 
ermine. These animals are all diligently hunted, both by Indians and the inha* 
bitants of those settled parts of the continent in which any of them are yet found : 



NORTH AMERICA. 125 



their skins make an important item of export to Europe, particularly from Canada ; 
\ some of these animals are evidently decreasing with great rapidity. The well 
; known beaver is now almost exclusively confined to Canada and the north-west 
districts of America ; even here, however, their numbers are daily diminishing. 
In the year 174**3 the imports of beaver skins into the ports of London and Ro- 
chelle exceeded 150,000; in 1827 the import, though from four times the extent 
of fur country known in 1743, was less than 50,000 ; of the musquash, between 
40(),000 and 500,000 skins are annually exported from Canada, and of the pine- 
marten -100,000 skin9; the latter are used for trimmings, and will dye so well as 
to imitate sables and other expensive fiirs, hence they have always been an im- 
portant article of commerce. The sea-otter also furnishes a large amount of 
valuable furs, principally to the Russians on the north-west coast. * 

The dog kind exhibits several varieties not foflltid in othe* parts of the world ; 
of these Uie Newfoundland dog is remarkable for its sagacity, great bulk and 
I strength. The Esquimaux dog, also a large variety, is very useful to the Esqui- 
maux and the traders in drawing their fiirs and baggage. *The North American 
dog is used in the Hudson*8 Bay countries both as a beast of draught and in the 
chase, and also for food, its flesh being esteemed by Uie Canadian voyagers, or 
canoe-men, superior to all other. 

Foxes and wolves abound in most parts of the central and northern regions of 
the continent; of the former there are the arctic, sooty, cross, black, gray, and 
red fox, and of the latter, the Mexican, the gray, red, black, dusky, and barking, 
or prairie-wolf Of the opossum, found from Pennsylvania to Brazil, there are 
several species, of which the Virginia, or common opossum, is well known in the 
United States ; also, the skunk, marmots of different species, squirrels, hares, and 
a great variety of other smaller animals. 

The wlule species are numerous on the northern coasts ; the most useful and 
remarkable are the common and spermaceti whale, and the narwhale, or sea- 
unicorn. The common seal frequents the sea coasts perhaps throughout the 
worlds but is in North America most numerous in high northern latitudes, and is 
of the ^atest use to the Esquimaux and other inhabitants of those frozen regions, 
furnishmg them with all the necessaries of life ; they are of various kinds, as the 
hooded, harp, fetid, ursine, and great seal. 

Most of the Birds of North America, and especially those of the United States, 
are now rendered as familiar to the European naturalist as those of his own coun- 
try ; for they have been more ably and more fully illustrated than those of any 
part of the world. Rapacious birds are here as numerous as in other parts of the 
earth, and of a great many different species, including eagles, vultures, hawks, 
falcons, owls, &c. The white-headed or bald-headed eagle is well known as be- 
ing the chosen emblem of our own republic. It is common to both continents ; 
but, while it 'seems almost entirely confined to the arctic regions of the old world, 
it abounds in the milder regions of the United States, in the new. It is notorious 
for its lawless habits; robbing the fish-hawk of his hard-won victim, and even 
compelling the vulture to disgorge its filthy prey. The vultures are the great 
Californian vulture, black vulture, and turkey buzzard. The first seems to be con* 
fined to California and the adjoining regions west of the Rocky Mountains : they 
build their nests in the must secret parts of the pine forests: they measure from 
four to four and a half feet in length. Their food is carrion or dead fish, and they 
will in no instance attack any living animal, unless it be wounded and unable to 
walk. In searching for their prey, they soar to a great height; and, on discover- 
ing a wounded deer or other animal, they follow its track until it sinks disabled 
to the ground. Although only one bird may be first in possession, it is soon sur- 
rounded by great numbers, who all fall upon the carcase, and devour it to a skele- 
ton within an hour, even though it be a horse or a stag. The black vulture and 
turkey buzzard are both well known and numerous in the southern States of our 
Union, where, notwithstanding their filthy habits, they are protected by law and 
common usage, being of great utility in devouring putrid animal matter which 
would otherwise be highly offensive and injurious. 

The wild turkey is peculiar to America : it is a fine large bird, of brilliant 

^^ 

U* 



126 NORTH AMERICA. 



blackish plumage. It breeds with the domestic one ; and when the latter is reared 
near the range of the former, it is sure to be enticed into the woods by it. Of 
this bird, Dr. Franklin observed, it would have beeh a mach fitter emblem of our 
country than the white-headed eagle, a lazy, cowardly, tyrannical bird, living on 
the labours of others, and more suited to represent on imperiai despotic govern- 
ment than the republic of America. 

Of the duck kind, of which there are many species, the best-known is the can- 
vas-back. It is peculiar to America, and is more celebrated than any other for 
the excellent flavour of its flesh : they are found mostly in Chesapeake Bay and 
the neighbouring rivers. In winter, they are occasionally so numerous as to 
cover the water. to th^ extent of several acres: this bird is an expert diver, and 
lives on the bulbous root of a water-grass resembling garden celery in taste, to 
which is attributai its peculiar flavour : they dive in from 6 to 8 feet of water, 
and Are frequently attended by the widgfcon, or bald-pate duck, who never dives 
himself, but wa4cl)es the rising of the canvas-back, and, before he has his eyes 
well opened, snatches the delicious morsel from his mouth and makes oflT: on this 
account, the tw^o species live in continual contention. 

Perhaps the most characteristic of American birds is the humming-bird, re- 
markable alike for its diminutive size and the brilliant metallic lustre of its plu- 
mage : they are most numerous in South America, but are found in the northern 
continent as far north as 45°. 

Vast flights of pigeons migrate periodically to different parts of the continent, 
frequently extending for many miles on each side, darkening the entire atmo- 
sphere, and often requiring four or five days to pass over a particular place. 

Of the birds of game, the principal are the grouse, pheasant, partridge, &c. 
The species of grouse are more numerous, and entirely distinct from those of Eu- 
rope. The largest and most valuable is the Cock of the Plains. Some other of 
the peculiar American birds are the mocking-bird, blue jay, and whip-poor-will. 
Parrots and parroquets abound in Mexico ; and in the United States there is one 
species of parrot. 

The seas, lakes, and rivers of North America swarm with a great variety of 
delicious fish. The cod, so well known in commerce, is found only in the north- 
ern seas. Their great rendezvous is on the Bank of Newfoundland and other 
sand-banks that lie off the coasts of the northern parts of the United States : these 
situations they prefer on account of tke number of worms produced in those sandy 
bottoms, which tempt them to resort there for food. Some conception may be 
formed of their amazing fecundity, from the fact that nearly ten millions of eggs 
have been counted in one fish oi^ a moderate size. The mackerel and alewife 
fisheries, along the coasts of the United States, also give employment and food 
to great numl^is of persons. The shad is taken in large quantities in all the 
rivers of the Atlantic States, and in the proper season is highly esteemed. The 
salmon is also found in the northern rivers of the United States and Canada, on 
both sides of tlie continent, and is especially plentiful in Columbia River. The 
white-fish, or titameg of the traders, is caught in all the great lakes from Canada 
to the Arctic Ocean. It is a delicious article of food, and as many as 900 barrels 
have been taken at a single fishery on Lake Superior. 

The Reptiles of America are numerous, and, like the generality of this class in 
other parts of the world, the majority are apparently useless, and some dangerous. 
In North America, the alligator does not occur north of the Carolinas and the 
Red River of Louisiana. In severe winters he buries himself in the mud, and 
lies in a torpid state. The rattlesnakes are peculiar to the New World, and are 
particularly formidable on account of the deadly venom of their bite. There are 
four or five species of this reptile, all of which reach the length of five or six 
feet The common species of the United States is extremely numerous about the 
sources of the Colombia River. 

There are several kinds of land tortoises, but they are all of a moderate size. 
Some curious salamanders have been recently discovered, and the celebrated siren 
is an inhabitant of the muddy lakes of Georgia and South Carolina. This sin- 



NORTH AMERICA. 127 



gular reptile has long perplexed naturalists, some thinking it a tadpole or imper- 
fect frog ; it is now, however, fully ascertained to be an adult animal. 

The aboriginal Ameridans atl constitute, at the present day, by their physical 
chrjracters not less than by their languages, a race different from those known 
beture the discovery of America, and preserve throughout this vast extent of coun- 
try and variety of climates, the same essential characteristics. They have a cop 
per colour, resembling that of rusty iron or cinnamon, coarse, straight, black hair, 
high cheek-bones, and sunken eyes ; it has been affirmed that they are without 
beards, but it is Well ascertained that this is not the case nattinally, but that most 
of them take great pains to pluck them out. Almost all the Indians near Mexico, 
and those on the north-west coast, wear mustachios. The ^nnerican Indians are 
generally erect and of fine forms, with few instances of decrepitude or deformity ; 
they have cleaner limbs, not so muscular, and with less tend^pcy to corpulence, 
than the whites. As a race they have countenances that are generally unjoyous, 
stem and ruminating ; it is with them either gloomy taciturnity or bacchanalian 
revel. Their impassible fortitude and endurance of suffering, their contempt of 
pain and death, invest their character with a kind of moral grandeur. It is to be 
doubted, however, whether some, part of his vaunted stoicism be not the result of 
a more than ordinary degree of physical insensibility. Like all ignorant people 
unable to trace the relation between results and causes, ihey are beyond all other 
superstitious. It may be laid down as an universal trait of Indian character. The 
warrior who braves death a thousand times, and in every form in the fliry of battle, 
carries with him to the combat a little charmed bag of filthy and disgusting ingre- 
dients, in which he places no little reliance or security against the bdls and 
arrows that are directed against him; all savages in this region are hospitable : 
even the enemy whom they would have sought and slain far from their cabins, 
who presents himself fearlessly there, claims and receives their hospitality. They 
accord to the cabin hearth the honours and the sanctity of an asylum. 

Since the introduction of the horse by Europeans, many of the Indian tribes 
have acquired an astonishing degree of skill in the management of that noble ani- 
mal ; among these are the Pawnees, the Comancbes, the Sioux, the Apaches, 
Shoshonees, Ennedhoors, and other tribes : some of these have also borrowed the 
use of fire-arms firom their European neighbours, but in general they have rejected 
the arts of peace and civilization. 

Perhaps there is no tribe among the American Indians so demded that it has 
not some notion of a higher power than man, and in general they seem to have 
entertained the idea of a Great Spirit as a master of life, in short, a Creator, and 
of an Evil Spirit, holding divided empire with him over nature ; many of them 
have priests, prophets, and sorcerers, in whose supernatural powers they trust, 
and most, if not all, appear to believe in a future state ; many attempts have been 
made by benevolent persons to convert the aboriginal tribes to the christian reli- 
gion, to teach them the arts of peace and civilized life, and to train them to habits 
of industry ; but so little has been the effect of those efforts, that many do not 
hesitate to pronounce it impossible to engraft the European civilization on the 
Indian character. Some doubtful exceptions to this general failure of the attempts 
to effect the civilization of the Indians occur in the United States, where some of 
the Cherokees and oUier tribes hold property, cultivate the ground, and practise 
the useful arts. 

There are some circumstances which invest the present missionary efforts with 
stronger probabilities of success than any that have preceded them. The number 
of Indians that are half-breeds, or mixtures of the blood of the whites, is great, 
and continually increasing. These generally espouse, either from conviction or 
from party feeling, the cause of civilization and Christianity. It is more univer- 
sally believed than it once was, that Christianity is the religion of social and 
civilized man. Instead of relying much on the hope of the conversion of adult 
hunting and warrior savages, the effi>rt is chiefly directed towards the young. 
Schools, the loom, the anvil, and the plough, are sent to them ; amidst the comfort, 
stability and plenty of cultivation, they are to be imbued with a taste for civilized 



128 



RUSSIAN POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



institutions, arts, industry, and religion ; at the same time every philanthropic man 
will wish these efforts of benevolence all possible success. 

North America is politically divided into the Republics of the United States, 
Texas, Mexico, and Guatemala, which occupy the central and southern parts of 
the continent The northern, the eastern, and central parts, contain the pos- 
sessions of Great Britain ; and the extreme north-western section those claimed 
by Russia. The following estimates of the areas in square miles, and the popu- 
lation of the respective divisions at the present time, is probably as near an approxi- 
mation to the truth ai circumstances will permit : 

Square Miles. Population. 

United States 2,300,000 15,500,000 

Texas 200,000 50,000 

Mexico 1,450,000 8,000,000 

Guatemala 200,000 2,000,000 

British Fhssessiona 2,360,000 1,360,000 

Russian PoBscssions.. . . 650,000 50,000 



7,160,000 



26,960,000 

Of the population the white inhabitants are supposed to amount to 15^ millions ; 
the aborigmes, or Indians, to 5} millione ; and 5 millions 860 thousand are of ne- 
gro and mixed races. 



RUSSIAN POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 

That part of North America claimed by Russia is a territory of considerable 
extent, and comprises the north-western portion of the continent, being that part 
of it adjacent to Asia; it is bounded north by the Arctic Ocean, east by the Brit- 
ish possessions, from which it is separated by the 141° of longitude, west from 
Greenwich ; south by the Pacific Ocean and the Oregon Territory ; west by 
Bhoring's Strait and the Pacific Ocean. The coast seems to be chiefly alpine, in 
some parts rising into snow-capped summits, of which the most remarkable moun- 
tain is St Elias; it is probably a volcanic peak, and is elevated to the height of 
17,850 feet above the level of the sea, and is said to be visible 50 leagues from 
the coast In this region there are computed to be 1000 white inhabitants, who 
are mostly traders ; the savages are estimated at near 50,000 ; they barter the 
furs obtained in hunting with the Russians, for fire-arms, beads, tobacco, and other 
articles. The Russians have a number of factories, or trading establishments, on 
various parts of the coast: the principal of these are at Sitcha, or New Arch- 
angel, Kodiak, and Oonalaska. 

The Aleoutian Islands may be considered as belonging to this region ; they 
form a long and numerous group, extending westward from the Peninsula of Ali- 
aska to I^mtschatka. They appear to be a continuation of the lofly volcanic 
ranges which traverse the opposite regions of the two continents. TTiese islands 
are inhabited by a race sharing, in a measure, the features and aspect of the Mon- 
gols and Esquimaux. Considered t^ savages, they are mild in their manners and 
deportment, and display a considerable degree of industry and ingenuity : they 
dwell in large subterranean mansions, or raUier villages, partitioned into numerous 
apartments, and containing from 50 to 100, or even 150 inhabitants. These abodes, 
covered with turf, are almost on a level with the surrounding country, from which 
they are scarcely to be distinguished. 

Sitcha, or New Archangel, on one of the islands belonging to the Archipelago 
of George III. may be considered the capital of the territories of Russia on this 
continent; it is a village of about 1000 inhabitants, the houses of which, includ- 
ing the fortifications and public buildings, are built of wood, and are neat and well 
kept The management of the trade at this and the other ports, has been inju- 
diciously vested by the Russian government in an exclusive company, resident at 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA- 129 



Irkoutsk. The grand object of their trade is to collect the skins of the sea-otter 
and other animals, for the market of Canton, where they are in very extensive 
demand. The annual value of the fhrs drawn by Russia from her North Ameri- 
can poeseasions has been estimate at $200,000. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 

The possessions of Great Britain in North America are an assemblage of vast 
ill-define^ and straggling territories, the remnant of that mighty empire of which 
the great revolution deprived her. Even ia their present dismembered state, how- 
ever, their extent and capabilities might, and probably will, enable them one day 
to surpass some of the ^atest of the now existing Europevi monarchies. 

This country, taken m its full extent, is bounded north by the Arctic Sea, east 
by the Atlantic Ocean and Baffin's Bay, south by the United States and the At- 
lantic Ocean, and west by the American possessions of Russia. Its area is equal 
to about that of the United States. About one tenth part only of this vast terri- 
tory is as yet settled by a civilized population. The actual occupation by white 
settlers extends along the northern, and, in the lower part of its course, the south- 
ern, bank of the St Lawrence, the northern shores of Lake Ontario and Lake 
Erie, and, in part, the eastern coasts of Lake Huron : it reachrs, though only in 
some instances, thirty or forty miles into the interior. The Company which en- 
joys the exclusive trade of Hudson's Bay, maintains several forts on its western 
shore ; they have also small forts on the leading lakes and rivers of tlie interior, 
called Houses, where they are secure against the attack of the Indians scattered 
over the expanse of these desolate wilds, and can form a store of the articles ne- 
cessary for the fur trade. Beyond this occupancy they have not attempted to ex- 
ercise any jurisdiction, nor, as has lately appeared, could a peaceable colony form 
itself without imminent danger from these rude tenants of tlie wild. 

The climate is very severe, much exceeding what is felt under the same lati- 
tude in the old continent Lower Canada for six and Upper Canada for five 
months of the year have a mean temperature below the freezing point, and are 
buried in perpetual snow ; yet after that period the sun breaks out with such force, 
that large crops of the most valuable grain can be raised on the great extent of 
fertile land of which the territory consists. Upper Canada is finely watered, clad 
with immense forests of valuable timber, and contains about ten millions of acres 
capable of culture. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are well wooded countries, 
but less fertile; and though the winters are less severe, the heavy fogs that pre- 
vail for a great part of the year are still more disagreeable than the frosts and 
snows of Canada. 

The river St Lawrence is the principal feature of this region, and one of the 
noblest river channels in the world. It is difficult to say where it begins. It has 
been held to issue from Lake Superior, a vast body of water, fed by about fifty 
streams, of which the St Louis and Grand Portage Rivers are the principal; but, 
in fact, the lakes are merely connected by short canals, through which the surplus 
waters of one are poured into the other. These canals bear the local names of 
St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara, &.c. The last is distinguished by its falls, the most 
magnificent in the world. From Lake Ontario to Montreal the river is broken by 
a succession of rocks, cataracts, and rapids, which render navigation very danger- 
ous. It is after passing Montreal that it rolls in full grandeur in a deep continu- 
ous channel, conveying large ships and rafts down to Quebec. The navigation is 
blocked up for half the year by the ice, which even in spring encumbers it for 
some weeks with floating fragments. 

The other rivers of Lower Canada are its tributaries. On the north are the 
Utawas and the Saguenay, large navigable rivers flowing through a region little 
known : the former is supposed fx) have a course of about 600 miles, but its navi- 1 
gation is much interrupted by rapids ; the latter is remarkable for its great depth 'I 



E 



130 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



and width, and is navigable for 90 miles to its falls ; for the distance of about 50 
miles il has the appearance of a long mountain lake. The St. Maurice is also a 
considerable stream from the north, and the Montmorency, which falls into the St. 
Lawrence, is celebrated for its beautiful cataract, which pours a large volume of 
water over a precipitous ledge. Go the south are the St Francis; the Chau- 
diere, with a fine cascade rushing down a precipice 100 feet in height ; and the 
Sorelle or Richelieu, the outlet of Lake ChaiQplain. 

The Thames, flowing into Lake St Clair, and the Ouse, are the principal rivers 
of Upper Canada. The St John, which rises in Maine, is navigable 80 miles by 
sea vessels, but its course is much broken by falls and rapids. The Miramichi is 
the other principal river of^ New Brunswick. 

Lakes, in Canada, are on a greater scale than in any other part of the world ; 
and the united chain forms a vast inland sea of fresh water. The largest of these, 
and the largest fresh-water lake in the world, is Lake Superior, which is 420 
miles in length by 170 in breadth ; having a circuit of 1500 miles, and covering 
an area of 35,000 square miles. It discharges its waters through the river or 
Strait of St. Mary, 50 miles long, into Lake Huron, which likewise receives those 
of Lake Michigan. Lake Huron is 280 miles in length, and 90 in breadth, ex- 
clusive of the large bay on the north-eastern shore, called Georgian Bay, which 
is about 80 miles in length by 50 in breadth. An outlet, called the river St Clair, 
expands, after a course of 40 miles, into a lake of the same name, 24 miles in 
lengthy and 80 in breadth, which again contracts, and enters Lake Erie under the 
name of the river Detroit, 25 miles in length. Lake Erie, the next link in this 
great chain, is 270 miles in length, by from 25 to 50 in breadth. The river Nia- 
gara, 36 miles long, carries its surplus waters over a perpendicular precipice 165 
feet high, into Lake Ontario, which is about 190 miles in length, by 40 in breadth. 
The surface of Lake Superior is about 625 feet above the level of the sea; its 
medium depth 900 feet ; the descent to Lake Huron is by the Sault or Fall of St. 
Mary 23 feet and by rapids and the gradual descent of the river, 21 feet, giving 
580 feet for the elevation of the surface of Lake Huron, whose depth is equal to 
that of Lake Superior. Lake Erie is much shallower, not exceeding a mean of 
120 feet and having its surface 560 feet above high water, while I^ke Ontario 
has a depth of 500 feet, and its sur&ce is 330 lower than that of Lake Erie. The 
waters of these lakes are clear and potable, and they abound with fish, among 
which are trout, weighing from 75 to 100 pounds, sturgeon, white fish, pike, bass, 
&c. They arc navigable by large vessels, and a great number of steamboats na- 
vigate their waters. Lake Simcoe, which is connected with Lake Huron, is 
already disturbed by the plash of the steamboat Lake Nepissing is a considerable 
body of water, which a rapid and broken stream unites with Lake Huron. In the 
interior, are several smaller lakes, of which the principal is the Lake of the 
Woods, whose winding shores are 300 miles in circumference. Farther to the 
north-west is Lake Winnipeek. The name signifies muddy, and is descriptive of 
its watera There is a water communication with Lake Superior by the rivers 
Winnipeek andLaPluie. Still farther to the north-west, a number of lakes ex- 
tend nearly in a line, at various distances from each other, connected by a water 
communication, except in two or three cases, where portages or carrying-places 
intervene. This is the principal navigable route to the waters of the Arctic Sea, 
and is much frequented by the fur traders during the short period of summer in 
these rejrions. 

The principal divisions of British America are New Britain, with the provinces 
of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's 
Island, and Newfoundland. 

The constitution of government for the provinces has been modelled on that of 
the mother country. Each province has a governor and a legislative council ap- 
pointed by the crown, and a house of commons or representatives chosen by the 
inhabitants, upon moderate qualifications. The government of Canada was ad- 
ministered by a governor and council appointed by the crown, until 1791, when 
the constitutional act divided the country into two provinces, and established a 
constitutional government for each. In Lower Canada, the legislative council is 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 131 



appoioted for life, and consists of 34 members; and the house of assembly, elected 
for four years, is Composed of 88 members. In Upper Canada, the chief execu- 
tive officer is styled lieutenant-governor: the legislative council consists of 17 
members, and the house of assembly of 50. Bills passed by the two houses be- 
come a law when agreed to by the governor ; though, in certain cases, tiie royal 
sanction is required, and in others reference must be had to the imperial parlia- 
ment The supreme legislative authority is vested therefore in the king and the 
two houses of the British Parliament, limited, however, by their own acts. The 
act 31 Geo. III. ch. 13, declares that no taxes shall be imposed on the colonies 
but for the regulation of trade, and that the proceeds of such taxes shall be ap- 
plied for the use of the province, in such manner as shAll be directed by any laws 
made by his Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Coun- 
cil, and the House of Assembly. This point is one of the chief causes of the dis- 
satisfaction in the Canadas ; the colonists demanding- the exclusive control over 
the money raised within the provinces. In Lower Canada trial by jury in univer- 
sal in criminal cases, but a very small proportion of the civil cases are tried in 
this manner. Law proceedings are in French and English ; and it is not unusual 
to have half the jury English and the other half French. In Upper Canada &e 
laws are wholly English, as is also the case in the other provinces. The consti- 
tutions of the other provinces also resemble that of Upper Canada. 

The revenue of Lower Canada is about $800,000; and of Upper Canada 
$500,000. These simis form the public resources of the provinces, and are em- 
ployed in the current expenses of the provincial governments. Upper Canada 
has a debt of between three and four millions, contracted for public work, roads, 
cunals, &c. The expenditure of the British government, out of the imperial reve- 
nues, w&s for the two provinces, in 1834, £263,250 ; of which £58d3 was for 
civil, and the remainder for military purposes ; and for the other four North Ame- 
rican colonies, for the same year, £162,312 ; of which all but £20,435 was for 
naval and military purposes : their revenue, during the same period, amounted to 
£186,680. 

The natural resources of British America are more ample than would be infer- 
red from its dreary aspect and the vast snows under which it is buried. Canada 
has a very fertile soil, especially in its upper colony ; afid though it be free from 
snow only during five months of the year, the heat of that period is sufficient to 
ripen the most valuable kinds of grain. The vast uncleared tracts are covered 
with excellent timber. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are less fertile, yet they 
contain much good land, and are well timbered, Newfoundland has on its shores 
the most valuable cod-fishery in the world. Even the immense northern wastes 
are covered with a profusion of animals, noted for their rich and beautiful furs, 
which form the foundation of an extensive and valuable trade. The commerce 
of British America is of vast importance : the fur trade, the original object for 
opening an intercourse with this part of the world, was carried on in the first 
place,, chiefly from the shores of Hudson's Bay ; but it was there injudiciously 
placed in the hands of an exclusive company, which greatly diminished its ac- 
tivity. 

Upwards of forty years ago some enterprising merchants of Montreal established 
the North-west Company, who, employing numerous and active agents, carried 
on their business with spirit and enterprise. The eager rivalry of the two com- 
panies, operating in regions beyond the pale of law, gave birth to many deeds of 
fraud and violence : within these few years, however, an union has healed the 
deadly enmity between them, and, by acting in concert, they have determined to 
diminish the issue of ardent spirits, and even to adopt every practical means for 
the moral and religious improvement of the Indians. The furs exported from 
Quebec, for 1831, amounted in value to £211,000. 

The timber trade, the value of which thirty years ago did not exceed £32,000, 
has now surpassed all others in magnitude. The timber is obtained from the im- 
mense forests on the shores of the great interior lakes. The trees are cut down 
during the winter by American axemen, who are peculiarly skilful ; and the busi- 
ness is attended with great hardship, both from the work itself, and the incle- 



132 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



meacy of the season. The trees, when felled, are put together into immense 
rafts, which are floated down the St Lawrence to Quebec. The Canada mer- 
chants lately estimated the capital invested in this business at £1,250,000. It is 
also carried on to a great extent from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and even 
from Cape Breton. The exports to all quarters amounted, in 1831, to j^l,038,000 
sterling : other articles, the produce chiefly of agriculture, amounted, in the year 
1831, to £©56,584. 

The shipping employed between England and her American colonies was, in 
1829, inwards 1609, of 431,124 tons ; outwards 1652 ships, of 418,142 tons. The 
value of the imports into Britain, in 1829, was £1,088,622 ; of the exports 
£2,064,126. To the West Indies the colonics export, of their timber and agri- 
cultural staples, to a considerable amount, and receive in return the well known 
produce of these Islands ; and with the United States Canada holds a great inter- 
couwe across Lake Champlain, sending mostly salt and peltries; and in return 
taking chiefly tea, tobacco, and other luxuries, clandestinely, which the strict colo- 
nial rules would require her to receive from the mother country. 

The fishery is pursued upon these shores, to an extent not surpassed anywhere, 
else upon the globe. The rich supply of cod in the Newfoundland banks is 
wholly unparalleled : although all the nations of Europe have been lading cargoes 
of fish for centuries, no sensible diminution of them has been felt The Eoglish 
employ about 40,000 tons of shipping, and 3000 men, in this fishery : in 1831, 
they exported in fish, oil, and seal-skins, to the amount of £834,1S2; and the 
Americans and French, in the same year, exported, the latter, to upwards of 
£257,250 in value, and the former, to the amount of £425,000. 

The interior communications of Canada are almost solely by the river St Law- 
rence and the lakes, which open a very extensive navigation into the country. 
It is seriously obstructed, however, between Montreal and Lake Ontario, where a 
series of rapids occur, over which only canoes can shoot, and all heavy goods 
must be landed and shipped. Great exertions have been made to improve, by 
canals, tlie interior communications of Danada. The chief object has been to 
obviate the continual series of obstructions in the navigation of the St Lawrence 

i River, above Montreal. One canal has been constructed from that city to La 
Chine, a distance of eight miles, at an expense of £130,000: another is the 
Greenville canal, eight miles long, constructed to avoid certain obstructions in the 

j navigation of the Lower Utaw^as River. The principal operation, however, is 
the Rideau canals reaching from the Utawas River to Kingston. It is 135 nfiles 

, long, connecting together a chain of lakes, which admit of steam navigation ; and 
the dimensions are such as to allow vessels of from 100 to 125 tons to pass. The 
estimated expense was £486,000. The enterprise of private individuals has con- 
structed the Welland canal ; which, at an expense of £270,000, has united the 
lakes Ontario and Erie. It is 42 miles long, and is more capacious than the New 
York canal : it will allow vessels of 125 tons to pass through. The Chambly 
canal opens a navigation, by the Sorelle River, from Lake Champlain to the St 
Lawrence. 

Ares in square miles. Population. 

New Britain 1,900,000 60,000 

UpperConada 140,000 360,000 

LowerCanada 237,000 535,000 

New Brunswick 27,000 100,000 

Nova Scotia, with Cape Breton 18,900 190,000 

Prince Edward*8 Island 2,100 35,000 

Newfoundland 35,000 80,000 



Total 2,360,000 



1,360,000 



NEW BRITAIN. 



133 



NEW BRITAIN. 

New Britain is that large portion of British America situated north of .the 
I Canadas and the United Statw, and stretching northward to the dreary and deso- 
late shores' of tlie Arctic Sea. It comprises Labrador, New North and New 
South Wales, Prince William's Land, Boothia Felix, lately discovered by Captain 
Ro6s, and the North Georgia Islands. Hudson's Bay divides the country into two 
great divisions : on the east is Labrador and East Main^ and on the west New 
Nurth and New South Wales ; these have been farther subdivided, by the traders 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, into various smaller districts, which are, however, 
of no political importance. 

The fiice of the country is generally a vast plain, intenected with numeriMS 
lakes and rivers, some of which roll into the unexplored seas of the north, and 
others into Hudson's Bay : among the former are the Mackenzie, the Copper Mine, 
and Tbleweecho, or Great Fish Hiver, lately explored by Captain Back ; and into 
the latter the principal are Churchill, Nelson, Severn, and Albany Rivers. The 
interior streams are the Saskatchawan, Winnipeek, and Red River, flowing into 
Lake Winnipeek ; and the Athabasca and Peace Rivers, emptying into Lake 
Athabasca : these may properly be considered head branches of the Mackenzie, 
as their waters finally reach the ocean through its channel. 

The lakes are exceedingly numerous ; some are extensive, and second only to 
the great Canadian lakes, and aflbrding, during the brief period of summer, a long 
and almost continuous canoe navigation from Lake Superior to the Arctic Sea. 
Of these Winnipeek, or Muddy Lake, Athabasca Lake, Great Slave, and Great 
Bear Lakes, are the principal : tliey are situated in a range lying N. W. from 
each other, and afbrd, for a short period, an almost uninterrupted navigation from 
Lake Superior to the Arctic Ocean. Lake Winnipeek is 270 miles long, and 
from 15 to 18 broad : it receives numerous rivers and enjoys a considerable extent 
of canoe navi^tioo. Athabasca Lake, lying between 500 and 600 m>les N. W. 
of Lake Winnipeek, is in length about 200 miles, with a breadth of from 16 to 18 
miles: it receives several large streams, and is connected, by Slave River, with 
Great Slave Lake, still farther to the N. W., which is one of the largest bodies 
of fresh water in North America, excepting Lakes Superior and Huron, and per- 
haps Lake Michigan. From Great Slave Lake flows Mackenzie's River, which, 
in its course to the ocean, receives, from the eastward, the water of the Great 
Bear Lake : it is about 200 miles in extent each way, and is deeply indented by 
several large peninsulas. 

In winter such is the severity of the climate in this xegion, that even in 57*^ the 
lakes freeze 8 feet thick; brandy and mercury congeal; the rocks sometimes 
split with a noise like that of the heaviest artillery, scattering the fragments to a 
great distance. The temperature is capricious and the changes sudden. The Au- 
rora Borealis sheds a light sometimes equal to tliat of the full moon. The vege- 
tation in the northern parts is very scanty, but adjoining the northern boundary 
of the United States there are some fertile spots along the Red River of Lake 
Winnipeek. Lord Selkirk purchased from the Hudson's Bay Company a terri- 
tory of 116,000 acres, and formed the settlements of Pcmbiija and Assiniboia: 
the soil has been found tolerably fertile, but the great distance from a market, 
being 2800 miles from New Orleans, and 1900 from Buflalo, must long prevent it 
from rising to much importance. It has suffered severely from contests with the 
Indians, fomented by the jealousy of the fur-traders. Moreover, in consequence 
of the recent settlement of the boundary line with the United States, half of it 
has been included within their territory. 

The only trade in these regions is that of fiirs ; to facilitate which, the Hud- 
son's Bay Company have established forts and trading-liouses in various quarters, 
extending from Hudson's Bay west into the territories claimed by the United 
States. On the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and to the north, almost to the Arc- 
tic Sea, from these forts, &c., agen ts arc sent amongst the Indians to collect furs, 

12. 



134 



NEW BRITAIN. 



in exchange for each European commodities as are prized by them. The furs 
exported, in 1832, from Hudson's Bay amounted to the value of JC110,000. 

The coasts of Labrador, and indeed the whole of the northern parts of this 
region, from Greenland to Bhering's Strait, is inhabited by the Esquimaux, a race 
of savages who sustain existence chiefly by feeding on whales and seals, except 
in the more southern parts of Labrador : of the skins of the latter they make 
their boats and clothes, and of his sinews they make thread. They travel over 
the snow in sledges drawn by dogs, of which they have a very hardy and saga- 
cious breed, and will dqiw a considerable load 60 miles in a day. Their huts 
have been met with as far north as 76°. Little, squat, and feeble, the complexion 
of these polar men has little of tlie copper colour of the other American abori- 
gines, and is rather of a dirty, reddish yellow. Their summer huts are circular, 
covered with deer-skins, and entered by creeping on the belly. Yet these iso- 
lated and simple t»eings have been taught by necessity, many inventions, which 
are highly creditable tb their ingenuity. They make their winter habitations of 
frozen snow, in a few hours, exceedingly comfortable, and which remain durable 
till melted by the heat of the ensuing summer. Some of the tribes have canoes, 
made of the skin of the sea-calf, with which they sail with amazing swiflness. 
Thoy also work a gray and porous stone into neat pitchers and kettles, and those 
in the vicinity of Bhering*8 Strait display great ingenuity in the manu&cture of 
trinkets and utensils of the fossil ivory, with which some parts of those regions 
'abound. 

The {Esquimaux met with by Captain Parry, in North Georgia, were exceeding 
lively and cheerful, more so than even the negro, the native of a sunny climate, 
and of a region producing spontaneously all the fruits of the earth. They are so 
fond of dancing that it seems almost their natural gait ; and they are always ready 
to return raillery or mimicry. They are, far more than the Indians, a social and 
domestic people. This is apparent in their good treatment to females, and their 
care and affection for their children. Among these people, on the coast of Labra- 
dor, the Moravian mis^oni^ies have established several settlements ; Nain, Okkak, 
HopedaJe, &c., and have, besides teaching them many useful things, built a ma- 
gazine, in which each of^ the natives might deposite his useless stores, prevailing 
on them to set apart a tenth for widows and orphans. This is the true way to 
convert a savage people, by showing them the palpable fruits of the gospel. 

The Indians occupying this region are principally the Assiniboines, Kniste- 
neaux, or Crces, Chippewayans, Beaver, Hare, Dog-rib, Copper Indians, &c. The 
Assiniboines are a tribe of Sioux; they are divided into several smaller tribes, as 
the Black-foot, Fall, and Blood Indians, &c. They rear many horses, and subsist 
chiefly on the bufialo. 

The Knisteneaux, or Crees, inhabit a wide extent of country in the vicinity of 
Lake Athabasca: they were once numerous, but are now reduced to about 500 m 
number ; they are a well-formed race, and their women are the handsomest of all 
the Indian females; they are hospitable, generous, and mild, when not infuriated 
by spirits ; they do not, however, consider chastity a virtue, and are not unkind to 
their women. 

The Chippewayans live to the north of the latter, and near the Great Slave 
I^ke : their appearance is singular, with high projecting cheeJc-bones, broad faces, 
and wide nostrils ; they are persevering, incorrigible beggars, yet not dishonest, 
and so deeply imbued with national pride, that, while they give to other nations 
their proper names, they call themselves, by way of eminence, the people ; 
amongst them the lot of the female is grievous, and mothers have been known to 
destroy their female offspring that it might escape the same servitude. Aged and 
sick people are abandoned to perish. They are said to be the same people as the 
Chippeways of the United States, and are much reduced in numbers. The Cop- 
per, Ilarc, and Dog-rib Indians, occupy the country north of Great Bear Lake ; 
they much resemble the Chippewayans, but are of a more friendly and amiable 
rlisposition ; their humanity and faithful attachment were experienced by the recent 
travellers (Captain Franklin, &c.) in those regions, on occasions of extreme dis- 
tress. 



UPPER CANADA. 



135 



1 1 

I 



UPPER CANADA. 

Uppkr Canada, commeBcingr at Lake St Francis, above Montreal, extends 
along the whole chain of the great lakes, almost to the western boundary of liake 
Superior. Until 1781 it was a mere district attached to Quebec, at which period 
a number of American loyalists and disbanded soldiers were settled in it, and the 
name of Upper Canada bestowed. Comparatively but ^ small part of this province 
is settled, and many portions of it are yet unexplored. The settlements are 
chiefly along tluf rivers St. Lawrence and Utawas, and lakes Erie and Ontari«i i •> 
The soil is in general excellent, and yields abundant crops of grain, wheat, Indian 
corn, bops, flax, &c. 

Cultivation, in Upper Canada, is still in an incipient stalte, but is rapidly ad- 
vancing in consequence of the influx of British settler^ Government, for some 
time, allowed to every settler, fifty or even a hundred acres of land, upon pay- 
ment of fees amounting to about a shilling per acre ; but since 1827 the lan^ 
have been disposed of by public auction. Among emigrants possessed of capittu, 
a great proportion have of late made their purchases from the Canada Company. 
This body, incorporated in 1826, bought from government, tracts of land equal to 
2,300,000 acres, for which they engaged to pay the sum of £295,000, by sixteen 
annual instalments. These lands are dispersed through every part of Upper 
Canada; but the largest portion, amounting to about a million of acres, and ex- 
tending about sixty miles in length, is along the eastern shore of Lake Huron. 
The Company found towns and villages, form roads, and lay out the ground in 
convenient lots, and have agents on the spot, who aflbrd every information and aid 
to emigrants. 

The climate of Upper Canada is salubrious, and epidemic diseases almost un- 
known. The winters are shorter and less rigorout than in the lower province : 
the spring opens, and agricultural labours commtnce^ from six weeks to two 
months earlier than in the neighbourhood of Quebec. The summer heats are also | 
more moderate, and the autumn pleasant and favourable for securing the produce 
of all the late crops. Population is advancing with great rapidity : it has hitherto 
been confined to the St. Lawrence and the shores of the lakes, but is now becom- 
ing more difltised ovM* the interior. New towns are extending in the fertile for- 
est, some of which, in rapidity of increase, vie with those of the United States. 
Great extents of fertile land are yet unoccupied, and the parent country is fur- 
nishing every facility for transporting to these forests her surplus population, great 
numbers of whom, however, finally make their way to the United States. 

Toronto and Kingston, on the northern shore of I^ke Ontario, are the twg 
principal towns of Upper Canada, Toronto, formerly York, near the north-west 
end of the lake, owes its support to its being the scat of government and of the 
courts, and to the extensive settlements recently formed to the north and east of 
it. Population 10,000. Kingston, near the north-east point of the lake, has a 
commodious harbour, and is a neat little town with about 5000 inhabitants. Some 
of the other towns on Lake Ontario are Cobourg, Port Hope, and Hamilton. On 
the Niagara River are the villages of Niagara, Queenstown, and Chippewa. 
Sandwich, in the western part of the province, and opposite to Detroit, is a 
thriving little town ; as is also liondon, on the Thames, with a population of 2000 
inhabitants. On the east shore of Lake Huron is the neat and flourishing town 
of Goderich, with a good harbour at the mouth of the Maitland River; and at the 
bottom of Lake Man itou line, or Georgian Bay, is Penetanguishene, a British naval 
station, from which a st eamboat runs occasionally to St. Joseph's Island, at the 
west end of the lake^ Mfe^ ich is kept a small detachment of British troops. 

Upper Canada is dmtfgfcnto 11 districts, which are subdivided into 25 coun- 
ties. It is bounded on yHnorth-east by Lower Canada, north by New Britain, 
west and south by the ^Wtod States. The lines of division arc, from Lower 
Canada, the Utawas River; from New Britain, an imaginary line separating the 
waters flowing into the lakes from those of Hudson's Bay ; and, from the United 



y 



136 LOWER CANADA. 



States, a nominal line extending through the centre of Lakes Superior, Huron, 
Erie and Ontario, and their connecting streams, and thence down the middle of 
the River St. Lawrence to Lake St Francis, and thence north-west and north-east 
to the Utawas River. 

In this province is exhibited one of the most sublime and magnificent of Na- 
ture's works, by the Niagara river. The accumulated waters flowing from four 
great lakes and all their tributaries, are precipitated over the Falls of Niagara, 
the mightiest cataract in the world. The whole mass is poured in one tre- 
mendous plunge of 165 feet in height The noise, tumult, and rapidity of thid 
falling sea; the rolling clouds of foam, the vast volumes of vapour which rise into 
the air, the brilliancy and variety of the tints, and the beautiful rainbows which 
span the abyss ; the lofty banks and immense woods which surround this wonder- 
ful scene, have been considered by experienced travellers as eclipsing every simi- 
lar phenomenon. The noise is heard, and the cloud of vapours seen, at the dis- 
tance of several miles. The fall on the Canadian side is 630 feet wide, of a semi- 
circular form ; that on the American side only 310 feet, and 165 feet in height, 
being six or seven feet higher than the former. The one, called the Crescent or , 
Horse-shoe Fall, descends in a mighty sea-green wave ; the other, broken by rocks 
into foam, resembles a sheet of molten silver. Travellers descend, with the cer- 
tainty of being drenched to the skin, but without danger, to the foot of the fall, 
and even beneath it There are now excellent inns on both sides of the fidls, 
which are, crowded with visitants during the summer montha 



LOWER CANADA. 



Lower Canada extends along the River St. Lawrence, on both sides, flrom its 
mouth to Lake St Francis, a short distance above Montreal. A considerable part 
of the province extends nominally into unexplored regions that are unoccupied by 
white mhabitants. At the mouth of the St Lawrence the country is rugged and 
mountainous, and the climate very severe ; but the upper and more southerly jmt- \ 
I tions of the province are well watered, fertile, and with a milder climate than the 
, lower part All sections, however, have the winters of Sweden, though in the 
latitude of France. The summers are warm and short, and the transition from 
winter to summer is very rapid, leaving scarcely more than a month for the sea- 
son of spring. 

More than three-fourths of the inhabitants of the country are of French de- 
' scent, and speak the French language ; they are all Catholics, and much attached 
j to their priests : the remainder are mostly natives of Great Britain and their de- 
scendants. Education is much neglected, and the mass of the people are very ig- 
norant and illiterate. The Quebec Mercury lately gravely proposed the estab- 
lishment of a seminary for the instruction of those members of their parliament 
who could neither read nor write. The native French Canadians are called 
liahitans, . They are gay, satisfied with a little, and strongly attached to their re- 
ligion and native country. In the management of periogues and canoes on the | 
lakes and long risers, they have no rivals. They are also remarkably ingenious 
in making their own domestic implements. The countenance of the Canadian is 
long and thin ; his complexion sun-burnt and swarthy, inclining towards that of 
the Indian; his eyes black and lively ; with lank and meagre cheeks, a sharp and 
prominent chin, and such easy and polite manners, as though he had always lived 
in the great world, rather than amid thick forests. Their intercourse witli each 
other is to the last degree affectionate, and a French Canadian village constitutes 
one family. Their cheerfulness, whether in prosperity or adversity, is inexhausti- 
ble,^and more valuable to them than all the boasted attainments of philosophy. 

In winter, their dress is that of the Russians ; their social intercourse that of 
the age of Louis XIV. As soon as the penance of their long fast is ended, their 
feasting begins. The friends and relatives assemble. Turkeys, pies, and all tho 
dainties of the season, decorate the board. Coffee is introduced. The violin is 



LOWER CANADA- 137 



heard, and those gay and simple people are the most inveterate dancers in the 
world. 

There is a marked difference between this province and the United States in 
the habits of the people, their buildings, and their modes of living. An indivi- 
dual from the latter country, who happens to be in Canada, will be reminded by 
every thing about him, that he is not at home. Lower Canada is divided into four 
districts, which are subdivided into 40 counties, and is separated from the States 
of New York and Vermont by the 45° of north latitude ; from New Hampshire 
and Maine, by the highlands running between the rivers which flow into the St. 
Lawrence, and those emptying into the Atlantic Ocean ; from New Brunswick 
by the River Ristigouche ; from New Britain by the ridge separating the waters 
of Hudson's Bay from those of the St. Lawrence ; and from Upper Canada by the 
Utawas River : the outline of the province is about 2250 miles in extent. 

The city of Quebec, the capital of Canada, is singularly situated, half on a 
plain along the northern bank of the St Lawrence, and the other half on the top 
of a steep perpendicular rock, 350 feet high. These are called the Upper and 
Lower towns. Quebec, as a military station, is very strong ; its fortifications ren- 
der it almost a second Gibraltar. It was one of the most brilliant scenes of Brit- 
ish glory. Near it, on the plains of Abraham, Wolfe, at the cost of his lifb, gained 
the splendid victory which annexed Canada to the British empire. The popula- 
I tion of Quebec is about 25,000 : its commerce is considerable, as all the vessels, 
from Britain and other foreign quarters, stop there and unload their cargoes : 1132 
vessels arrived in 1835, estimated at 323,000 tons. The town of Three Rivers, 
containing abont 3000 inhabitants, is situated on the River St. Lawrence, 00 miles 
above Quebec. 

The commercial capita] of Canada is Montreal ; it is situated immediately below 
I the rapids, at a point where the ample stream of the Utawas flows into tlie St. 
Lawrence. Most of the business, even of Quebec, is carried on by branches 
from the Montreal houses. It derives a great impulse from the transactions of 
! the Hudson's Bay Fur Company ; and it is the centre of the commerce with the 
United States, carried on by Lake Champlain and the Hudson. Vessels of 600 or 
700 tons can, notwithstanding some difficulties, come up to Montreal ; its wharf 
presents a busy scene, — the tall masts of merchantmen from the Thames, the 
Mersey, and the Clyde, with the steam-packets which ply between Quebec and 
Montreal. The island of Montreal is about thirty miles in length, and seven in 
breadth ; it is of alluvial soil, the most fertile in l4}wer Canada, and also the most 
highly cultivated. The view over it, of fruitful fields, gay country-houses, and 
the streams by which it is encircled, is one of the most pleasing that can be ima- 
gined. The interior of the town is not so attractive. It is substantially, but 
gloomily, built of dark gray limestone, with roofs of tin, the only kind, it is said, 
which can stand the intense cold of winter ; while the windows and doors are 
shut in with massive plates of iron. The streets, though tolerably regular, were 
inconveniently narrow; but of late several have been formed, extending the 
whole length of the town, that are commodious and airy. The new cathedral, 
opened in 1829, is considered one of the handsomest structures in America. It is 
255 feet long, 134 broad, 220 feet high in its principal front ; and it is capable of 
containing 10,000 persons. Two Catholic seminaries, the English ehurch, and 
the general hospital, are also handsome structures. The population amounts to 
30,000. 

The village of La Prairie, on the south bank of the river, is the medium of com- 
munication between Montreal and the United States. Dorchester, on the Sorelle, 
is a considerable village. 

La Chine, above the rapids, which interrupt the navigation above Montreal, is 
an important dep6t for the interior trade. A number of townships have been 
formed along the northern bank of the Utawas, the part of Lower Canada chiefly 
resorted to by emigrants. The country is level and fertile, but its progress ip 
much obstructed by the number of old unimproved grants ; so that the population 
does not much exceed 5300. Hull and Bytown are small improving towns on the 
river ; the latter on the south, and the former on the north side. 

12* S ' 



138 NEW BRUNSWICK. 



The tract of country lying to the south-east of the St Lawrence, on the bor- 
ders of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, has of late years attracted many 
settlers, to whom it is known under the name of ^the Eastern Townships. The 
lands here are held in free and common soccage, and the English law prevails. 
The population of the townships is now about 50,000. Stanstead and Sherbrooke 
are the principal towns of this fine and flourishing region. On the south side of 
the St. Lawrence River are the neat and thriving villages of St Thomas and 
Kamouraska; the former about 20 and the latter 90 miles below Quebec. Ka- 
monraska is pleasantly situated, and much resorted to by the citizens of the capi- 
tal for the benefit of sea-bathing. 

The district of €kspe remains to complete the description of Lower Canada. 
It is on the south side of the St Lawrence; near its mouth, bordering on New 
Brunswick. It is a country of irregular and sometimes mountainous surface, con- 
taining numerous lakes, and watered by several rivers, of which the Restigouche 
is the principal. The territory is covered with dense forests, inhabited by 7000 
or 8000 woodmen and fishermen, and exports some fish, oil, and timber. The 
cod-fishery employs 1800 men, and produces about 50,0()0 quintals of fish, and 
20,000 barrels of oil ; and about 4000 barrels of herrings, and 2000 of salmon are 
shipped for Quebec. Douglas, Bonaventure, and New Carlisle, are small villages 
of forty or fifty huts each. 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

New Brunswick is situated to the east of the State of Maine, and to the nortli- 
wesl of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by the Bay of Fundy ; on the 
north it has part of Lower Canada, the boundary between the two being tiie 
River Restigouche. It has, on the east, a winding coast along the Gulf of St 
iiawrence, indented by navigable bays and inlets. The country, towards the sea- 
coast and along the St John*8 River, is level, but the western and northern parts 
are somewhat mountainoua 

This colony is still almost one magnificent unbroken forest, and under the en- 
couragement afibrded by the mother country, almost all the energies of the inha- 
bitants are directed to the lumber trade. The borders of the rivers, where culti- 
vated, are fertile in grass and grain, though agriculture is not yet greatly advanced. 
The sea-coast abounds in cod and other fish ; the River St John's is thronged with 
herring, shad, and salmon. Tlie fisheries ate a source of considerable wealth 
and employment to the inhabitants; tlie produce of which beiiig, with timber, the 
great staples of export 

The town of St Johns, on a fine harbour at the mouth of the River St John, 
is the most considerable place in New Brunswick. The population is about 
10,000: in 1829 the exports from it were J&210,000; being nearly two-thirds of 
the amount from all the other ports. St Andrews, at the head of Passamaquoddy 
Bay, besides its timber trade, has a considerable fishery, and contains about 5000 
inhabitanta Frederickton, the seat of government, is about 85 miles up the St 
John's River, which being navigable for vessels of 50 tons, is the seat of a consi- 
derable inland trade; the population is 1800; it is rather regularly built of wood, 
with government offices, several churches, and a college. 

The River Mirimichi is distinguished by the extensive forests on its banks, 
whence large shipments of timber are made, at the port of that name, as well as 
those of Chatham, Douglas, and Newcastle. This tract of country was, in Octo- 
ber 1825, the scene of one of the most dreadful conflagrations on record. The 
flames, kindled by accident at several points at once, were impelled by a violent 
wind, and fed always with new fuel, till they spread over about 100 miles of ter- 
ritory, involving it in smoke and flame, and reducing to ashes the towns of Doug- 
las and Newcastle; nearly 200 persons are said to have perished, and more than 
2000 to have been reduced to entire destitution. The natural advantages of the 
country, however, have enabled them to recover with surprising rapidity. New 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



13J 



Brunswick was originally settled by German troops in the service of Great Bri- 
tain, and hence its name. It was included in Nova Scotia until 1784. Dalhoosic 
and Bathurst, on Chaleur Bay, and Liverpool, on the east coast south of Mirimich 
Buy, are small villages. 



NOVA SCOTIA- 

NovA Scotia was first settled by the French,, and named by them Acadia. I 
was granted by James I. to Sir William Alexander, a Scottish aobleman, by when 
it was called Nova Scotia ; but was not confirmed to England until 1713. It in 
eluded New Brunswick until 1784, when it was divided into two provinces. Thi: 
colony is a larger peninsula, bounded on the north by the narrow strait separatint 
it from Cape Breton and Prince Qdward*s Islands, on the south-east by the Atlari 
tic Ocean, and on the north-west by the Bay of Fundy, which penetrates so decj 
as to leave only an isthmus about nine miles broad, connecting it with Nev 
Brunswick. 

Nova Scotia is about 280 miles long, and from 50 to 100 broad, comprising abou 
16,000 square miles, or upwards of 10,000,000 acres. The surface of the countrj 
is moderately uneven, and in some places hilly. The climate is cold, but healthy 
and, with the progress of cultivation, is gradually ameliorating. Spring is lat( 
and irregular in its approach ; but when vegetation commences, it is very rapid 
and in a few days changes the whole face of nature. On the coast the soil it 
generally poor, but in the interior and northern parts it is well adapted to cultiva 
tion. Wheat and other grains are raised to some extent, and large quantities of 
the finest potatoes. 

The population, in 1832, was, including Cape Breton, about 190,000. The in 
habitants are about one-fourth Acadians, or descendants of the first French set- 
tlers ; a fourth fi-om Scotland, some Germans, 1200 free negroes, and some of the 
aboriginal race of Indians, who still adhere to their roaming and hunting habits 
the remainder of the population are mostly from difierent parts of the British em- 
pire. The principal exports to Europe are timber and fish, and to the West Indici 
and the neighbouring States, timber, provisions, coal of fine quality, gypsum anc 
freestone. 

The administration of the colony is vested in a governor, council, and house of 
assembly. There are colleges at Halif&T, Windsor, and Pictou ; also numerous 
schools, partly sopported by government, for the instruction of the lower classes 
The religious denominations are Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists 
and Catholics. « 

Halifax is the capital, situated on one of the noblests harbours in the world, 
capable of containing any amount of shipping of any bufthen. It was founded in 
1749, by General Cornwallis, and has since carried on almost all the trade of the 
colony. During the impulse given to it by the last war, the population amounted 
to 12,000, but is now only 9000. The most extensive dock-yard in British Amer- 
ica has been formed here, where a number of ships of the line and armed vessels 
are always lying, either stationed here or for repairs. A considerable number of 
troops are always in garrison, who, with the naval ofiScers, give it the air of a 
military place. Lunenburg, the chief of the German settlements, contains a po- 
pulation of about 2000 inhabitants, and has a brisk trade. Liverpool also carries 
on a considerable trade ; but Shelbum, which, at the end of the American revo- 
lutionary war, was the largest place in Nova Scotia, has sunk to a mere village. 
The north-eastern coast has Pictou, fi^m which, and the neighbouring bays on 
this coast, is shipped the largest quantity of timber and coal. On a river falling 
into the Bay of Fuhdy, is Annapolis, the original French capital ; but since the 
transference of the government to Halifax, it has sunk into a mere secondary 
place. The trade of this great bay is now carried on from Yarmouth, at its mouth, 
the population of which, since 1791, has risen from 1300 to 4500. Gypsum is the 
principal export 



140 



PRINCE EDWARD'S ISLAND— NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Cape Breton is a large island, separated from N«7a Scotia by St George^s Gulf 
and the Gut of Canseau, a great part of which is not more than a mile brd&d. The 
island is about 100 miles in length, and from 80 to 80 in breadth. It is penetrated 
by an arm of the sea, called the Bras d*Or, which divides it nearly into two equal 
portions, and is throughout navigable. The surface is diversified by hills, none of 
which rise above 1500 feet ; and the soil is fully equal te that of the neighbouring 
countries. Only the coasts, including those of the Bras d'Or, have yet been cul- 
tivated ; and the population in general is in a less improved state than in the other 
colonies. The climate resembles that of the neighbouring countries, in the in- 
tensity of the cold in winter and of the heat in summer ; but these follow more 
irregularly, and a fortnight's* thaw occurs often in the midst of frost and snow. 
Yet these variations are not disadvantageous to agriculture, which, however, is 
still in its infancy, the valuable cod-fishery attracting the chief industry of the 
people. Cape Breton, -therefore, imports wheat flour, though it affords a small 
surplus of oats and potatoes. The exports, in 1828, consisted of 41,000 quintals 
of dry, and 18,000 barrels of pickled fish. About fifty vessels, averaging fifty tons 
each, are annually built There are coal mines of great value. Cape Breton has 
excellent harbours, and commands, in a great measure, the navigation of the St. 
Lawrence. Of the population, exceeding 25,000, the most numerous portion con- 
sists of Scottish high landers, and next to them of Acadians. The island was, in 
1820, politically united to Nova Scotia, and sends two members to the house of 
assembly. Louisburg, which the French carefully fortified, and made ond of the 
principal stations in their "New France," is now entirely deserted, and Sydney, a 
village of 1000 inhabitants, is all the capital which Cape Breton can boast St 
Peters, on the south coast, and Arechat, a small fishing-town on Isle Madame, are 
the other principal settlements. 

To the south-east of Nova Scotia lies Sable Island, a dangerous sand-bank in 
the track of vessels sailing between Europe and America. 



PRINCE EDWARD'S ISLAND. 

Prince Edward's, formerly St Johns, is a fine fertile island in the Gulf of St 
Lawrence, lying nearly parallel to the coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
It is 135 miles long and 34 broad. It is deeply indented by bays and inlets. The 
area is computed at 1,400,000 acres. The surface of the island is level, and va- 
ried only by gentle undulations. It has shorter winters than the neighbouring 
colonies, and is exempt from those extremes of beat and cold, and heavy fogs, 
which render them often so gloomy. The soil is good and well adapted to agri- 
culture, especially wheat and oats, of which it afibrds a surplus. In 1768, the 
island contained only 150 families. The population is now 35,000, chiefly Scotch 
highlanders, and some Acadians, and English from Yorkshire. Charlottetown is 
the capital, with a population of 3500. There are several other small towns in 
the island : some of them are Georgetown, Belfast, Dartmouth, Prince Town, &c. 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



This large island is 420 miles long and 300 broad, situated at the mouth of the 
Gulf of St Lawrence, and is tlje most eastern part of North America. The in- 
terior of Newfoundland has never been thoroughly explored. It presents a bold 
and rocky shore, abounding in harbours. The soil is mostly barren, and the tim- 
ber scanty and stunted. Some tracts, however, are supposed to be well fitted for 
pasturage. The climate is severe, and the country is firequently visited by dreary 
fogs and storms of sleet and snow. 

This island owes its importance to its cod-fisheries, which are the most valuable 
in the world. The fish are taken singly, with baited hooks, upon the banks, which 
are shallow places, probably formed by the deposites of sand brought down from 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



141 



the tropics by the gulf stream, which also bears down on its bosom countless mil- 
lions of the animal on which the fish feed. 

The Grand Bank of Newfoundland, situated to the eastward of the island, is 
the ^reatast submarine elevation Vnown. It is horn 500 to 600 miles in lengrth, 
and in some places near 200 in breadth. Some distance farther fh)m the Grand 
Bank, is the Outer Bank, or Flemish Cap, about 90 miles in length, by 50 wide ; 
and to the westward are the Green and Whale Banks. These are the great ren- 
dezvous of the codfish, and form the fishing-ground for some 2500 to 3000 vessels, 
and from 35,000 to 40,000 Americanli, English,, and French, chiefly, however, the 
first and last The banks are frequently enveloped in. dense fogs from April to 
December. , , 

So early was the value of the Newfoundland fisheries discovered, that in 1517, 
only twenty years after the first voyage, upwards of fifty vessels, of different na- 
tions, were found employed in it The British soon took the most active part, and 
formed colonies on the island. Their sovereignty was ackno.yrledgcd by the treaty 
of Utrecht which reserved, however, to the French, the right of fishing on the 
banks. This was confirmed in 1763, when the small islands of St Pierre and 
Miquelon were allowed to them to dry their fish. The Americans have the right 
to take fish at any three miles from the shore, and to dry them on any of the 
neighbouring coasts unoccupied by British settlers. The fishing season begins in 
April and ends in October : the business is lucrative, dangerous, and an admirable 
nurserv for our hardy and adventurous seamen, and furnishes one of the consider- 
able elements of our trade. Many English and French vessels are here in com- 
pany. Every part of the process, from taking the hungry animals from the water, 
and curing the-fish and delivering it in all psrts of the world, is specific, and' em- 
ploys its specific process. The English and French dry their fish on the islands. 
We bring great portions of ours, pickled, to our own ports, and dry them there, 
particularly at Marblehead, Gloucester, and Beverly. A great number of acres 
aroond those towns are covered with the flakes or scafl[()lds on which those fish 
are dried. A vessel with twelve men usually takes from 20,000 to 50,000 fish. 
The whole employment not only rears thousands of men to consider the sea their 
home, and storms their element, but many other thousands are employed in the 
business to which this gives birth ; and our share of the business, in good years, 
amounts to some millions of dollars. Nothing can be more unique than the modes 
of life of these men, whose abode is on the sea. They arc hale, healthy, honest 
intrepid, and of reckless cheerfulness of character. 

Newfoundland contains 80,000 inhabitants, almost entirely fishermen. St 
Johns, the principal place in the island, is little more than a large fishing station, 
the whole shore being lined with wharves and stages for landing and drying fii?h. 
It is defended by several forts, one of which. Fort Townsend, is the residence (»f j 
the governor. The houses are built mostly of wood. This construction exposed , 
the town to a series of dreadful conflagrations, in 1816, 1817, 1818, and 1887. , 
The stationary population of St Johns is estimated at 11,0(X), but varies according ; 
to the season of the year. 

The uninhabited island of Anticoeti, in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and the coast 
of Labrador, are dependencies on Newfoundland. Near its southern coast are the 
little islands of St Pierre and Miquelon, belonging to France, and inhabited by 
fishermen. 



In concluding onr brief account of the British possessions in North America, 
we may remark that there appears no disposition on the part of the parent country 
to neglect or abandon them. Great Britain expends large sums in constructing 
military works for their defence, and lends her aid to numerous plans of settle- 
ment and improvement 



143 UNITED STATES. 



UNITED STATES. 

TflE United States are the rooet interesting and important division of the 
western continent They are distinguished for the excellence of their govern- 
ment, the rapid increase of the population, and for the intelligence, industry, and 
enterprise of the inhabitanta They occupy the most valuable and productive 
portion of North America, and rank amongst the most powerful commercial and 
wealthy nations of the globe. 

The United States are situated between 24° 20' and 54° 40' N. latitude, and 
longitude 17° E., and 125° W. longitude, extending through 29 degrees of lati- 
tude and 58 degrees of loilgitude, and comprise a superficial area of upwards of 
2,300,000 square miles. Tlie frontier line has a length of 10,000 miles, of which 
about 3600 are sea-coast, and 1200 lake-coast. A line drawn across from tlie At- 
lantic to the Pacific, through the centre, is about 2500 miles in length. 

So vast a region of course includes a great Variety of surface, soil, and climate. 
It abounds in navigable rivers, and a large proportion of it is susceptible of culti- 
vation, and is of a quality calculated to repay the labour bestowed upon it, more 
than almost any other regioii of the same extent in the world : but a small portion 
of its surface is occupied by mountains, which, from their height or ruggedness, 
forbid alj attempts to render them productive in the means of subsistence to man. 
There are no great deserts, and few barrens; nothing like the vast sterile plains 
whioh exist in other parts of the world. The basins of the rivers are exceed- 
ingly productive: that of the Mississippi, including the Missoari, is undoubtedly 
the finest valley on the globe. It is abundantly watered by streams, which not 
only give fertility to their bbrders, but are ready to waft the gifts of the soil to the 
ocean, and bring back iv the inhabitants the products of all other climes. The 
soil returns an ample harvest for all that is planted in it, and the climate is favour- 
able to almost every production of the earth that can sustain life or increase its 
luxuries. 

Though lying within the temperate zone, the United States embrace a great 
variety of climate. In the northern parts, the winters are long and severe ; snow 
often falls to the depth of two or three feet, and the cold is so piercing as to 
oblige the inhabitants to make very diligent provision against it. Spring returns 
here in April, and in summer the heat is great. In the southern parts of the 
country, snow is seldom seen, ice is rarely formed in the rivers, and those fruits 
which shrink from a northern climate, and flourish only in warm regions, are 
scattered over tiie soil. In Georgia, the inhabitants may collect the figs which 
grow before the windows, and may load tlieir tables with oranges, lemons, and 
other exquisite fruits that grow in their gardens and groves, while in parts of 
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, even peaches will not flourish. Between 
these extremities, as in Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois, there is a re- 
gion adapted to t||^e wine-grape, which thrives best in places removed from both 
the torrid and frigid aones. 

The United States are intersected by two principal and two subordinate ranges 
of mountains, the Rocky and Alleghany, the Ozark and Green Mountains. The 
Rocky Mountain, or Chippewayan range, forms the great dividing ridge of North 
America, separating the waters which flow in opposite directions, towards the 
great oceans which bound the opposite sides of the continent. They are situated 
at a medium distance of about 600 miles from the Pacific; the highest rise above 
the line of perpetual congelation, being estimated at about 12,000 feet in height. 

The Alleghany, or Appalachian range, runs in a north-easterly direction from 
the northern part of Alabama to New-York, stretching along in uniform ridge.<s 
at the distance of from 250 to 80 miles from the sea^oast, and following its gene- 
ral direction. It occupies in breadth a space of from 60 to 120 miles, and sepa- 
rates the waters which run into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which flow into 
the Mississippi and its tributaries. The highest elevation in this range, and the 



UNITED STATES. 



143 



inost prominent in the Atlantic States, is Black Mountain, in the western part of 
North Carolina : it is 6476 feet in height 

The Green Mountains extend from Connecticut, through Massachusetts and 
Vermont, to Canada, dividing the Atlantic rivers from those of Lake Champlain 
and the St. Lawrence. Some of the peaks of this range attain considerable ele- 
vation. In New Hampshire and Maine, are found many considerable peaks, which 
are not connected with any systematic range, but are scattered in detached 
groups. The White Mountains, in New Hampshire, afe the most elevated in 
New England. Mount Katahdin, or Ktaadin, near the centre of the state of 
Maine, is the highest in that state. The view iVom its summit is fine and varied, 
and extends, over 80 or 100 miles. The other principal heights in Maine are 
Wassataquoik Mountain, Mount Abraham, Mount Bigelow, Speckled Mountain. 

The Ozark Mountains extend from Texas, through the western part of. Arkan- 
sas, into the lead-mine region of Missouri. Their general direction is nearly 
similar to that of the Alleghany range, and their altitude is supposed to be about 
2000 feet above the sea. 

The territory of the United States is washed by three seas, the Atlantic Ocean 
-on the east, the Gulf of Mexico on the south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west 
The principal bays and sounds on the Atlantic border, are Passamaquoddy Bay, 
which lies between the state of Maine and the British province of New Bruns- 
wick ; Massachusetts Bay, between Cape Ann and Cape Cod, on the coast of 
Massachusetts ; Long Island Sound, between Long Island and the coast of Con- 
necticut; Delaware Bay, between Cape May and Cape Henlopen, which sepa- 
rates New Jersey from Delaware ; Chesapeake Bay, which communicates with 
the ocean between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, and extends in a northern di- 
rection for 200 miles, through the states of Virginia and Maryland; and Albe- 
marle and Paiftplico Sounds, on the coast of North Carolina. In the Gulf of 
Mexico, the principal bays are Chatham *Bay, near th^ soathem extremity of the 
peninsula of Florida ; Appalachie Bay ; and Mobile Bay, in Alabama. In the 
Pacific, the Gulf of Georgia is the most important iniet on the western coast of 
the United States. It separates Qudra and Vancouver's Island from the main 
land, and is about 120 miles in length from north to south, and from 5 to 20 miles 
in width. 

The -great lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, not being altogether in the 
United States, have been described elsewhere. The boundary between the Bri- 
tish and American territories passes through their centre, allotting about an equal 
share of their vast waters to each nation. Lake Michigan is wholly within the 
territory of the United States. It is connected with Huron by the Strait of 
Michillimackinac, and is about 320 miles in length, and from 55 to 60 miles wide, 
with an area of 16,200 square miles. The country around the head of this lake 
is settling rapidly ; and the mildness of the climate, the excellence of the soil, 
and the probable speedy junction of its waters with those of tlie Mississippi, will 
shortly fill this portion of the west with population and wealth. By the St. Clair 
River, of 35 miles course, the waters of Huron rapidly descend to the St. Clair, a 
shallow lake about 90 miles in circuit Detroit River connects Lakes St. Clair and 
Erie. The other lakes of any magnitude in the United States are Champlain in 
New- York, Winnipiseogee in New Hampshire, and Moose Head in Maine. 

Lake Champlain separates the States of New York and Vermont, and is in 
extent 140 miles nearly north and south. It is connected with the Hudson river 
by the Champlain canal, and y/iih the St Lawrence river by the Sorelle, or Richer 
ii'oii Large and elegant steam-boats ply daily between Whitehall and St John's, 



lieu. 



Lower Canada, which toueh at the principal places, and numerous travellers are 
constantly passing and repassing this route during the season of navigation. 

Lake Winnipiseogee is one of the most picturesque sheets of water in New 
England. It is very irregular in form, and contains a number of islands, some of 
which are cultivated. The kke is about 22 miles long, and from 1 to 8 miles 
wide. 

Moose Head Lake is situated in the central parts of Maine. It is of an irre- 
gular form, about 38 miles in length, and from 2 to 12 v/ide. The main branch 



144 



UNITED STATEa 



of Kennebeck river flows from it Around it, at various distances, are situated 
8ome of the highest mountains in Maine. 

The Rivers which water the territory of the United States are namerous, and 
some of them among the most important in the world: No portion of the globe 
possesses greater facilities for inland navigation and trade, or is more generally 
mtersected with large and navigable streams. They may be divided into four 
great classes : Ist. The streams which rise on the east side of the Alleghany 
mountains, and flow into the Atlantic Ocean ; 5M. Those south of the Alleghany 
range, which discharge themselves into the Gulf of Mexico; Sd. The Mississippi 
and its wide tributaries, which drain the waters of the vast valley included be- 
tween the Rocky and Alleghany ranges ; and 4th. The rivers which, rising on the 
western declivity of the Roc% Mountains, direct their course to the Pacific 
Ocean. 

The Penobscot is the largest river that has its course wholly in the State of 
Maine. It joins the Penobscot Bay between the towns of Penobscot and Prospect. 
It is navigable for vessels of considerable burden to Bangor, where navigation and 
the tide terminate. Large quantities of timber are exported from the sea-ports 
on the river and bay. The course of this river is near 300 miles. 

Kennebeck River is, next to the Penobscot, the largest in Maine. It is the 
outlet of Moose Head lake, the most considerable in the State. It is navigable 
for vessels of 150 tons to Hallowelt, 40 miles from the sea. Its whole course is 
about 230 miles. 

Connecticut River, the most important stream in New England, rises in the 
highlands separating the United States from Canada, and flows into Long Island 
Sound, after a coarse of upwards of 400 miles. It is navigable to Hartford for 
large steam-boats, and vessels of 8 feet draught; also for small steam-boats to 
Wells river, in Vermont, more than 200 miles above Hartford. The head waters 
of this river are elevated 1600 feet above Long Island Sound. Its banks present 
to the eye every variety of scenery ; — magnificent mountains and hills, delightful 
valleys and meadows, unsurpassed in beauty and fertility, and many of the most 
beautiful towns and villages in New England. 

The Hudson River rises west of Lake Champlain in numerous branches, and 
pursuing nearly a straight southerly course of about 320 miles, unites with the 
Atlantic below the city of New York. This is one of the most important rivers 
in the United States. The navigation and commerce on its waters are very great, 
and annually increasing. By means of the Erie and Champlain canals, it is con- 
nected with Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence river. It is navigable for ships of 
large burden to Hudson city, and for the largest steam-boats to Albany and Troy. 

Delaw&re River rises in New York, and flowing south, separates Pennsylvania 
from New York and New Jersey, and falls into Delaware bay, after a course of 
about 310 miles, below New Castle. It is navigable for vessels of the greatest 
burden to Philadelphia, and for small crafl to Oie head of the tide at Trenton, 
above which city it is navigable 100 miles for boats of 8 or 9 tons. 

Susquehannah River, one of the largest in Pennsylvania, is formed by its north 
and west branches, which unite at Northumberland. Its north, or longest branch, 
rises in Otsego lake. New York, from whence to its mouth is about 460 miles. 

The Potomac River rises in two branches in the Alleghany Mountains, and 
forms, during its course to Chesapeake bay, the boundary between Virginia and 
Maryland. It is navigable for vessels of large burthen to Washington city. Its 
junction at Harper's Ferry with the Shenandoah, is regarded as a great curiosity. 
Its length is about 335 miles. 

James River pursues a course of upwards of 400 miles, and unites with the 
south part of Chesapeake Bay at Hampton Roads. It is navigable for sloops to 
Richmond, where the Great FViUs formerly presented an obstruction, but a canal 
has been made around them, and the river is now navigable for batteaux 2^30 
miles above the city. 

Savannah River separates Soutli Carolina from Georgia, and enters the Atlantic 
17 miles below Savannah, to which city it is navigable for vessels of large bur- 
den. Steam-boats ascend the river to Augusta falls. 



UNITED STATEa 145 



Appalaehioola, which discharges itself into the bay of the same name, in the 
Gulf of Mexico, is formed by the union of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. 
The former is navigated to Columbus by steam-'boats : on its bead-waters are 
numerous gold-mines. The Appalachicola and Chattahoochee united, are about 
425 miles in length. 

The Mobile River is formed by the junction of the Alabama and Tombeckbee 
rivers, 40 miles above MobQe. The head-waters of the Alabama rise in the gold- 
region of Georgia, not far from the sources of the Chattahoochee, and afler a south- 
west course of near 500 miles, forqi a junction with the Tombeckbee. Steam- 
boats ascend to Montgomery, a distance, by the meanders of the rivers, of near 
300 miles. 

The Mississippi is the largest river of North America, and one of the noblest 
in the world — watering a more fertile region, and having a larger course of unin- 
terrupted navigation, than any other known stream. Its course — taken in con- 
nexion with its mighty auxiliary, the Missouri — is estimated at 4490 miles in 
length. The space drained by its waters is supposed to exceed 1,300,000 square 
miles, being upwards of two-thirds of the whole territory of the United States, or 
about one twenty-eighth part of the terraqueous surface of the globe. In no por- 
tion of the world has the triumph of art over the obstacles of nature been so com- 
plete. The introduction of steam-navigation has been productive of immense 
advantages, and has been carried to a greater extent than on any other river. 
Mississippi proper rises west of Lake Superior, in a dreary and desolate region, 
amidst lakes and swamps, and, after pursuing a souU^-east course of about 600 
miles, reaches the falls of St Anthony, where it descends perpendicularly 16 feet, 
and where are 58 feet of rapids. Thence it flows a south-easterly, and then 
southerly direction; and after forming the boundary between Missouri^ Arkansas 
Territory, and Louisiana, on the west, and Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
Mississippi, on the east, discharges its waters, through many mouths, into the 
Gulf of Mexica It is nearly 3000 miles long, and is navigable for steam-boats to 
the falls of St Anthony. The following are the principal tributaries of the Mis- 
sissippi from the west : — The St Peter's, which joins it at Fort Snelling, is a 
stream of about 400 miles, flowing a south-east course. The Des Moines, a river 
of about 400 miles in length, enters the Mississippi about 130 miles above the 
Missouri. 

The Missouri enters the Mississippi river about 18 miles above St Louis, after 
a course of 3217 miles. Although it loses its name at its confluence with the 
latter, it is much the longer stream of the two ; but the Mississippi, having been 
first discovered and explored, has retained its name to the Gulf of Mexico. This 
error being now past remedy, the Missouri must be considered as a tributary of 
the MisdissipL It is formed of numerous branches, which rise among the Rocky 
Mountains, between the parallels of 42^ and 48° N. Latitude. The most remote 
are the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers. The only obstruction that occurs 
to its navigation is at the Great Falls, a distance of 2575 miles from the Missis- 
sippi. Here the river descends 362 feet in 18 miles : the descent is by four great 
pitches or cataracts, of 96, 19, 49, and 26 feet, respectively. The width of the 
river is about 350 yards, and the cataracts are considered to be, next to those of 
Niagara, the grandest in the world. Aboat 100 miles above, is the place called 
the Gates of the Rocky Mountains. This river was lately ascended by a steam- 
vessel 300 miles above the Yellow Stone, a 4i8tanee fiom the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi of 3460 miles. 

The largest tributaries of the Missouri are, the Yellow Stone, of 1100 miles in 
length, the Platte, or Shallow river, of 1600 miles course, and the Kanzas, of 
1200 miles in length. They all rise in the Rocky Mountains, and flow through 
a flat prairie country, inhabited by a widely scattered Indian population. 

The Arkansas is, after the Missouri, the most considerable tributary pf the Mis- 
sissippi from the west It rises in the Rocky Mountains, and its course is com- 
puted to be about 2000 miles. It enters the Mississippi river about 540 miles 
below the Missouri. Steam-boots can generally ascend thitj river to the mouth 

13 T 



146 



UNITED STATE 



of the Canadian, its largest tributary, and occasionally to Cantooment Gibson, 640 
miles from the Mississippi river. 

The Red River is the first tributary stream of any note which enters the Mis- 
sissippi, in ascending from its mouth. It has a course of about 1500 miles, and 
flows through immense prairies of a red soil. 

The principal tributaries of the Miasissqipi which flow into it from the east- 
ward are as follows : — 

Chippeway River, 200 miles in lengthf enters the Mississippi at the lower end 
of Lake Pepin. 

The Wisconsin River joins the Mississippi about 4 or 5 miles below the town 
of Prairie dn Chien. In part of its course it apprjmches so near the Fox River 
of Green Bay, as to leave a portage of only 1^ miles. It is one of the great natu- 
ral channels of communication between the lakes and the Mississippi. 

The Illinois River enters the Mississippi 18 miSbs above the Missouri, after a 
course of mt)re than 400 miles. It is near a quarter of a mile wide at its mouth, 
and has a remarkably smooth, gentle current - 

The Ohio River is the largest eastern tributary of the Mississippi. At its 
junction, and for 100 miles above, it is as lai^e as the parent stream. This river, 
from its commencement, affords the most delightful prospects. Tributaries of 
romantic and beautiful character come in almost at equal distances, as lateral 
canals. The Ohio is formed by the union of the Alleghany and Monongahela 
rivers at Pittsburg. It flows in a south-westerly direction for 945 miles, separa- 
ting the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, from Virginia and Kentucky, and 
falls into the Mississippi 193 miles below the Missouri. Its current is gentle, 
and is nowhere broken by any considerable falls, except at Louisville, in Ken- 
tucky, where the water descends 22^ feet in 2 miles. This obstruction is now 
obviated by the Louisville and Portland canal, which affords a passage to steam- 
boats of small draft, at all seasons, to the upper parts of the river at Pittsburg. 

The chief tributaries of the Ohio are the Wabash, a fine navigable river, which 
rises in the north-east part of Indiana. It is in length about 450 miles. 

The Cumberland River rises in the mountains, on the eastern boundary of 
Kentucky. At high water, it is navigable for boats almost to its source, and for 
steam-boats to Nashville at all seasons. 

Tennessee River is formed by the union of several large branches, which 
rising in the mountainous country in western Virginia and North Carolina, unite 
in one in the vicinity of Knoxville, enters the Ohio 46 miles above the Mississippi, 
and 12 below the Cumberland. Its entire course from the source of its longest 
branch, is 850 miles distant from the Ohio. It is navigable for steam-boats, in 
most stages of the water, to Florence, at the foot of the Muscle Shoals. This is 
the most important of all the tributaries of the Ohio. 

The Yazoo, the most southern of the principal eastern tributaries of the Mis- 
sissippi, has a course of 240 miles, and discharges its waters into the Mississippi 
about 12 miles above the Walnut Hills. 

The most considerable river on the Pacific side of the Rocky Mountaijis is the 
Columbia, or Oregon. Its head-waters interlock with the Arkansas, Rio del 
Norte, &c. : it is about 1400 miles in length, its principal branches are Lewises or 
Saptin river, 1000 miles in extent ; Clark's or Plat Head river, 700 miles long, 
M'Gillivray's, Okinagan, &c. Fort George or Astoria, Fort Vancouver, and 
others, on these waters, are trading establishments belongii^ to tlie British Hud- 
son's Boy C(Hnpany. Vessels of 300 tons may ascend^ the Columbia, 125 miles ; 
and large sloops may go up to the head of tide, 183 m'iles from the Ocean. 

Minerals abound in the United States in great variety and profusion. Iron is 
very generally diffused, and is very abnndant. Lead, limestone, and coal both of 
the anthracite and bituminous kind, abound in quantities supposed to be inex- 
haustible, especially of the former description. Gold has recently been found to 
a considerable amount in Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
and Tennessee. The most valuable mines are in North Carolina and Georfjia. 
It is diflicult to ascertain the amount of gold found in the United States ; but the 
v^lue of the metal sent to the Mint, from 1823 to 1836, was $4,377,500, pro- 



UNITED STATES. ' 



147 



bably not one half of the produce fibr that period, as lar^e amounts of it are sent 
to Europe uncoined. The lead-mines of Missouri, JUinois and Wisconsin, are 
said to be the richest in quality in the world ; and the quantity of that metal ex- 
tracted from the ore« within the last few years, has been so g^reat as to exclude 
almost entirely the foreign article from our markets. The annual produce of the 
Missouri mines is estimated at 9 miiiion, and of' the Illinois and Wisconsin, 8 mil- 
lion pounds. 

Salt jprin^ abound in many pcrts of tke Union, and large quantities are manu- 
ftictured In New York, Western Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Ohio, and 
Illinois : it is also mad% ftom sea-water in some parts of New England. The 
whole amount made is stated to be about 7 million bushels. 

The United States Term a federal republic. Each of the States is independent, 
and has the exclusive control of all concerns merely local; but the defence of the 
country, tlie regulation of commerce, and- all the general concerns of the confede- 
ra<jy, are committed, by the constitution, to a general government 

The legislative power is vested in a Congress, consisting of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 2 members from each State, 
chosen every two years, for s period of six years, so that one-third of the Senate 
is renewed biennially. The number ^f senators is at present 52. The members 
of the House of Representatives are chosen every two years, each State being 
entitled to a number proportionate to its population, in a ratio, in the States which 
do not admit of slavery, of one to every 47,700 inhabitants; and in the Slates 
where there are slaves, of one for every 47,700 of the free white population, and 
one for every 79,500 of the slaves. The number of representatives is no/v 240. 

The judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court, of one chief and six associate 
judges; of 33 District Courts, of ome judge each, except that six of the States 
are divided into two districts eajch; and sf J. Circuit Courts, composed of the judge 
of the district, and one of the judges of the Supreme Court 

The executive power is vested in a President, who, together with the Vice- 
President, is chosen for four years, by electors from all the States. The principal 
subordinate officers of the executive department are the Secretaries of State, of 
the Treasury, of War, and of the Navy, the Postmaster General, and the Attor- 
ney General. I'he President must be a native-born citizen, or have been a citizen 
at the adoption of the constitution, of 35 years of age, and have resided in the 
United States 14 years^ The present constitution of the United States was 
adopted in 1789, and has since been amended. It secures to the people the grand 
principles of freedom, liberty of conscience in matters of religion, liberty of the 
press, trial by jury, and the right of choosing and being chosen to office. 

The principal executive officers are the Secretaries of State, at War, and of 
the Navy, the Postmaster General, and the Attorney General. They are remova- 
bly at the will of the President, and, with the Vice-President, form the cabinet 
The Department of State was created in 1789. The Secretary conducts the ne- 
gotiations with foreign powers, and corresponds with the public ministers of the 
United States abroad, and with those of foreign states near the United States. He 
has the charge of the United States seal, preserves the originals of laws and 
treaties, and of the public correspondence growing out of the intercourse between 
the United States and foreign nations ; he grants passports to American citizens 
visiting foreign countries, has the control of the patent office, and preserves tlie 
evidence of copy-rights. There are attached to the Department of State a 
Diplomatic Bureau, a Consular Bureau, a Home Bureau, the Archives, and the 
Patent Office. 

The Treasury Department was created in 1789. The Secretary superintends 
the fiscal concerns of the government ; he is required to report to Congress annu- 
ally the state of the finances, and recommends such measures as he thinks proper 
for improving the condition of the revenue. The Treasury Department comprises 
the offices of the Secretary, two Controllers, five Auditors, the Register, the 
Treasurer, and the Solicitor of the Treasury. 

As there is at present no direct taxation by the general government, the revo- 



148 UNITED STATEa 



nue IB chiefly derived from duties on imports, the sales of pablic lands, bank-stock, 
pofitt-officee, lead-mines, &c. The revenue on imports is the most important. 

The receipts into the treasury of the United States during the year 1836 
amounted to 47,691,838 dollars ; those from duties, 22,523,151 ; those from lands, 
24,000,000, and the residue from miscellaneous sources. The expenditures for all 
objects during the year are estimated at 32,000,000 dollars. Balance in the trea- 
sury on the Ist January, 1837, 41,723,959 dollars, which, with the exception of 
5,000,000 dollars, are to be transferred to the several States, in accordance with 
the act regulating the deposites of the public money. The second great source 
of revenue is the national domain, or public lands, which consists of tracts of ter- 
ritory ceded to the general government by the several States ; of the lands in the 
territory of Louisiana, purchased from France ; and those in Florida, acquired by 
treaty from Spain. A vast portion of this land is occupied by the Indians, who 
are considered as proprietors of the soil, till the government extinguish their title 
by purchase. A General Land Office at Washington directs the sale of these 
territories. All the lands are surveyed before sale ; they are divided~into town- 
ships of six miles square, which are subdivided into sections of one mile square, 
containing each 640 acres, and sold in sections, half, quarter, and half-quarter sec- 
tions. The minimum price is fixed by law at a dollar and a quarter. All sales 
are made for cash. Salt-springs and lead-mines are reserved, but may be Bold by 
special orders from the President. One section of 640 acres is reserved in each 
township, as a fund for the perpetual support of schools. Five per cent on all 
sales of land are reserved, three-fifths of which are expended by Congress in 
making roads leading to the States in which the lands are situated, and two-fiflhs 
are expended by the States for the promotion of learning. In the year 1820, the 
sales of the public lands produced 1,167,225 dollars, which had increased in 18:34 
to 6,099,961, in 1836 exceeded 12,000,000, and in 1836 had increased to the as- 
tonishing sum of 24,000,000 dollars. The increase of population in the Western 
States, the extensive intrSffuction of steam-vessels on the rivers and lakes, and 
the increased facilities of intercourse and transportation by rail-roads and canals, 
have concurred with the extraordinary hv^fh nrice of cotton in producing this won- 
derful result The whole quantity of pubiiv. iands sold is 44,500,000 acres ; quan- 
titv granted for various purposes, 16,040,624 acres; unsold, within the limits of 
the States and Territories, at the end of 1835, 220,000,000 acres; beyond those 
limits, 750,000,000; whole quantity surveyed, 122,300,000: total cost of the lands, 
58,438,824 dollars; total receipts thus far, 64,029,496 dollars. 

The War Department was created in 1789 : to this department belong the di- 
rection and government of the army; the erection of fortifications; the execution 
of topographical surveys; and the direction of Indian Affairs. Attached to it are 
a Requisition Bureau, a Bounty-Land Bureau, a Pension office, an office of Indian 
Affiiirs, an Engineer office, a Topographical office, an Ordnance office, &c. 

The Army of the United States consists of 2 regiments of dragoons, 4 of artil- 
lery, and 7 of infantry, containing, at tlie commencement of 1837, an aggregate 
amount of 6283 men, including a corps of. Engineers, Topographical Engineers, 
and Ordnance department; the whole being under the command of a Major Gene- 
ral and two Brigadier Generals. The expenditure of the year 1836, for the mili- 
tary service, including fortifications, ordnance, Indian affairs, pensions, arming the 
militia, and internal improvements, was 20,322,083 dollars and 19 cents. 

The office of Secretary of the Navy was created in 1798 ; and there is a Board 
of Navy Commissionersi established in 1815, attached to the department. The 
navy, though on a small scale, acquired great reputation during the three years* 
war, when the American ships successfully encountered those of the mistress of 
the ocean. Much has since been done, both in enlarging the number of vessels, 
and extending and constructing suitable dock-yards ; but the naval force is not 
considered adequate to the exigencies of the country. It consists of 53 vessels, 
of which there are 13 ships of the line, 16 frigates, 2 barques, 1 steam frigate, 14 
sloops of war, 2 brigs, and 5 schooners. Of the above, there are on the stocks, 5 
ships of the line, 7 frigates, 2 barques, 1 steam frigate, and 1 schooner : total 16. 
In ordinary, 7 ships of the line, 4 frigates, and 5 sloops of war: total 16. In 



UNITED STATES. 149 



commission, 1 ship of the line, 5 frigates, 9 sloops of war, 2 brigs, and 4 schoon- 
ers ; total 21 : besides materials for 4 ships of the line, 8 frigates, and 6 sloops of 
war. The naval appropriation for the year 1837 was 5,167,290 dollars, and for 
the surveying and exploring expedition, 346,431 dollars. There are seven navy- 
yards belonging to the United States, viz. : at Portsmouth ; at Charlestown, in 
Boston HarU)ur; at Brooklyn, on Wallabout Bay, opposite New-York; at Phila- 
delphia; at Washington ; at Gosport, opposite Norfolk, Virginia; and at Pensa- 
cola, Florida. There are graving or dry-docks at Charlestown and Goeport, and 
I a third is constructing at Brooklyn. 

The General Post Office is under the superintendence of a Postmaster General, 
who has the appointment of the postmasters throughout the country, and the 
power of making contracts for carrying the mail. The post routes cover an ex- 
tent of 118,264 mile-s on which the mails are carried 27,578,620 miles a year. 
The number of post-offices is 11,100; the revenue of the department for the year 
1835 was 3,398,455 dollars; the expenditure, 2,755,623 dollars, 75 cents. 

The office of the Mint of the United States was established at Philadelphia in 
1792, and in 1835 an act was passed for establishing a branch in New Orleans, for 
the coinage of gold and silver, and branches at Charlotte, North Carolina, and 
Dahlonega, Georgia, for the coinage of gold ; the general direction being under 
the control of the Director of the Mint at Philadelphia. The coinage is executed 
by machines propelled by steam-power ; the value of the coinage during the year 
1835 was 5,668,667 dollars, comprising 2,186,175 dollars in gold coins, 3,444,003 
in silver, and 39,489 in copper, making 15,996,342 pieces of coin ; and in the year 
1836, from January 1st to November 1st, the coinage amounted to 6,496,440 dol- 
lars, of which the gold was 3,619,440, and silver 2,877,000 dollars. 

The chief agricultural occupations in the eastern states are grazing and the 
dairy. The middle states are principally devoted to the cultivation of wheat and 
Indian com; the southern to that of tobacco, cotton, sugar, and rice ; and the 
western to Indian com and wheat. Slave labour is cTiTefly employed in the south- 
ern and in some of the middle and western states. The cotton crop, in 1836, 
was estimated at 480 million pounds, of the value of 80 million dollars. Tobacco 
80,000 hogsheads, of the vahie of 6 million dollars ; of rice to the amount of 2^ 
million dollars ; and of sugar and molasses, of the former 100,000 hogsheads, and 
of the latter 63,000 hogsheads. The amount of wheat, rye, Indian corn, &c. 
raised in the country, it is impossible to estimate with any degree of certainty, 
but it no doubt amoants to several million barrels. 

The manufactures of the United States are considerable, and gradually increas- 
ing. The eastern and middle states, which are most abundantly supplied with 
water-power, are most extensively engaged in manufactures, especially of cotton, 
woollen, iron, glass, paper, wood, &c. In 1810, the value of manufactures in the 
United States was estimated at $172,762,676. The present annual value is com- 
puted at $350,000,000 ; and the capital invested in all the manufactories of the 
Union is estimated at more than 1000 million?. Most of the American manu- 
factures are designed for home consumption ; yet, in 1834, domestic manufactures 
wore exported to the amount of 16,567,590. 

The manufactures of cotton goods amount to about 50 millions of dollars ; 
woollen 70 millions; leather and its manufactures 45 millions; hats, caps, bon- 
nets, &c. 15 millions ; cabinet-ware 10 millions ; cables and cordage, paper and 
crlass-ware, each 6 millions; soap and candles nearly 12, and of manufactured 
tobacco and refined sugar, each about 2 millions of dollars. In 1810 there was 
above 20 million gallons of spirituous liquors distilled from com and rye, and up- 
wards of 5 million from molasses; and, although it is stated that, in 1835, 4000 
distilleries had been stopped by the progress of the temperance reform, vast quan- 
tities of these poisonous liquors are still prepared. 

The commerce of the United States is, next to that of Great Britain, the largest 
in the world. It consists principally in the exchange of agricultural produce, for 
the manufactures of other countries, and the productions of tropical climates. All 
vessels engaged in the foreign trade are registered by the collector of the district 
to which they belong, and those employed in the coasting trade and fislieries are 

13* 



50 



UNITED STATES. 



nrolled and licensed by the same officer. At the commencement of the year 
Si^ there was of registered tonnage 857,438, including 108,060 tons employed 
I the whale-fishery ; the enrolled and licensed tonnage amounted to 78*3,618, and 
shing-vessels 117,850; total 1,758,907; and, during the year 1834, there was 
jilt in the United States, registered tonnage 52,622, and of enrolled tonnage 
3,707 ; total 118,330 : the number of vessels built amounted to 957, including 
9 steam-boats. The number of vessels and tonnage entering the ports of the 
nited States, during the year 1835, was 11,292 vessels, amounting to 1,993,963 
)ns ; of which 7023 vessels, and 1,352,653 tons were American, and 4269 ves- 
:1s, of 641,310 tons, foreign: cleared, during the same period, 11,515 vessels, of 
,031,341 tons; of which 7285 vessels, and 1,400,517 tons, were American, and 
230 vessels, of 630,824 tons, were foreign. The value of the imports of the 
ear 1836, ending on the 30th of September, is estimated at 173,540,000 dollars; 
lowing an increase, compared with the preceding year, of 23,644,258 dollars, 
'he exports, during the same period, are estimated at 121,789,000 dollars ; of 
hich 101,105,000 dollars were domestic products, and the residue foreign ; exhi- 
iting an aggregate increase, compared with the preceding year, of 35,423 dol- 
irs, and an amount exceeding the average of the last three years by 5,829,150 
ullars. 

The most important article of export is cotton ; of which there were sent to 
lurope, in 1835, of the value of 64,961,302 dollars ; of tobacco there was ex- 
orted 8,250,577 dollars ; of flour, wheat, corn, rye-meal, rice, &c. 8,383,977 dol- 
irs; of cod-fish and the produce of the fisheries, 2,174,524 dollars; of staves, 
lingles, naval stores, oak bark, &,c. 4,542,091 dollars; of beef, pork, horses, and 
uiles, and other agricultural products, 2,901,896 dollars ; of cotton goods, 2,858,681 
ollars ; the other principal articles of export are skins and furs, flax-seed, soap 
nd candles, manufactures of leather, of iron, of household furniture, &c. &c. 

Most of the fisheries are carried on fi'om the New England states, and in New 
Ingland ships. The whale-fishery is prosecuted in the Atlantic ocean, chiefly 
3uth of the line, for the right or black whale, and in the Southern, Indian, and 
'acific oceans, for the spermaceti whale. In the year 1835, 108,060 tons of ship- 
ing were employed in this business ; and in the course of the year 1835, sper- 
laceti and whale oil was brought home, of the value of about 6,500,000 dollars, 
leal oil and fiirs are also obtained in the Antarctic seas by these adventurous sea- 
len. The fishery is carried on chiefly from the ports of Nantucket and New 
Bedford, and also, but on a less scale, from New London, Sag Harbour, Warren, 
Bristol, Hudson, &c. About 10,000 men are engaged in it, and the seamen are 
aid, not by fixed wages, but by a certain share in the profits of the voyage, 
^hose in the Pacific and Soutliern oceans are generally absent from two to three 
ears at a time. 

The cod-fishery is pursued on the banks and coasts of Newfoundland, and on 
fie Labrador coasts. It employs upwards of 60,000 tons of small craft, some of 
r'hich make several trips a year ; those on the coast-fisheries generally remain 
)nger. The produce of this fishery may be estimated * at from 1,200,000 to 
,500,000 dollars a year. The mackerel fishery employs about 50,000 tons of 
hipping, and produces about 2,000,000 dollars annually. 

No part of the world presents such an extensive river cdmmerce. Steam ves- 
els, a grand improvement, first introduced in America, ply on all the principal 
treams, and of upwards of 100,000 tons of this species of crafl belonging to the 
fnited States in 1834, almost the whole was on the interior waters. On the Mis- 
Issippi and its tributaries alone, an extent of 8000 miles was traversed by 230 
team-boats. Neither the States nor individuals have been slow in improving and 
xtending these natural advantages ; and the spirit with which they have under- 
iken, and the perseverance they have shown in executing the most magnificent 
lans, have shed a lustre on tbe American name. The great land-locked bays of 
tie coast have been connected by a chain of canals, affording a safe internal 
^ater-route from Narragansett Bay to Albemarle Sound. The eastern and west- 
rn waters have been, united by several channels, which either turn tbe Allegha- 
ies or surmount their summits. Tbe waters of the lakes and the Mississippi 



UNITED STATES. 



151 



have been connected at various points, and the obstacles in the navigation of the 
most important rivers have been overcome by removing the bars or ledges which 
obstructed their channels, or by side-cuts, locks, and dama The whole length of 
this artificial navigation is not less than 3500 miles; all of which, with one or 
two trifling exceptions, has been executed in the short space of 20 years. These 
great works have already given fresh life to manufactures, and encouraged the 
establishment of new ones ; invigorated, and in many places created, internal 
trade ; promoted agriculture, which requires a cheap and easy transportation for 
the bulky articles which it consumes and produces; and developed, in an aston- 
ishing degree, the mining industry of the country. 

The Americans have equally surpassed all other people in the number and 
extent of their rail-roads, having, in less than ten years, constructed nearly 1500 
miles of these artificial levels, over which carriages are propelled by locomotive 
steam-engines at the rate of from 20 to 30 miles an hour. Although this contri- 
vance is less adapted than canals to the conveyance of bulky articles, yet it pos- 
sesses some advantages over that mode of transportation, such as tliat oi not being 
interrupted by ice, and of being suited to certain localities in which artificial 
water-communication would be impracticable. 

To the State Governments is committed that branch of legislation which relates 
to the regulation of local concerns. These bodies make and alter the laws which 
regard property and private rights, appoint judges and civil officers, impose taxes 
for State purposes, and exercise all other rights and powers not vested in the Fede- 
ral Government by positive enactment They are, in their composition, very 
similar to the Federal Government. The legislature consists always of two 
branches, both of which are returned by the same electors; and these electors 
may be said to comprise the whole adult white population, the usual qualifications 
being citizenship, with one or two years' residence, and payment of taxes. In 
North Carolina, representatives are chosen by the whole resident free citizens who 
pay taxes, but senators only by fireeholders; in New Jersey and Virginia, the right 
of sufirage for both houses is limited to persons holding a small amount of landed 
property ; in Maryland the senators are chosen by delegates named for the pur- 
pose by the people. 

In all the States, the period for which the representatives serve is either one or 
two years. The elections are biennial in Delaware, South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Louisiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, and annual in the other States. 

The shortest period for which the senators serve, in any State, is one year, and 
the longest five. In Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Georgia, the senators hold their office 
for one year only; in Ohio, Tennessee, and Michigan, fbr two years; in Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, and Indiana, for three years ; in New York, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Virginia, South Carolina, Kentucky, Louisiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Ar- 
kansaSi for four years; and in Maryland, for five years. Except in Maryland, 
when the Senate of any State serves for more than one year, it is renewed by 
parts or divisions, one-third of the members going out annually. when they serve 
for three years, and one-fourth when they serve for four. In some cases, how- 
ever, when the senaton serve for four years, the renewal is by halves every two 
years. 

The United States are more distinguished for the general diffiision of know- 
ledge, than for eminence in literature or science. The means of common educa- 
tion are widely extended, and there are numerous seminaries of learning through- 
out the country, though there are no literary establishments on so large a scale as 
many in Europe. As a general government, the United States have done but little 
for the interests of public instruction, except that they reserve for this purpose 
one section in every township of their new lands, besides other reservations foi 
colleges. This highly important subject has, perhaps, been better attended to, by 
being left |o the individual States and to private citizens. The first settlers of 
New England paid a very laudable attention to this important subject As early 
as 1628, a law was passed for the instruction of every child in the cdlonies ; and 



152 UNITED STATES. 



in 1647, a echool was established by law in every town or neighbourhood of 50 
families, and a school for the higher branches, for every 100 families. 

Tlie number of cofleges in the United States is 68; of medical schools 23; of 
law scliools 9; of theological seminaries 37. The country does not yet, however, 
furnish th« scholar with those facilities for a finished learned education which are 
afforded' by the scientific and literary establishments of Europe, and the want of 
good libraries is sensibly felt by every one who has attempted much learned re- 
search. The largest collection of books in the United States does not contain 
50,000 volumes, and there are few which even approach that number. The Phi- 
ladelphia Library has 42,000 volumes; the Cambridge University Library about 
the same number ; the Boston Athenieum 30,000 ; the New- York Society Library 
22,000 ; and the Library of Congress 20,000. 

Most of the States of the Union have made some legislative provision for com- 
mon school instruction, and in some States (especially in Massachusetts, Connec- 
ticut, New- York, and Virginia), large funds are set apart for this purpose. Pri- 
vate schools and academies of the higher order are quite numerous, especially in 
New England ; so that few grow up without enjoying the means of elementary 
instruction, or, if they desire it, of a more extended liberal education. In the 
Sabbath-schools of the United States, which are doing much for the intellectual 
as well as moral improvement of the young, about 6^,000 children are weekly 
instructed by more than 80,000 teachers. 

There is no established church in the United States, religion being lefl to the 
voluntary choice of the people. No sect is favoured by the laws beyond another ; 
it being an essential principle in the national and state governments, that legisla- 
tion may of right interfere in the concerns of public worship only so far as to pro- 
tect every individual in the unmolested exercise of that of his choice. Nor is any 
legislative provision made for the support of religion, except that, in Massachu- 
setts), the legislature is enjoined to require, and in New Hampshire is empowered 
to authorize, the several towns and parishes to make adequate provision, at their 
own expense, for the support of Protestant ministers. The same was the case in 
Connecticut, until 18IS, when it was abolished by the new constitution. But in 
all the other States, the support of religion is left entirely to the voluntary zeal 
of its professors. 

The numbers of established churches, or congregations, are estimated at over 
15,000, and the ministers at about 12,000. The Presbyterians, including Congre- 
gaiionalists, are the most numerous denomination. The Baptists are estimated as 
second in numerical amount; and the Methodists, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, 
Universalists, Lutherans, Christians, German Reformed, and Friends or Quakers, 
probably rank in point of numbers in the order in which they are mentioned. 
Other sects, respectable in amount of numbers, are Unitarians, Associate and 
otiier Methodists, Freewill Baptists, Dutch Reformed Menonites, Associate and 
Cumberland Presbyterians, Tunkers, and many others. In fact, almost all the 
sects of Christianity are represented in our country. 

There are no early onumerations of the population on which much reliance can 
be placed ; but, in 175^. the number was estimated at 1,051,000. A regular de- 
cennial census, taken since 1790, gave, at that period, 3,029,827; in 1800, 
5,805,925; in 1810, 7,2:3l),814; in 1820, 9,638,131. It is most interesting to con- 
8 der, as the immensity of unoccupied land leaves full scope for this power of mul- 
tiplication, how vast the future numbers may be with which this region will be 
[.peopled, and which will render it much the greatest state that ever existed in an- 
cient or modern times. It is calculated, upon good grounds, that in a century it 
will contain 160,000,000; and still, being only half as populous as Britain or 
France, leave ample scope for future increase. The Americans, should they con- 
tinue united, would then become the greatest nation in the world ; and the most 
powerful states of Europe would rank as secondary to them. 

The population, exclu*^ive of the aboriiinal races within the United States' 
limits whose numbers are not comprised in the above statements, consists of three 
classes : whites, free coloured persons, and slaves, whose relative proportions at 
five different periods are here given : 



UNITED STATES. 



153 



Whites. Slaves. Free coloured. 

1790 3,172,464 697,897 59,465 

1800 4,304,489 893,041 108,395 

1810 5,862,004 1,191,364 186,446 

1820 7,861,710 1,538,038 232,524 

1830 10,526,248 2,009,043 319,599 

In regard to these numbers it is to be observed that ia the census of 1790, are 
not included the inhabitants of the Mississippi and Northwest Territories, esti- 
mated at about 12,000; and that between 1800 and 1810, I^uisiana was acquired 
with about 50,000 inhabitants, and 39,000 Africans were brought into the country. 
The following statement shows the relative rate of increase of the whole popula- 
tion, and of each of the three classes, in the two periods from 1810 to 1820, and 
from 1820 to 1830. 

1810— 182t). 1820—1830. 

Increase of whole population 33.3 per cent 33.4 per cent 

Whiles 34 33.9 

Slaves 28.6 30.6 

Free Blacks 24.8 37.4 

Blacks 28.5 31.5 



Maine. ... 
N. Hampshire 
Wrniont .... 
Mas.-achus'ts 
Rh«^e Island. 
Connecticut 
New York.. 
.VfW Jersey. 
Pfnii^nivania 
iviaware. ... 
Mar\land.. 
Virginia. .. 
N. Carolina 
y. Carolina . . 

Goor^'ia 

Alabama .... 
Mi.«<.<i-<8ippi.. . 
Louisiana .. . 
T.'nnesBee. . . 
Kentucky.... 

Ohio 

Infliana 

Illinois 

Misiiouri 

D. nfCulum... 
Florida Ter... 
MM.hifran .... 
Arkansas. .. . 



Toul. 



96,540 
141,899 

85,416 
378,717 

69,110 
338,141 
M0.120 
184,139 
4.34.373 

59.096 
319,72H 
748,308 
393.751 
249.0rJ 

82,548 



158 
17 



35,791 
73,077 



9S2 

2,759 

21,324 

11,423 

3,737 

8,887 

103,036 

2!I3,427 

100,572 

107.004 

29,264 



Total. 



3.417 
11,830 



151,719 
183,702 
154.4li5 
423,245 

6:M2^ 
251,002) 
586,7H6 
211,949' 
602,365 

64,273 
341,54^ 
880,200 
478,10.3, 
345,531 
162,101 



8,850 3,489 



105,602 

220,955 

45,31^5 

4,875 



381 

JI51 
20,343 
12,42^» 

I,70ti 
6.1,53 

M5.7Mi 

I4G,]-)1 
59,404 



13.584 
40,34:1 



14,093 3,244 



Tptal. 

228.705 
214,3(0 
217,713 
472,040 

77.031 
262,042 
95'\049 
24n,5,'>5 
810,0:»1 

72,n74 
380.54r. 
974,R22 
555.500 
41.5,115 
252,433 

40,352 
76,.556 
261,727 
40().511 
230.71-0 
24,520 

20.8!.'! 
24,023 



4.711 



182a 



Total. I SU\«. 



103 
310 

1.5,017,1 

10.851' 

7«.5l 

4,177 

iii..5<y2! 

3i'2.518l 

168.824| 

lon.u^'S 

105,218 

17,088 

34,660 
44,5:15 
80,561 

'■"237 

168 

3,011 

5,395 



24 



Totals. . . 3,929,827|679,897 5.305,925 Bt^,041 7,239,814,1.191.364 9,638.131 il.5:P.03?^ 12.866,020 2,00n,ai3 



298,.^'^5 
244,161 
235,7(34 
523,287i 
R3,059, 
275,202j 
.372,812^ 
277.575! 
l.04'.>,458 
72.749 
407..?50' 
,065.37)1 
6.38.829 
502.741 
340,987 
127,POI 
75.448 
153.407 
422.813 
50^1,317 
581,434 
147,178 
55,211 
66,586 
33.03 



lotal. 



8,896 
14,273 



48 

97 

10.088 

7.557 

211 

4,50) 

107..Tti8i 

425.153 

205.017 

258,475 

149.C.5H 

41,8 

32.814 

69,004 

80,10^ 

126.732 

"iio 

917 
10,222 
6,3' 



1,617 



399,955 

269,328 

280,(152 

610,4(:8 

97199 

297,6(15 

1,918,(:08 

320.823 

1,348,2.^3 

76,748 

447,040 

1.211,405 

737,5*87 

581,185 

516,823 

309,527 

136,( 21 

215,739 

681,904 

687.917 

937,903 

343,a3l| 

157,455, 

140.445! 

39.834 

34.7J0 

36.(^29' 

30,388| 



14 

25 

76 

2,254 

403 

3,212 

102.9'J4 

4G9.757 

245,( 01 

315.401 

217.531 

117,549 

G5.C59 

109,588 

141,603 

1U5,213 



25,081 
6,119 I 
15.501 

4,576 



AgeSf ^c, of the different Classes of the Population, 



FREE WHITE POPULATION. 





Milei. 


Female.. 


Undpf Sycaraofage. 
Of 5 10 10 


972,980 

782,075 

669,734 

573,196 

956.487 

592.5:« 

367,840 

229.284 

135,082 

57,772 

15,«W 

2,041 

301 


921,934 

750.07J 

638.85'1 

5'.M5.254 

918,411 

55.5,531 

35<i.04r 

223..504 

131,:M)7 

58,3,3(5 

17,434 

2,523 

238 


10 to 15 


15 10 20 


20 to 30 


30 to 40 


40 to 50..'. 

.50 to 60 


flO to 70. « • 


70 to 80 


90 VO 90 


90 to 100 


Upward! of 100 


Totals 


5,355.133 


5,171.115 



COU)URED I'OFULATION, 



irnderlO 

Of 10 to 34.... 

24 to 36... 

36 to 55.... 

55 to 100. ... 
Upwards of 100 . 



Totals. 



Free Mtlet. Free Females. 5fa]e SUtcl Female State*. 



48.675 
43.079 
27,650 
22,271 
11,503 
269 



47,329 
48.138 
32,541 
24,327 
13,4-25 
386 



153,453 1 166,146 



353.498 
312.567 
185,585 
118.8^0 
41.545 
748 



1,012,P23 




996,220 



Whitca. 
Blacks . . 



ToUls. 



3,974 . 
1,470 

5,444 . 



Deaf uidDuinb. 
.... 5,363 
743 



6,106 



54 



UNITED STATES. 



The whole number of Aborigines existlBff at present within the territorial 
urisdiction of the United States, is estimated at 9RB3,464, of whom about 60,000 
esidc west of the Rocky Mountains, and the residue east of that region. Of the 
ndians residing east of the Rocky ^Mountains, 57,433 are east of the Mississippi 
iver, of whom 48,918 are ynder treaty stipulations to remove westward of that 
tream, 45,690. have removed fnxn the east to the west side of the Mississippi, 
.nd are settled in the Western gc Indian territory, assigned to them by^he 
government of the United States ; ahd 143,750 are indigenous Indians, nowise 
inder the control of our government: of these, the principal are the Sioux, Paw- 
lee.s Comanches, Mandans, Minatarees, Blackfeet, and Assiniboines. The most 
luniane exertions have constantly been in operation, on the part of the general 
^ovenimcnt, to preserve the race from extinction, by severe provisions to prevent 
heir obtaining ardent spirits, and by unwearied efforts to train them to the arts 
:nd urrriculture, and to impart to them the blessings of education and Christianity. 
Jnder the system adopted by the government, agents and sub-agents, interpreters 
.nd mechanics, are employed among the different Indian tribes, to carry these 
lurposes into effect ; and the President is authorized to cause the stores of the 
icensed traders to be searched, and if ardent spirits arc found among the articles 
or sale, the whole goods are forfeited to the governmeqt. 

The whole numl^r of Indian schools established among them, partly by chari- 
able associations of the different religious denominations, and partly by pecuniary 
.id from the government, is 51. The sum of 7840 dollars was allowed in 1836, 
ly the government, for the maintenance of these schools. The whole number 
•f Indian children receiving instruction in 1836, was 1381, including 156 scholars 
t the Choctaw Academy, in Kentucky, the expense of whose education is de- 
lved from funds set apart by the Indians themselves, under treaty stipulations for 
his specific object. In the whole number of scholars are included two students 
if law at the Choctaw Academy, also one at Buffalo, and one in Vermont 

The territory of the confederacy is at present divided into twenty-six States, 
wo Territories, and one Federal District, which contains the seat of government, 
rhi.^ duos not include the extensive tract assigned to the Indians, called the West- 
rn Territory, the region west of the Misfsouri and north of the Platte, and that 
v-est of the Rocky Mountains, in which there is no white population, and which 
las received no political organization or official name. The States are divided 
br municipal purposes into small sections, styled counties, except in South 
/arolina, where they are called districts, and in Louisiana, where they are called 
tarishes. In the States of New England, in New York, Pennsylvania, New 
ersey, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, the counties are subdivided into townships, 
flen called towns, and in Delaware into hundreds. 



THE EASTERN, OR NEW ENGLAND STATES. 

New England comprises the six States situated east of the Hudson, viz., 
riaine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island^ and Connecticut. 
!^hc inhabitants are almost exclusively of unmixed English origin, and though 
ever united as a political whole, they have at different periods been connected 
)T their common interests. From the earliest settlement of their country, they 
ave enjoyed peculiar advantages for literary and religious instruction, and, 
rained to habits of industry, economy, and enterprise, by the circumstances of 
heir peculiar situation, as well as by the dangers of prolonged wars, they pre- 
en t traits of character which are considered as remarkable abroad as they are 
omrnon at home. 

The surface of the country is infinitely varied. In the interior, it is mountain- 
us, with fertile valleys between. The land along the sea-shore presents in gene- 
il an irregular surface, consisting of hills and ridges, with flats of moderate ex- 
3nt. The inland portions towards the mountains present an almost constant sue- 



UNITED STATES. 155 



cession of short hills and narrow valleysL There are no extensive plains through- 
out the whole of New England. Much, of the soil is good, yet in general it re- 
quires diligent cultivation, and compels tlie farmer to use great industry to pro- 
cure tolerable crops; and although'lt well repays the labour of the husbandman, 
it is on the whole less fruitful than many other parts 0f the United States. 

Most of the New England States are Iffrgely engaged in manufactures. The 
different establishments of various kinda are too numefous to specify. The cotton 
factories, in particular, employ a vast number of hands and a great amount of 
capital. A proof of the result of these great establishments may be found in the 
fact that twenty-five years ago the chief cottons of the United States were im- 
ported from India. New England now senda her manufactured cottons there, and 
finds the trade profitable. Since the manufacturing system has prevailed, this 
part of the Union has rapidly increased in population and businesa 

The New Englanders are extensively engaged in the Bank and whale fisheries. 
This pursuit employs many thousands ef hands, furnishes one of the most impor- 
tant items in this section of the United States, and trains vast numbers of the most 
experienced and intrepid laariners in the world. 

An active commerce is carried on from the ports of New England with all 
parts of the world ; their ships spread their sails in every sea, and her lumber 
manufactures and the produce of her fisheries are extensively exported.. Almost 
every village carries on some handicraft, and the farmer often employs the long 
winter evenings in some gainful task. Thus are produced many little objects 
which although in appearance of small value, yet in the aggregate constitute a 
source of considerable wealth to the community, and are produced to such an ex- 
tent as almost to rival in value the products of the large manafacturing establish- 
ments. 

From the first settlement of the country, the inhabitants of New England have 
been a religious people. The entire freedom of opinion enjoyed by them has led 
to a diversity of religious denominations. In almost every town and village are 
several places of public worship belonging to the dififerent sects common in the 
country, among which are Congregationalists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Methodists, 
Unitarians, &c. It is disreputable for a man to have no religious belief, and there 
are few who do not give their support to some one mode of religious worship. 
The sabbath is strictly observed, and the people generally attend public worship 
twice during the day. 

Education is more universal here than in any part of the world. It is exceed- 
ingly hard to find persons of mature age who have not been instructed in the 
common branches of school learning. Institutions of learning and education were 
established at an early period by the first settlers of New England, some of which 
at the present day are the most respectable and efficient in the Union. A large 
part of the distinguished men of the United States have been educated at Har- 
vard and Yale colleges, and though there are many similar institutions in other 
States, still many students from the south and west are annually taught in the 
colleges of New England. 

The population of New England has been gradually increasing. In 1700 it 
was about 120,000, and in 1755 was estimated at 345,000, not including the troops 
at that time in the provinces. Their amount in 1820 was 1,650,854 ; in 1830, 
1,954,609. and is now probably above 2,d0OJ00O souls. 



STATE OP MAINE. 

Maine is the most northern and eastern of the United States. Previous to the 
year 1820, it formed a part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, at which 
period it was received into the Union as an independent State. Maine is in length 
from north to south about 216 miles, and from east to west 162; the area is diflTer- 
ently estimated at from 32,000 to a5,000 square miles. On the sea-coast, the 
country is generally level ; at some distance in the interior, hilly ; and in the cen- 
tral parts of the State are many mountains of considerable elevation. 



156 UNITED STATES. 



The principal rivers are the St Johns, with its branches, the Aliagash, Wal- 
loostook, and the Aroostcwk ; with the Penobscot, Kennebeck, Androscoggin, Saco, 
Pleasant, Damariscotta, and Union rivers. 

The sea-coast of Maine is remarkably indented with bays and inlets, which 
afford great facilities for navigation and commerce. The principal are Casco, Pe- 
nobscot, Frenchman's, Englishman's, Machias, and Passamaquoddy bays. 

The lakes are so numerous, that it is estimated one-sixth of the surface of the 
State consists of water, and indeed they form one of the characteristic features 
of the country. Some of them are remarkable for their picturesque beauties, and 
many of them will no doubt be useful mediums of communication when their 
vicinity is more populous. The most noted are Mooeebead, Umbagog, Sebag^o, 
the Schoodic Lakes, and Lake Chesuncook. 

The soil on the coast is various, and of but moderate fertility : in the interior, 
most of the land is more productive, and some of it, especially on the Kennebeck 
and Penobscot rivers, is fertile, and well adapted to agriculture and grazing. One 
of the most important productions of this State is white-pine timber, which is 
found chiefly on the Upper Kennebeck and Penobscot rivers, and also on the 
Allagash. As there is no other tract of country yielding this lumber to any con- 
siderable extent in the Atlantic States, the lands producing it have lately much 
advanced in price. 

The value of the lumber cut and sawed annually is estimated at $10,000,000 ; 
the yearly amount of the wool grown, $2,000,000 ; and of lime manufactured in 
the State, $1,000,000. The total shipping belonging to the State amounts to 
225,329 tons, and about 50,000 tons are annually built The value of imports in 
the year 1635 was $883,389; of exports, $1,059,367, of which all but $14,416 
was of domestic produce. 

The constitution makes it the duty of the legislature to require the several 
towns to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the support of public 
schools, and to encourage and suitably endow academies, colleges, and seminaries 
of learning. In pursuance of this provision, each town is required by law to raise 
annually a sum equal to forty cents for each inhabitant, which is distributed amon^ 
the town schools in the ratio of the number of scholars in each. Further grants 
are also made by the State in aid of their support. 

There are in the State 30 academies, a Baptist college at Waterville, a Con- 
gregationalist theological seminary in Bangor, a Wesleyan theological seminary 
at Readfield, and Bowdoin College, with a medical school, at Brunswick. The 
number of pupils in the common schools is about 15,000. The principal religious 
denominations are Baptists, Congregational ists, and Methodists; there are also 
Friends, Universalists, Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, &c. 

All of the towns are in the southern part of the State, in which, indeed, nearly 
the whole of the population is concentrated. There are some settlements on the 
St Johns, in the northern part, which is, however, at present under British juris- 
diction, and through which there is a road leading from Frederickton, in New 
Brunswick, to the River St Lawrence. The central part is almost wholly unin- 
habited, and covered with primitive forests, which are visited only by hunters and 
lumberers. A rail-road from the coast-section of this State to Quebec has been 
proposed. The most favourable route has been ascertained to be from Belfast ; 
distance 277 miles, cost 5,000,000 dollars. Maine is divided into 10 counties. 
POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1765 20,788 increase. 

1790 96,540 From 1765 to 1790 75,752 

1800 151,719 1790 to 1800 55,179 

1810 228,705 1800 to 1810 76,986 

1820 298,335 1810 to 1820 69,630 

1830 399,455 1820 to 1830 101,120 

Of the above population of 1890, were, white males, 200,687 ; white females, 
197,591. Of which, 153 are deaf and dumb ; 154 are blind ; and foreigners, not 
naturalized, 3526. Of free coloured persons, there are, males, 600; females, 571 : 
coloured deaf and dumb, 16 ; blind, 1. 



UNITED STATES. 157 



The city of Portland is the largest and most important place in the State. It 
is beautifuUjraituated on Casco Bay, is well laid out and handsomely built, and 
has a safe and capacious harbour, which is defended by two forts. Upwards of 
40,000 tons of shipping belong to the port, and the duties collected exceed 
$180,000 a year. Here are six bairics, sixteen churches, a court-house, theatre, 
an atheneum, with a public library ; and the population, which in 1830 was 12,601, 
is now believed to exceed 16,000. The city of Bangor, the most important place 
on the Penobscot, has trebled its population since 1830 : it is at present about 
8000. From 300 millions to 400 million feet of lumber, are said to be annually 
exported from this place. 

Augusta, the capital of the State, occupies both sides of the Kennebeck river, 
50 miles from its mouth : it contains a handsome State-House of granite, and an 
United States Arsenal. Below Augusta, are Hallowel, and Gardiner, both flourish- 
ing towns ; and at the head of ship navigation, and about 15 miles from the sea 
is Bath, noted for its ship-building. From Thomaston is exported large quantities 
of lime, marble and granite. Some of the other principal towns in Maine, are 
Eastport, Machias, Calais, Orono, Beliisist, Brunswick, Saco, and York. 



STATE OP NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

This State is bounded on the north by Lower Canada ; on the east, by Maine 
and the Atlantic Ocean ; south by Massachusetts ; and west by Vermont. It is 
in length, from north to south, about 160 miles ; and from east to west, 70 is 
about the average breadth. It is, in area, 8,500 square miles. The sea-coast of 
this State, from Piscataqua Harbor to the south boundary, is but 18 miles in 
extent. 

The country on the coast islev^l : in the interior, the surface is greatly diversi- 
fied by hills and valleys, and contains several mountains of considerable height ; 
among which are the White Mountains, the most elevated of any in the New 
Engluid States. The other considerable elevations are, Moosehillock, Monad- 
nock, Kearsarge, Sunapee, Ossipee, &c. 

The White Mountains are distinguished by the names of Washington, Frank- 
lin, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, and Pleasant. Mount Washington is 
6,428 feet in height. They are covered with snow ten months in the year, and 
are often seen from a great distance at sea, and frequently before any intermediate 
land, although they are at least 65 miles in the nearest direction from the coast. 
The wild and sublime character of their scenery, causes them to be annually 
visited by numerous travellers. The ascent to their summits is attended with 
considerable fatigue, but has been surmounted in a few instances by ladies. The 
view is rendered uncommonly grand and picturesque, by the magnitude of the 
elevation, the extent and variety of the surrounding scenery, and above all, by 
the huge and desolate piles of rocks extending to a great distance in every direc- 
tion. In the western pass of these mountains, there is a remarkable gap called 
the Notch, which is esteemed one of the grandest natural curiosities in die United 
States. To an admirer of the wonders of nature, the passage through the Notch, 
and the views from the summit, afford a rich repast Though inferior to the 
Andes or the Alps in elevation, yet they display the grandest mountain scenery, 
surpassing everything of the kind to be seen elsewhere in this country^ 

The principal Rivers of New England have their origin, either wholly or in 
part, in this State. These are, the Connecticut, Merrimack, Androscoggin, Saco, 
and Piscataqua. * The other most considerable streams are, the Upper and Lower 
AmoDoosuck, Sugar River, Ashuelot, Contoocook, Magallaway, and Nashua. The 
principal Lakes are the Winnipiseogee, Umbagog, Ossipee, Sunapee, Sqaam, and 
Newfound Lake. 

The inhabitants of New Hampshire are principally engaged in agriculture : 
the chief products are Indian com, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flax» &c. and horses 
and cattle, beef, pork, butter, cheese, &c. are largely exported. There are some 
large manufacturing establishments, chiefly in the southern part of the State. 

14 



158 UNITED STATES, 



In 1833, there were in New Hampshire 60 cotton, and 32 woollen mills, 609 
grist-mills, 052 saw-milis, 19 oil-mills, 15 paper-mills, 234 fulling-mills, and 236 
carding-mills. Manufactures are also carried on in families to a considerable 
extent, and some vessels are employed in the bank and shore fisheries ; but many 
of Uie inhabitants leave the State every year in search of employment 

The mineral resources of New Hampshire are not great Copper is found at 
Franconia, and iron is abundant in Lisbon and Fninconia; plumbago or black 
lead also occurs in several places, particularly at Bristol. A fine-grained granite, 
which is quarried in many places, affords an excellent building material. The 
forest affords abundance of excellent timber, and the white pine sometimes at- 
tains the height of 200 feet, with a straight truflk six feet and upwards in 
diameter. 

About eight miles from the coast are the Isles of Shoals, belonging partly to 
New Hampshire and partly to Maine. They lie between Portsmouth and New- 
buryport, and are hardly more than a cluster of rocks rising above the water. 
The inhabitants are about (me hundred ; they live solely by fishing, and in con- 
nexion with those of the shore in their immediate neighbourhood, who follow the 
same mode of life, are the most rude and uncivilized beings in New England, 
except the Indians. Eflbrts have recently been made to improve their condition, 
and they have now a meeting-house, school, &c. 

Common schools are established by law throughout the State, and are support- 
ed in part by town taxes, in part by school lands or funds arising fh)m the sale of 
them, and belonging to the towns, and in part also by the proceeds of certain 
State taxes ; the number of school-houses in the State somewhat exceeds 1600 ; 
and there are 35 academies, attended by about 1600 pupils. Dartmouth college, 
in Hanover, is a well endowed institution, and afibrds instruction in the commoii 
branches taught in the New England colleges. The principal religious denomi- 
nations are Congregationalists, Baptists, and Methodists, with some Friends, 
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholica 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1701, . . 


.. 10,000 


In 1790, . 


... 141,885 


INCKEASE. 




1730, . . 


.. 12,000 


1800, . 


... 183.858 


From 1790 to 1800, ... 


. 41,973 


1749, . . 


.. 30,000 


1810, . 


... 214,460 


1800 to 1810, . . . 


. 30,602 


1767, . . 


.. 52J00 


1820, . 


... 244,161 


1810 to 1820, . . . 


. 39,701 


1775, . . 


.. 80,038 


1830, . 


... 269,328 


1820 to 1830, ... 


. 25,167 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 131,184 ; white 
Females, 137,537; deaf and dumb, 135; blind, 105; aliens, 410. Total, whites, 
268,721.~Free colored, 602; deaf and dumb, 9. 

Portsmouth, the only sea-port, and the largest town in the State, is pleasantly 
situated on the Piscataqua, Uiree miles from the sea. It has one of the finest 
harbours in the world, afibrding 40 feet of water in the channel at low tide, and 
being easily accessible to vessels of the largest size, and completely landlocked. 
It is protected by several forts. The tides rise ten feet. The town stands on a 
peninsular elevation, sloping towards the harbour, and is well built. It contains 
seven churches, seven banlung-houses, the county buildings, &c., and is well sup- 
plied with good water brought firom the neighbourhood. Two wooden bridges 
have been built across the Piscataqua, one of which is 1750 feet long. There is 
here a navy-yard belonging to the United States^ situated on Navy Island, on the 
east side of the river, and within the limits of Maine. The population of Ports- 
mouth is 8062. 

Concord, the capital of the State, on the west side of the Merrimack river, is 
handsomely built on two principal streets ; has the State-House, and State Prison 
of granite, besides banks, churches, hotels, &c. ; population 3727. In the south- 
east part of the State, are several towns largely engaged in manufactures : these 
are, Dover, Somersworth, Newmarket, and Exeter, which, besides its mills and 
manufactures, contains Phillips's Academy, a well known and respectable Semi- 
nary. These are all on navigable rivers, fiirnishing fine mill-seats and constant 



UNITED STATES. 159 



communication with the sea. Nashua, near the south line of the State, contains 
several large cotton mills; its population in 1836 was 5066, having rather more 
than doubled it since 1830 : Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth college, Haverhill 
and Lancaster, are towns of between 2000 and 3000 inhabitants; and Amherst 
and Keene are neat thriving towns between the Merrimack and Connecticut 
rivers. 



STATE OF VERMONT. 

VERMOirr is bounded N. by Lower Canada ; E. by New Hampshire ; S. by 
Massachusetts ; W. by New York ; from which it is separated, in part, by Lake 
Champlain. It is 157 miles in length, from north to south; 90 miles in breadth 
on the northern, and 40 on the southern boundary ; and contains an area of 10,212 
square miles, or 6,535,680 acres. 

The Green Mountains, from which the state derives its name, on account of 
the evergreens with which they are covered, occupy a large part of the State ; 
and most of its sur&ce is uneven. The range passes through its whole length, 
about half-way between Lake Champlain and the Connecticut river. 

From these mountains, many streams take their rise : the most important are, 
Otter creek, Onion river. La Moile, and Missisque, which empty into Lake Cham- 
plain, on the west ; the White, Pasumpsic, and West rivers, which flow into the 
Connecticut, on the east. 

The scenery of this State is romantic, and beautiful ; the air pure, and health- 
ful ; and the natives industrious, intelligent, and hospitable. 

The soil is fertile ; and all sorts of grain, suited to the climate, are produced in 
great abundance. Dark, richf and loamy, it is admirably calculated to sustain 
drought ; and affords the finest pasturage of any State in the Union. Wool is 
becoming an important product here. Cattle of various kinds are raised, with 
great facility ; and nowhere is finer beef to be seen, than is fed on the rich white 
clover pastures of Vermont. The butter and cheese are universally known for 
their excellence. 

Vermont is entirely in the interior ; yet, by the system of internal improve^' 
ment, the Champlain Canal, and the Lake, vessels and steam-boats have brought 
her territory in contiguity with the sea. Part of the trade goes by canal to 
Albany, and part down the Lake to Montreal : much of that which formerly went 
to Boston and Hartford, is now drawn by the Champlain Canal to New York. 
This canal has been of incalculable advantage to the State. 

Iron occurs in great abundance, and is extensively wrought Sulphuret of iron, 
or pyrites, is found at Strafford and Shrewsbury, from which three million pounds 
of copperas are annually manufactured, worth from 60,000 to 75,000 dollars. 
About 20 cotton-mills produce annually three and a half million yards of cloth, 
and 112,000 pounds of yarn. Domestic fabrics of linen and woollen are made in 
almost every family. 

In 1836 the Constitution was amended by the establishment of two houses, 
styled the Senate and House of Representatives. The Legislative Houses, the 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Executive Council, are chosen annually by 
the people. Each town has a right to send one Representative to the General 
Assembly. The Judges are chosen annually by that body. The Council of 
Censors is chosen once every seven years, for the term of one year, by popular 
vote. It is their duty to examine whether there have been any violations of the 
Constitution, and whether the Legislative and Executive branches have done 
I their duty, and also to propose any alterations in the Constitution. 
j The towns are divided into school districts, each of which is required by law 
to support a school at least three months during the year. An annual tax is 
levied for their support, and the rent of the reserves of school land in each town- 
ship, called here the school rights, is also distributed among the districts in pro- 
portion to the number of children in each, to aid in the same purpose. The num- 
ier of the school districts is 1612. There are 30 academies and county grammar 



160 



UNITED STATES. 



schools, for the support of which similar reservations were made ; and the Uni- 
versity of Vermont, at Burlington, is endowed in the same way. Middlebury 
college has been founded by private funds. These institutions are attended by 
nearly 200 students, and there is a Medical School connected with the former. 
The most numerous relig^ious denominations are, the Congregational ists. Baptists, 
and Methodists ; and there are some Episcopalians, Christians, Universalists, and 
Roman Catholics. 
The State is divided into 13 countiea 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1790, 85,539 

1800 154,465 

1810, 217,895 

1820, 235,764 

1830, 280,657 



INCREASE. 

From 1790 to 1800 68,826 

1800 to 1810, 63,430 

1810 to ld20, 17,869 

1820 to 1830, 24,888 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 139,986 ; white 
Females, 139,790; deaf and dumb, 153; blind, 51; aliens, 3,364. Total, 279,776. 
—Coloured Males, 426; Females, 455. Total, 881. 

The capital of the State is the little town of Montpelier, situated in a wild and 
rugged region, at the junction of the north and south branches of the Onion 
River. Here is a handsome State-House of granite, recently erected, together 
with the public buildings of the county. The population of the town is 1792. 
West of the mountains are several flourishing towns, which enjoy the advantage 
of an easy communication with Lake Champlain, and through it with the Hudson 
and St Lawrence. St. Albans is a neatly built town on a small bay, with an 
active and increasing trade, and containing 2375 inhabitant& Further south is 
Burlington, the largest town in the State, and the principal commercial place on 
the lake. It is pleasantly situated on a gently rising slope, overlooking the lake, 
and it has an excellent harbour. Here are the county buildings and the Uni 
versity of Vermont, and at the falls of the Onion River there are some manu- 
factories. The population is 3526. The city of Vcrgennes, with 1000 inhabi- 
tants, is accessible to Lake vessels, and the American squadron on the Lake was 
fitted out here in 1814. The falls in the river afford some good mill-seats. Above 
Vergennes is Middlebury, which contains some mills, and a college. Marble of 
a good quality is quarried here. Population, 3468. Higher up the river is Rut- 
land, containing quarries of marble, several manufacturing establishments, and 
the public buildings of the county, with 2753 inhabitants. On the same side of 
the mountains, in the southern part of the State, is Bennington, in the neighbour- 
hood of which are found limestone, marble, and iron. Here are some mills and 
iron- works, and a population of 3419. 

Crossing the mountains, and entering the rich valley of the Connecticut, we 
find a number of thriving towns and neat .villages, lining its fertile meadows. By 
means of several short canals, boats are enabled to ascend the river above New 
bury ; the principal of these cuts is at Bellows' Falls, where a fall of fifty feet is 
overcome by nine locks, and an excavation of half a mile in length. Brattleboro' 
is a busy place of 2141 inhabitants, and containing some manufactories. A 
Lunatic Asylum is about to be erected here. Windsor is a neat town in a pictu- 
resque situation, with the lofty peaks of Ascutncy Mountain towering above it. 
A small stream, which runs through the town, serves to carry the machinery of 
several manufacturing establishments, and there is a State-Prison built of granite 
and conducted on the Auburn plan. Population, 3134. At the little village of 
Bellows' Falls, tlie river is suddenly contracted from 300 to 16 or 20 feet wide, 
and rushes with great impetuosity through a narrow chasm cut in the solid rock, 
having a fall of nearly 50 feet in a half of a mile. Woodstock, with 3044 in- 
habitants, lies a little ofl^ from the river ; and higher up, but on the Connecticut, 
is Nojpwich ; civil engineering and other practical sciences receive particular 
attention in the institution here, styled the Norwich University. 



UNITED STATES. 161 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

This State is bounded north by Vermont and New Hampshire ; east by the At- 
lantic Ocean ; south by Rhode Island and Connecticut ; and west by New York. 
The average extent, from north to south, is 70 miles ; and from east to west, 140 : 
area, 8500 square miles. The Green Mountains range through the central parts 
of the State, from north to south. These mountains, in their whole extent, 
abound in noble elevations, dark green forests, pleasant and sheltered valleys, and 
an infinite variety of impressive scenery. The highest peaks are Saddle Mi., 
Taghkonic, Mt Tom, Mt Holyoke, &c. 

Massachusetts has no large rivers wholly within her bounds. The Merrimack 
passes out of New Hampshire into the northern division of the State, emptying 
into the sea at New bury port The Connecticut, in traversing it from north to 
south, nearly bisects the State. The Housatonic, Charles, and Ipswich, Neponset, , 
and Taunton, though they have short courses, are pleasant streams. The deep 
bay, between Cape Ann and Cape Cod, which has given name to the State, has 
caused it to be known in the other States by the name of the Bay State. Cape 
Ann bounds it on the north, and Cape Cod on the south. 

Agriculture receives here great attention, and is conducted with a superior 
degree of skill and intelligence. Massachusetts is no doubt the best cultivated > 
State in the Union. Both the Legislature and Agricultural Societies have made 
great efforts to encourage a skilful and thrifty husbandry, and to introduce the 
best foreign breeds of sheep and cattle. Commerce, manufactures, and the fish- 
eries, are, however, the great objects of pursuit 

The shipping belonging to this State amounts to about 480,000 tons; being 
greater than that of any other State, and nearly one>third of the whole tonnage 
of the country : 1522 vessels, of 269,497 tons, entered, and 1459 vessels, of 248,188 
tons, cleared at the different ports in 1835. The value of the imports, for the 
same year, was 19,800,873 dollars; of exports, 10,143,790; of which 5,464,499 
were of domestic produce. There is also an active and extensive coasting trade 
carried on with all parts of the Union: the imports being chiefly raw produce 
and provisions, and the exports manufactured articles. The herring, or alewive, 
and mackerel fisheries, are carried on along shore ; the cod- fishery chiefly on the 
great banks, and the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts ; the whale-fishery in the 
South Atlantic, the Pacific, Indian, and Antarctic Oceans. Two hundred and 
ninety vessels, of about 90,000 tons, with upwards of 7000 men, were engaged in 
the whale-fishery, in 1834 ; and, during the year 1835, there was brought in 
sperm oil, whale oil, and whalebone, to the amount of five millbn dollars. In 
1834 there were inspected 252,880 barrels of mackerel. The cod-fishery is also 
largely prosecuted from almost all the towns on the coast, and yields annually 
upwards of 400,000 quintals of fish and 6000 barrels of oil, of the value of more 
than one million dollars. 

In Massachusetts there is a larger amount of capital invested in manufactures 
than in any other State in the Union : in 1831 there were 250 cotton-mills, con- 
suming 24,871,961 pounds of cotton^ and producing 79,231,000 yards of cloth ; at 
present the number of the mills exceeds 300; also 125 woollen mills, manufac- 
turing broadcloths, flannels, satinets, blankets, carpets, &c. There are likewise 
numerous carding-machines. The wool used in household manufactures is esti- 
mated at about 8,000,000 dollars. The silk manu&cture has been. successfully 
introduced: also iron manufactures, including nails, machinery of all sorts, hollow 
ware, cutlery, &c. The making of boots and shoes occupies the whole popula- 
tion of several considerable towns ; and large quantities are exported. Other 
productions of manu&cturing industry are carried on in fiimilies, and furnish an 
important source of gain to the rural population. The braiding and plaiting of 
straw and palm-leaf hats and bonnets is a branch of household industry which, 
though but lately introduced, already employs several thousand females. Of a 
similar character, but locally more confined, is the manufiicture of brooms from 
the broom-corn, about one million being annually made. Ship-building is exten- 
14* V -^1 



1G2 UNITED STATES. 



sively carried on : the shipping built in 1833 amounting to 33,000 tons. And salt 
is also manufactured from sea-water, chiefly by solar evaporation, to the amount 
of about 500,000 bushels a year. 

Various important works of internal improvement have been executed, which 
afford great convenience and facility to travelling and transportation : they are the 
Middlesex canal, which extends from Boston to Lowell, 26 miles ; the Blackstone 
canal, from Worcester to Providence, Rhode Island, 45 miles, and the Hampshire 
and Hampden canal, 20 miles in length, is a continuation of the Farmington canal, 
fix)m South wick, on the Connecticut line, to Northampton. 

Rail-roads have been constructed from Boston to Lowell, 25 miles, of which a 
continuation to Nashua, 15 miles, and a branch to Andover, are now in progress ; 
from Boston to Providence, 42 miles, with a branch of 10 miles to Taunton ; and 
from Boston to Worcester, 43 miles. The Western Rail-road, which has been 
begun, will extend from Worcester, through Springfield and West Stockbridge, to 
the New York line, 118 miles, where it will be connected with Albany, Hudson, 
and Troy, by roads already in progress. The Eastern Rail-road, also in progress, 
is to run from Boston, through Salem and Newburyport, to the New Hampshire 
line, 40 miles, where it will be connected with the Portsmouth and Portland 
Rail-road. 

Her literary, religious, and charitable institutions are the pride of Massachu- 
setts. Within a few years Boston alone has expended nearly two millions of dol- 
lars for objects of that character, exclusive of an annual expenditure of about 
$200,000, for the support of public and private schools. Tiiere are also 66 aca- 
demies in the State, which, with the private schools, are attended by 25,000 scho- 
lars. Harvard University, at Cambridge, is the oldest and best endowed institu- 
tion in the country; it has a library of 40,000 volumes, and instruction is given 
by 30 teachers, in the various branches of a liberal education : law, theological, 
and medical schools, are connected with it William's College, at Williamstown, 
and Amherst College, at Amherst, are also respectable institutions. 

The prevailing religious sect is the Congregational ist; the Baptists are also 
numerous; afler these come the Methodists, Universalists, Episcopalians, Chris- 
tians, Roman Catholics, and Friends, with some Presbyterians, Swedenborgians or 
New Jerosalem Church, and Shakers. Massachusetts is divided into 14 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 
In 1701,70,000; in 1742, 164,000; in 1763, 341,024; in 1765, 227,926; in 1776, 
384,094 ; in 1784, 357,510 

INCREASX. 

From 1790 to 1800 44,058 

1800 to 1810 49,195 

1810 to 1820 51,247 

1820 to 1830 87,121 



In 1790 348,787 

1800 422,845 

1810 472,040 

1820 523,287 

1830 610,408 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white males, 294,685 ; white fe- 
males, 808,674; deaf and dumb, 256; blind, 218; aliens, 8787. Total whites, 
603,359. Free coloured males, 3360; females, 3685: total, 7045. Slaves, 4. 

Boston, the capital of Massachusetts, and the principal city of New England, is 
pleasantly situated upon a small hilly peninsula on Boston Bay, with a safe and 
commodious harbour, deep enough to admit the largest vessels, capable of con- 
taining 500 ships at once, and so completely landlocked as to be perfectly secure. 
Several forts, erected on these islands, command the approaches to the city. Be- 
side the main peninsula, the city comprises another peninsula, called South Bos- 
ton, connected with the former by two free bridges ; and the island of East Boston, 
with which communication is kept up by steam ferry-boats. Four wooden bridges 
also connect the city with Charlestown and Cambridge ; a solid causeway of earth 
unites it to Brookline, and a narrow neck of land which has been raised and 
widened by artificial constructions, joins it to Roxbury. 

The population, which in 1800 was 24,937; in 1820, 43,298, and in 1830, 
64,392, amounted in 1835 to 78,608, including 1^57 free coloured persons; but if 
the adjacent towns are included, which in &ct form so many suburbs of the city, 



UNITED STATES. 



163 



the popolation exceeds 100,000. The State-house, fronting a fine park of 7.5 
acres, called the Common, and standing on the most elevated part of the city ; the 
market-house, a handsome granite edifice, two stories high, 536 feet in length, by 
50 in breadth ; the court-house, also of granite, 176 feet long, 57 high, 54 wide ; 
the city-hall of old State-house, and Faneuil-hall, more interesting from historical 
associations than from their architectural merits ; and the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, a handsome granite building, 166 feet in length ; the Institution for the 
Blind, in which are atwut 50 pupils ; the Boston Athenteum, which has a library 
of 30,000 volumes, and a picture gallery ; the Medical School of Harvard Uni- 
vereity; the Eye and Ear Infirmary; the Houses of Industry, Reformation, and 
Correction, also deserve mention. 

The bridges and wharves are remarkable for their great length. The Canal 
bridge is 2800 feet long; the West Boston Bridge, 2760 feet, and some of the 
others exceed 1500 feet. The wharves have been constructed in a somewhat 
similar manner. Central wharf, 1380 feet long, by 150 wide, contains 54 lar^e 
warehouses, 4 stories high. Long wharf, 1800 long, hj 200 in width, has 76 
warehouses equally spacious. Commercial wharf is 1100 feet, by 160, with a 
range of 34 granite warehouses. 

As a commercial city, Boston is the second in the United States, in tiie amount 
of its business. In the beginning of 1835, the shipping belonging to the port wac 
212,536 tons; entered in 1835, 194,420 tons; cleared, 181,293 tons; duties paid, 
2,845,884 dollare; annual value of imports, 16,000,000; of exports, 10,000,00(1 
dollars. The number of banking institutions is 28, with an aggregate capital of 
24,980,000 dollars; of insurance companies, 30, with a capital of about 9,000,000, 
This city has ever been distinguished for its attention to education. The free 
schools are, the Latin school, the High school, nine grammar and writing schools, 
57 primary schools, and one African school for blacks. There are also numerouc 
privnte schools for children of both sexes. The American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, the Historical Society, and the Natural History Society, are among the 
learned societies. There are 51 churches, 2 theatres, an Odeon, &c. 

Charlestown, which is connected with Boston by three bridges, stands on a lofl]; 
peninsula, the centre of which is occupied by Bunker Hill. Though irregularly 
built, it commands many fine views of the harbour and the surrounding country. 
The Bunker Hill Monument, of granite, is yet unfinished. It will form an obe- 
lisk, rising to the height of 220 feet from its base, which is 50 feet square. The 
United Stetes* Dock-yard, comprising a number of store-houses, arsenals, maga- 
zines, barracks, and slips, with a graving or dry-dock, built of hewn granite, in 
the roost solid manner, at the cost of 677,000 dollars, covers an extent of about 
sixty acres. The population of the town is 8787. Adjoining Charlestown is 
Cambridge, the seat of Harvard University, with 6071 inhabitants. At Water- 
town, adjoining Cambridge, there is an United States* Arsenal. 

To the south-west is the little town of Brighton, noted for its cattle market, in 
which, in the year 1835, the sales of cattle, calves, sheep, and swine, amounted 
to 1,878,032 dollars. Lynn, a neat and thriving town, whose inhabitants, beside 
making 2,000,000 pair of shoes annually, carry on the cod and whale fisheries, in- 
creased its population from 6138 in 1830, to 9847 in 1836. A long beach of 
smooth, hard sand, terminates in the rocky little peninsula of Nahant, a fiivourite 
watering-place of the neighbouring towns. Marblehead, long the principal seat 
of the a)d fishery, has of late turned its attention partly to mechanical industry, 
particularly to shoemaking, which occupies the winter leisure of many of its 
hardy fishermen. About 60 sail of small fishing-vessels, manned by about 50C 
men and boys, are owned here. Population, 5150. 

The city of Salem, with 13,888 inhabitants, is noted for the commercial enter- 
prise and industrious spirit of its citizens. It was long latgely engaged in the 
East India and China trade, and its coasting and foreign trade is still consider- 
able ; but it labours under the disadvantage of not having a suflicieirt depth of 
water for the largest vessels. The inhabitants have lately engaged in the whale 
fishery, in which they employ 15«hips, of 3500 tons: the whole shipping of the 
port amounts to 31,877 tons. The city is neatly built, and it contains an Athence- 



164 



UNITED STATES. 



Jtn, a Marine Museum, a valuable collection of natural and artificial curioeities, 
[)eloDging to the East India Marine Society, which is composed wholly of nautical 
men ; nine banking institutions, with a capital of about two millions of dollars ; 
3ix insurance companies, with a capital of 950,000 dollars ; fifteen churches, and 
several charitable institutions. The manufactures are also considerable. Beverly, 
connected with Salem by a bridge 1500 feet in length, has 4079 inhabitants, 
chiefly occupied in commerce and the fisheries ; and Danvers is a busy town, with 
1 population of 4228, containing 32 tanneries, with 3000 vats, and a rolling and 
slitting mill, with 14 nail machines, producing 600,000 pounds of nails annually : 
500,0(X) pair of shoes and boots are also made here yearly. Cape Anne, the north 
point of Massachusetts Bay, is occupied by the fishing-lown of Gloucester : ton- 
nage owned here, 14,528 ; population, 7513. A few miles north of the cape is 
the handsome town of Newburjrport, situated at the mouth of the Merrimack. Its 
foreign commerce was formerly more extensive than it is at present, but its trade 
is still important, and the whale, mackerel, and cod fisheries, are also carried on 
from this place : tonnage, 21,585 ; population, 6388. 

The south point of the great bay from which the State takes its name, is Cape 
Cod, a long irregular peninsula, of 75 miles in length, by from 5 to 20 in breadth. 
It consists chiefly of hills of white sand, mostly destitute of vegetation. The 
houses are in some places built upon stakes driven into the ground, with open 
spaces between, for the sand to drift through. The cape, notwithstanding, is well 
inhabited, and supports a population of 28,000, the majority of which subsists by 
the fisheries and the coasting-trade. South of Cape Cod is the island of Nan- 
tucket, containing the town of the same name, with 7266 inhabitants, all crowded 
together close upon the harbour, which lies on the northern side. The island is 
merely a sand-bank, 15 miles in length, by about 5 or 6 in breadth, slightly ele- 
vated above the ocean. There are, however, some productive spots ; and about 
14,000 sheep and 500 cows are raised, which feed in one pasture, the land being 
held in common. The inhabitants are distinguished for their enterprise. They 
have about 75 ships engaged in the whale-fishery, and a considerable number of 
small vessels in the coasting-trade : 64,545 tons of shipping are owned here^ and 
2000 men and boys belonging to the island are employed in navigation. Martha's 
Vineyard is somewhat longer than Nantucket, and contains considerable wood- 
land. The inhabitants are mostly pilots and fishermen ; but some salt and woollen 
cloth are made. Holmes' Hole, a safe and capacious harbour, on the northern 
coast, is an important station for ships waiting for favourable weather to pass 
Cape Cod. 

Fifty-seven miles south of Boston, and situated on Buzzard's Bay, is New Bed- 
ford, the great seat of the whale-fishery. It is a handsomely built town, and has 
a safe and capacious harbour. The population, which in 1830 amounted to 7592, 
at present exceeds 11,000. The shipping of the district, which includes several 
other towns on the bay, is 76,849 tons : nearly the whole of this is employed in 
the whale-fishery ; and in 1835, 84,966 barrels of sperm and 49,764 of whale oil 
were brought in here. There are here ten large establishments in which sperma- 
ceti candles are made and oil is prepared ; four banks, with a capital of 1,300,000 
dollars ; an insurance office, 14 churches and chapels, an academy, &c. 

In this State there are nearly 40 millions of dollars invested in manufacturing 
stock ; of which 6^ millions are employed in Lowell alone. This place, which is 
the greatest manufticturing town in the United States, has been very rapid in its 
growth, and may be considered the Manchester of America. It was commenced 
in 1813, but its principal increase dates from 1822 : it now contains 20,000 inha- 
bitants. Its various cotton and woollen factories give employment to near 7000 
operatives, the greater part of whom are females. About 12^ million pounds of 
cotton, and near seven hundred thousand pounds of wool, are expended annually 
in the production of 40 million yards of cotton and woollen goods and carpeting. 
The supply of water-power, firom the Merrimack, is convenient and unfailing. 
Lowell also contains powder-milts, flannel-works, grist and saw-mills, glass- 
works, &c. 

Among the other places noted for manufactures, are Fall River village, near 



UNITED STATES. 165 



the mouth of Taunton River ; Taunton, on the river of the same name, and 32 
miles south-west from Boston ; Worcester, west from Boston ; Springfield and North- 
ampton, both on Connecticut River ; Pittsfield, in the western, and Adams, In the 
north-western part of the State. 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 

Rhode Island is bounded north and east by Massachusetts, south by the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, and west by Connecticut Its extent^ from north to south, is about 48 
miles, and from east to west, 42 ; area, 1500 square milea The face of the coun- 
try is mostly level, except in the north-west, part of which is hilly and rocky. 
The soil is generally better adapted to grazing than tfllage. A large proportion 
of the north-western and western part of the State has a thin and lean soil, but 
the islands and country bordering on Narragansett Bay are of great fertility, and 
are celebrated for their fine cattle, and the abundance and excellence of their but- 
ter and cheese. The products are com, rye, barley, oats, and some wheat. 

The island of Rhode Island is celebrated for its beautiful, cultivated appear- 
ance, abounding in smooth swells, and being divided with grea't uniformity into 
well-tilled fields. The climate much resembles that of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut in its salubrity : the parts of the State adjacent to the sea are favoured 
with refreshing breezes in summer, and its winter is the most mild of any of the 
New England States. 

The rivers are small, with courses of not more than fifly or sixty miles, and 
discharging an inconsiderable quantity of water ; but as they descend from two 
hundred to four hundred and fifty feet, and are steady in their supply of water, 
they furnish a great number of valuable mill-seats ; and they have been exten- 
sively applied to manufacturing purposes. The Pawtucket, Pawtuxet, and Paw- 
catuck, are the principal streams. 

Some iron ore, marble, and freestone, are found, and anthracite coal occurs in 
extensive beds, but, although it has been pronounced of a good quality, it has not 
been much worked. The inhabitants have occupied themselves with commerce, 
the fisheries, and manufactures, rather than with agriculture. In 1832, there 
were in the State 119 cotton-mills, 22 woollen-mills, 5 bleacheries, 2 calico-print 
works, 10 iron-founderies, 30 machine-shops, 40 tanneries, &c. Since that period 
the number has been much increased : there is a silk manufactory in Providence, 
and lace is made in Newport. 

The people of Rhode Island not having made a constitution for themselves, the 
government is still conducted according to the provisions of the royal charter of 
1663. The official style is the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 
The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are chosen annually by popular vote. 
The legislature, styled the General Assembly, consists of two houses, a Senate, 
chosen annually, and a House of Representatives, chosen semi-annually, which 
meet tour times a year. The judges and other civil officers are appointed an- 
nually by the General Assembly. The State appropriates 10,000 dollars a year 
for the support of common schools, and a somewhat larger sum is raised by the 
towns fur the same purpose, in addition to which, considerable sums are raised by 
individual subscription, in order to keep the free schools open some time longer 
than the public funds would admit. There are in the State 323 free schools, with 
upwards of 17,000 pupils. Brown University, at Providence, is a respectable 
institution on the plan of the other New England colleges. The Baptists and 
Congregationalists are the most numerous sects; the Episcopalians and Methodists 
are also numerous, and there are some Friends, Roman Catholics, and Univer- 
fialists. ^ I , 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODa 

In 1701, 10,000; in 1730, 17,9a5; in 1748, 34,128; in 1755, 46,636; in 1774, 
59,678; in 1783, 51,809. 



p^ 



166 UNITED STATES. 



In 1790, 68,825 

1800, 69,122 

1810, 76,931 

1820, 83,059 

1830, 97,199 



Increase. 



From 1790 to 1800 297 

1800 fo 1810, 7,809 

1810 to 1820, 6,128 

1820tol830 14,140 



Slavef. 
948 
380 
108 

48 

14 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 45,333 ; white Fe- 
males, 48,288 ; deaf and dumb, 48 ; blind, 57 ; aliens, 1103. Total whites, 03,621. 
—Free coloured Males, 1544; Females, 2020. ToUl, 3564.— Slaves, Males, 3; 
Females, 11. Total, 14. 

The principal city of Rhode Island is Providence, the second in New England 
in point of population, wealth, and commerce. It is situated at the head of Nar- 
ragansett Bay, and is accessible to the largest merchant vessels : it carries on an 
active coasting and foreign trade. The population of the city increased ftom 
16,833 in 1830, to 19,277 in 1835. Here are 16 banks with a capital of about 
five million dollars; also a number of cotton-mills, bleacheries, dye-houses, ma- 
chine-shops, iron-founderies, &c. Among the public buildings are the State House, 
the Halls of Brown University, the arcade, a handsome granite edifice, fourteen 
churches, &c. Steam-boats, of the largest and finest class, keep up a daily com- 
munication with New York, during the greater part of the year; the Blackstone 
canal, and Boston and Providence rail-ros^, terminate here ; and a continuation of 
the latter to Stonington in Connecticut, is now in progress. Pawtucket River, 
above Providence, is the seat of extensive manufactures. North Providence, on 
the Massachusetts border, contains the manufacturing village of Pawtucket, oppo- j 
site which is the town of Pawtucket in that State. The whole manufacturing ! 
district is also commonly called Pawtucket, and it contains 20 cotton-mills, beside j 
machine-shops, calico-printing works, iron-works, &c. There is a population of | 
about 6000 souls on both sides of the river. Above this the Pawtucket takes the 
name of the Blackstone, and furnishes mill-seats which have created the village 
of Woonsocket Falls, also situated on both sides of the river, in the townships of* 
Smithfield and Cumberland. There are also manufacturing establishments in 
other parts of Smithfield. The population at the Falls is about 3000. Warwick, 
on the Pawtuxet River and Narragansett Bay, is a manufiicturing and fishing 
town, with 5529 inhabitants. 

Bristol, on the eastern shore of the bay, is a busy town, with 3054 inhabitants 
actively engaged in the foreign and coasting trade and whale fishery. Nearly at 
the south end of tiie Island of Rhode Island is Newport, once one of the principal 
towns in the colonies, and still a favourite summer resort, on account of its plea- 
sant situation, the refreshing coolness of the sea-breezes, and its advantages for 
sea-bathing. The harbour is one of the finest in the world, being safe, capacious, 
and easy of access, and is defended by an important work called Fort Adams ; but 
trade has mostly deserted the town, and now centres chiefly in Providence. Po- 
pulation, 8010. Prudence and Conanicut Islands in the Bay, and Block Island, at 
the entrance of Long Island Sound, belong to this State. The latter, although 
destitute of a harbour, has nearly 2CI00 inhabitants, engaged in the fisheries. 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 

This State is bounded on the north by Massachusetts, south by Long Island 
Sound, east by Rhode Island, and west by New York. It is 90 miles in length, 
70 miles in breadth, and contains 4764 square miles. The principal rivers are, 
the Connecticut, Housatonic, Thames, Farmington, and Naugatuck. The &ce 
of the country is generally hilly, and, in the north-western parts, mountainous. 
The soil is good, and the industrious inhabitants have not neglected its cultiva- 
tion. The valley of Connecticut River, from Middletown to the northern bound- 
ary of the State, is a luxuriant meadow, chequered by patches of wheat, com, 
and other grain. Some other parts of the State are well cultivated and fruitful. 



UNITED STATES. 167 



and some portions are beautiful, as well from the gifts of nature as the improve- 
ments of art 

The chief productions are Indian com, rye, wheat, in many parts, oats, barley, 
buckwheat, flax in large quantities, &c. Orchards are numerous, and cider is 
made for exportation. The State is, however, generally better adapted to grazing 
than tillage, and its fine meadows and pastures enable the fiirmer to feed great 
numbers of neat cattle, horses, and sheep. The quantity of butter and cheese, 
annually made, is great, and of well-known excellence. 

The fisheries are carried on from several of the ports ; and there are valuable 
shad fisheries on the rivers. There are about 12,000 tons of shipping from this 
State in the whale fishery ; and, in 1634, 30,000 barrels of whale and sperm oil 
were brought in. The coasting trade is considerable, but most of the foreign 
trade is carried on through New York. 

The manufactures of Connecticut are considerable, and the ingenuity and in- 
dustry of the people in this respect have a reputation coextensive with the Union. 
The principal articles are cotton and woollen goods, clocks, combe, and buttons, 
tin and wooden ware. Implements, and utensils of various descriptions are 
among the products of manufacturing industry. In 1832, there were in the State 
104 cotton-mills and 80 woollen factoriea The annual value of cotton and 
woollen goods, iron manufactures, axes, boots and shoes, buttons and combs, 
paper, coaches and wagons, with other articles, amounted to an aggregate of 
8,000,000 dollars. 

Common schools are supported by the proceeds of the school fund belonging to 
the State, which are distributed among the school districts in proportion to the 
number of children in each, between the ages of four and sixteen years. The 
money thus distributed is applied solely to paying the expense of instruction, the 
other charges being paid by the districts. The number of children of the above 
description is about 84,000. The school fund amounts to about 1,030,000 dollars, 
and the income is about 84,000 dollars. There are also upwards of 30 academies 
and high schools in the State ; and three colleges — ^Yale College at New Haven, 
Washington College at Hartford, and the Wesleyan University, at Norwich. 
Yale College is one of the oldest and most respectable, and the most frequented 
of the collegiate institutions in the country. Attached to it are a theological 
department, a medical institute, and a law school. The duties of instruction are 
performed by twenty-seven teachers. 

The Congregationalists are the most numerous religious sect ; after them rank 
the Baptists, Methodists, and Episcopalians; and there are some Universalists, 
Roman Catholics, and Shakers. 

The Farmington canal extends from New Haven to the Massachusetts line, 56 
miles ; whence it is continued to Northampton, by the Hampshire and Hampden 
canal. Enfield canal, 5^ miles in length, serves to overcome a fall in the Con- 
necticut, and supplies valuable mill-seats. A rail-road is in progress from Provi- 
dence to Stonington, in this State, 45 miles in length ;. it is intended to be con- 
nected by a steam ferry-boat with the termination of the Long Island rail^road. 
Another rail-road is also in progress between New Haven and Hartford, a dis- 
tance of 40 miles. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1701, . . 


. 30,000 


In 1790, 


1749, . 


. 100,000 


1800, 


1756, . 


. 130,611 


1610, 


1774, . 


. 197,856 


1820, 


1782,. 


. 209,150 


1830, 



INCRBABX. 

From 1790 to 1800, .... 13,056 
1800 to 1810, .... 10,940 
1810 to 1820, .... 13,306 
1820 to 1830, .... 22,417 



237,946 

251,002 

261,942 

2754J48 

297,665 
Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 143,047 ; white 
Females, 146,556; of which are, deaf and dumb, 294; blind, 188; aliens, 1481. 
Total, whites, 289,603.— Free coloured, 8047; slaves, 25; deaf and dumb, 6; 
blind,?. Total, 8075. 

New Haven, the principal city of the State, is beautifully situated on a bay of 
the same name. The harbour is safe and spacious, but it is shallow and gradually 



168 UNITED STATES. 



filling up. The city is regularly laid out and neatly built: many of the houses 
have fine gardens ; some of the principal streets are bordered by rows of shade 
trees, and the principal square is finely ornamented in the same manner Among 
the public buildings are the State-House, the State-Hospital, the Halls of Yule 
College, ten churches, &c. One of the wharves here is 3943 feet in length. The 
coasting and foreign trade of New Haven is considerable: steam-boats and 
packets keep up a regular and easy communication with New York ; and there 
are some extensive manufactories, particularly in fire-arms, carriages, &c. The 
population is 10,678. On the summit of West Rock, in the vicinity of the city, 
is a email cave, in which (jofie and Whalley, two of the regicide judges of 
Charles I. were concealed, and which is still called " the Judges* Cave." Bridge- 
port, south-west of New Haven, is a busy, thriving town, with a good harbour on 
the Sound. In the interior are Danbury and Litchfield, with some manufac- 
tures. 

North-east from New Haven, on the banks of the Connecticut River, is the 
city of Hartford ; a neat and pleasant town, with considerable coasting trade. It 
stands in a fertile and highly cultivated district, abounding in neat and flourishing 
villages, which enjoy the advantages of numerous mill-seats and easy communi- 
cation with the sea. The city has at present a population of about 9000 ; in 
1830, it contained 7076 inhabitants. Steam-boats run daily between Hartford and 
New York, and several small steam-packets and tow-boats are employed on the 
river above. The annual amount of the manufactures of Hartfoid is about 
1,000,000 dollars ; the principal branches are printing and publishing, shoe-ma- 
king, the manufiicturing of saddlery, cards, and wire, wearing apparel, &c. 
Among the public buildings are a State-House, City Hall, twelve churches, the 
Asylum for the deaf and dumb, retreat for the insane, &c. The Asylum for the 
deaf and dumb, the first institution of the kind established in America, was tbund- 
ed in 1816, and has about 140 pupils, who receive instruction in the various 
branches of useful learning, and acquire a knowledge of the useful art& Several 
of the New England States have made appropriations for the support of their 
indigent dumb here. 

The city of Middletown, a few miles below Hartford, is accessible to vessels 
drawing ten feet of water, and its coasting and foreign trade is considerable. The 
situation of the town is pleasant, and the houses and public buildings neat Its 
manufactures are also pretty extensive, comprising cotton and woollen goods, fire- 
arms, paper, machinery, &c. : population of the city, 2965. Saybrook, at the 
mouth of the Connecticut River, was the first spot occupied by Europeans in Con- 
necticut, and the ground was regularly laid out for a large city ; but the anticipa- 
tions of its founders have not been realised. 

At the mouth of the Thames stands the city of New London : it is the princi- 
pal commercial place in Connecticut, with one of the best harbours in the country. 
Its trade is considerable ; upwards of 40 ships sail from this place to the whale- 
fishery ; and the shore fishery is also actively carried on. Population, 4356. Nor- 
wich, 13 miles above New London, is a flourishing manufacturing city, situated m 
a beautiful and fertile tract The water-power is here ample, and is already ex- 
tensively employed for useful purposes. There are in the township seventeen 
manufacturmg establishments, eight churches, three banks, &c. Population of 
the city, 3135 ; of the township, 5161. Stonington, in the south-east corner of 
the State, has twelve vessels in tiie seal-fishery, and carries on the shore-fishery 
successfully. 



MIDDLE STATES. 

The Middle States are bounded on the north by Canada, the River St Law- 
rence, and Lakes Ontario and Erie; south by Virginia; east by the Atlantic 
Ocean and New England; west by the State of Ohio and Virginia. As a region, 
the Middle States comprise New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
Delaware ; it extends, from north to south, about 490 miles, and from east to 'vest, 



UNITED STATES. 169 



360 miles, with an area of 115,000 square miles, and occupies one of the finest 
parts of the Union. 

The surlace presents every variety of mountain, hill, plain and valley. The 
Appalachian, or Alleghany Range, extends through this region, from south-west 
to north-east, in several parallel ridges, which attains in Pennsylvania its widest 
limits ; none of these, however, reach the elevation of the highest summits of the 
Blue Ridge in North Carolina, or the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The 
Alleghany is generally covered with forests, and contains many wild solitudes, 
seldom trodden by the foot of man, affording shelter to various species of game. 

The most prominent rivers of the Atlantic sections of the United States are in 
this region. The Hudson and Delaware rank amongst the most important and 
useful of our navigable streams ; but the Susquehannah is, notwithstanding its 
length, but little available without the aid of artificial navigation. 

The mineral productions are various and valuable. Bituminous and anthracite 
coal, several kinds of iron ore, salt, lime, excellent building materials, and clays 
useful in the arts, are among the treasures in which it abounds. Mining industry 
has acquired importance from the activity and success with which it has lately 
been pushed ; and the public works of this section are particularly remarkable for 
their number and magnitude. 

In general the soil is fertile, and particularly favourable to the production of 
every species of grain : wheat is the principal object of culture ; tobacco is exten- 
sively raised ; also Indian com, rye, barley, &c. The fruits common to the tem- 
perate regions are abundant, and of excellent quality. The commerce of the 
Middle States is extensive, and chiefly carried on throygh the cities of New York 
and Philadelphia, to which it centres ; the trade, however, of a considerable part 
of Pennsylvania and Delaware flows to Baltimore. Manufacturing industry is 
carried to a greater extent, in proportion to the population, than in any part of the 
United States, excepting New England ; it employs a vast amount oX capital and 
labour, and affords generally a competent remuneration to thousands of both sexes. 

The Middle States were originally settled by people of various countries, hav- 
ing different habits, feelings, and opinions : society, therefore, does not possess 
that uniform character which admits of a general description. The people have 
not that unity of feeling and interest which is observed m the New England and 
Southern States ; and the only reason for their being classed together is their 
contiguity : they seldom unite for any public purpose, and there seems to be but 
little sympathy or common feeling, which protnpts them to act in concert for pub- 
lic affiiirs. The great body is of British descent, but in New York and Maryland 
there are many Germans ; and in Pennsylvania they are so numerous as to con- 
stitute,' in some respects, a separate community, retaining their own language, and 
being often ignorant of En^ish. In New York and New Jersey there are many 
descendants of the original Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam ; and in some sec- 
tions the Dutch language is partially spoken. 

After the close of the revolutionary war, the emigration from the New England 
States into New York continued to set so strongly for many years, that a majo- 
rity of the present population of that State are natives of New England, or their 
descendants. There is also a large body of New England emigrants in Pennsyl- 
vania. The whole population of the five Middle States is a little upwards of four 
millions ; in which number are 180,500 slaves, and nearly 170,000 free blacks. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Thu great State, the most flourishing, wealthy, and populous in the Union, 
combining with almost unequalled natural advantages of soil, internal navigation, 
and easy access by sea, public works executed on a scale of imperial grandeur, 
exhibits one of those amazing examples of growth and prosperity, that are seen 
nowhere on the globe beyond our own borders. 

New York is the most northern of the Middle States, and is bounded north by 
Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence River, and Lower Canada; east by Vermont, 

15 W 



170 UNITED STATEa 



MassachusettB, and Connecticut ; south by the Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania; and west by Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, and the Niagara River. 
Length, 816 miles $ breadth, 304 : containing about 46,000 square miles. 

This State forms a portion of tiie elevated table-land of the United States, 
broken in some places by mountainous ridges of inconsiderable elevation, and con- 
taining some remarkable depressions, which form the basins of lakes, or the chan- 
nels of tlie rivers. 

The principal rivers are the Hudson, St. Lawrence, Delaware, Susquehannah, 
Alleghany, Genesee, Niagara, Oswego, and tlie Mohawk. A part of the lakes 
Krio, Ontario, and Champkin, are in this State. The other principal lakes are 
Lake George, Cayuga» Seneca, Oneida, Oswegatchie, Canandaigua, &c. 

The soil in the maritime part of the State is sandy, in the middle beautifully 
uudulatin.(r, and in the western and southern division remarkably level, rich, and 
inclining to alluvial formation. 

Iron ore is found in inexhaustible quantities and of a good quality in the north- 
eastern part of the State ; it occurs also in some of the central^ eastern, and south- 
western counties. Load is found in some parts; also gypsum, in the central coun- 
ties, where it is extensively used fur agricultural purposes. Limestone likewise 
occurs. Salt is procured in abundance from the Onondaga salt-springs, in the 
township of Salina; the brine is conducted to Salina, Syracuse, and other neigh- 
bouring villages, where the salt is obtained by boiling, by solar evaporation, and 
by artificial evaporation, 45 gallons of water yielding a bushel of salt ; there are 
here 1,516,299 superficial feet of vats, and .3423 kettles and pans; the quantity of 
salt made in 1826 was 827,508 bushels; in 1830, 1,435,446; in 1835, 2,209.867. 
The well-known springs of Ballston and Saratoga are partly saline, partly chaly- 
beate, and the water is exported in considerable quantities not only to other States, 
but to foreign countries. In the wehtern part of the State there are burning 
springs, yielding carburetted hydrogen, which is applied to economical uses in the 
neighbouring villages. 

Wheat is the great agricultural staple of the State, and flour and provisions arc ' 
largely exported. 

The manufUctures of New York are also extensive and flourishing ; the aggre- 
gate value of manufactured articles, in the year 18135, was stated to be 60,660,007 
dollars; that of the raw materials used, amounted to the sum of 43,400,922 dollars. 
In addition to these, there were made in families, cloth, flannels, and other 
woollens, and cotton, linen, &c., of the aggregate value of 2,029,984 dollars. The 
cotton and woollen mills produced 24,175,:357 yards of cotton cloth, 6,626,058 of 
woollen, and 686,203 of cotton and woollen. 

The commerce of New Yoik is also on a great scale, as, beside supplying her 
own wants and exporting her surplus productions, she imports a large share of the ' 
foreign articles consumed in the neighbouring Atlantic States, as well as in many 
of the Western States, to which her natural and artificial channels of coipmuni- 
cation give her access; and her great commercial emporium is the outlet for the 
produce of the same regions. Thus in 1835, the value of the importations was 
88,191*305 dollars, or nearly three-fiflhs of the whole imports of the country ; 
while that of the exports was 30,345,264 dollars, or more than one-fourth of the 
whole exports of the United States. The shipping belonging to the Stote at the i 
end of 1835 amounted to 381,792 tons, making New York second only to Massa- 
chusetts in point of tonnage. The amount of toll collected on the State canals 
increased from 1,056,799 dollars in 1830, to 1,548,108 in 18:35, notwithstanding 
several very great reductions of the rates of toll. The total value of the articles i 
which reached tide- water, is estimated to have exceeded 20,000,000 dollars. 
Forty-five ships, of 13,000 tons, sailed to the whale-fishery in the same year, 
chiefly from Sag Harbour, Hudson, Newburgh, and Poughkeepsie. 

This State is distinguished for its magnificent piiblic works, constructed for the 

purpose of connecting the great central basin of the lakes and the St. Lawrence 

with the Atlantic ; 063 miles of canal navigation have been obtained, at the cost 

I of 13,497,568 dollars; and goods are now carried by water from New York to 

f Chicago, 1400 miles ; to Florence, Alabama, 1935 miles ; to Nashville, Tenneswe, 



UNITED STATES. 171 



1850 miles, &c. The great trunk is the Erie canal, extending- from Buffalo on 
LAke Erie to the Hudson, 364 miles. Provision has recently been made for en- 
larging this great work, the long-est of the kind m the world, by increasing the 
width to 60, and the depth to 6 feet, lengthening the locks to 105 foet, and con- 
structing a double set of lifl-locks, at the estimated cost of above 10,860,000 dol- 
lars. The Champlain canal extends from Lake Champlain, at Whitehall, to the 
junction of the Erie canal with the Hudson, 64 miles, with a navigable feeder of 
12 miles ; lockage, 188 feet, by 21 locks. Other branches of this work, pervad- 
ing different parts of the State, are the Oswego canal, 38 miles, connecting the 
Erie canal, at Salina, with Lake Ontario ; Cayuga and Seneca canal, 23 miles, 
extending from Geneva to Montezuma on the Erie canal, and thus continuing the 
navigation through those two lakes ; Crooked Lake, 8 miles, connecting that lake 
with Seneca Lake ; Chemimg canal, from the head of the latter- to the River 
Chemung, or Tioga, at Elmira, 23 miles, with a navigable feeder from Painted 
Post to Elmira, of 16 miles; Chenango canal, 97 miles in length, from Bingham- 
ton, on the Chenango, to Utica. Appropriations were made by the Legislature in 
the session of 1836, for the construction of the .Black River canal, 75 miles in 
length, from Rome on the Erie canal, to Carthage on Black River ; and the Gene- 
see Valley canal, from Rochester to Olean, on the Alleghany River, 107 miles. 

Beside these works constructed by the State, the principal canal made by a pri- 
vate company, is the Delaware and Hudson, extending from the mouth of Round- 
out Creek, on the latter River, to Port Jervis on the Delaware, up that river lo 
the mouth of the Lackawaxen, and along the latter to Iloncsdale in Pennsylvania : 
total length, 109 miles, of which 26 arc in Pennsylvania. From Ilonesdale a 
rail-road runs to the coal-mines at Carbondale, a distance of 16 miles, passing 
over Moosic Mountain, which is 1580 feet above tide-water, and 850 above the 
coal-mines. Two great projects, which will undoubtedly soon be executed, de- 
serve to be mentioned here : these are a ship canal round the falls of Niagara, and 
anotheil^om Oswego, by the Oswego River, Oneida Lake, and the Mohawk, to 
the Hudson, thus enabling vessels from the upper lakes to reach New York with- 
out breaking bulk. 

The following are the principal rail-roads already completed : — the Mohawk 
and -Hudson, from Albany to Srhenectady, 15 miles, continued northwardly by 
the Schenectady and Saratoga rail-road, 22 miles, and westward by the Schenec- 
tady and Utica rail-road, 77 miles; the Auburn and Syracuse rail-road, 26 miles; 
the Tonaw«nda rail-road, from Rochester to Attica, 34 miles ; the Ithaca and 
Owego, 29 miles from the Susquehannali to Cayuga lake ; the Rensellaer and 
Saratoga rail-road, from Troy to Ballston, 25 miles ; the Brooklyn and Jamaica 
rail-road, 12 miles. It is also intended to connect the detaclied links between 
Albany and Buffalo, so as to form an unbroken line of road between those two 
places ; and rail-roads are now in progress from Hudson and Greenbush to West 
Stockbridge, in Massachusetts, which will serve to connect Boston, by the Massa- 
chusetts western rail-road, with I^ke Erie. The Long Island rail-road, from 
Jamaica lo Greenport; the New York and Erie rail-road, from Tappan, on the 
Hudson, to Lake Erie, 480 miles; and the New York and Albany rail-road, be- 
tween those two cities, % distance of 160 miles, are in progress. The latter 
passes up the western side of the river, partly through Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts; and a tunnel under the Hudson at Albany, has been projected. 

The Iwrislature consists of two houses, the Senate, chosen for the term of four 
years, and the Assembly, elected annually ; the former are chosen by senatorial 
district, and the latter by counties. A Governor and Lieutenant-Grovcrnor are 
chosen by popular election for the term of two years. The chancellor and 
superior judges are appointed by the Governor and Senate, and hold their office 
during good behaviour, or until the age of 60 years ; the inferior judges are ap- 
pointed by the same authorities, for the term of five years. Every white male 
citizen of the age of 21 years, who has resided in the State for one year next 
preceding the election, is entitled to vote ; but coloured persons must be possessed 
of a clear freehold of the value of 250 dollars, in order to be qualified eJectors. 

Ample provision is made for common education, and there is no country in the 



I 172 UNITED STATES. 



world where the body of the people is better taught, than in New York. The 
State has a school fund, the proceeds of which are distributed among the towns, 
on condition that each town raise by tax a sum equal to that which it receives 
from the Slate ; the whole of these sums is expended solely in the payment of 
teachers' wages, in addition to which the erection of the school-house, and other 
incidental expenses, are at the charge of the school districts. The school fund, 
at the close of 1835, amounted to 1,875,192 dollars. The number of school dis- 
tricts at that time was 10,132; of which returns were received from 9676, con- 
taining 541,401 pupils ; the sum of 312,181 dollars was distributed among these 
districts by the State, under the name of public money, of which 100,000 dollars 
was received from the common school fund, 193,760 was raised by a property tax, 
and the remainder was derived from local funds ; and the sum of 419,878 dollars 
was raised by the school districts. Provision has also been made at the public 
expense, for the education of teachers, by the establishment of a department in 
an academy of each of the eight senatorial districts, with the suitable books and 
apparatus for that purpose. There are also 66 academies and high schools, among 
which are distributed 12,000 dollars from the literature fund, containing 5296 
students, and a great number of other high schools and seminaries of instruction. 
The higher seminaries are Uie University of the City of New York, and Colum- 
bia College, in New York city ; Union College, at Schenectady ; Hamilton Col- 
lege, at Clinton ; and Geneva College, with a medical department, at Geneva. 
The Episcopalians have a Theological Seminary in New York; the Presby- 
terians, at Auburn; the Baptists, at Hamilton; and the Lutherans, at Hartvvick. 
There are likewise medical schools in New York and at Fairfield. 

The principal religious sects are the Presbyterians, including Congregation- 
alists, tlie Methodists, and the Baptists ; the Episcopalians and Dutch Reformed 
are also numerous, with some Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Friends, &c. 

The increase of the population of this State has been very rapid ; in the 20 
years from 1790 to 1810, it nearly trebled itself; from 1810 to 1830, iVdoubled 
itself, and in the five years from 1830 to 1835, the increase was 13j per cent ; 
by the census of 1835 the population was 2,174,517. It consists, in part, of the 
descendants of the original Dutch settlers, who have at present, however, lost in 
a great measure their national characteristics, and the descendants of the Ger- 
man palatines, who removed thither in the beginning of the last century, with 
some emigrants from Great Britain and other European countries. But the ma>»s 
of the people are of New England origin or descent, and they are fiivourably 
distinguished for enterprise, intelligence, and virtue. 

New York is divided for civil purposes into 57 counties, containing 9 cities, 
and 797 townships, with 122 incorporated villages, many of which have difilerent 
names from the townships in which they are situated : 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

INCEEA8K. 8LAVKS. 

586,050 I 21,324 

From 1790 to 1800, . . 245,9301 20,613 
1800 to 1810, . . 372,9991 15,017 
1810 to 1820, . . 413,7631 10,088 
1820 to 1830, . . 545.7961 76 

Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 951,516 ; white 
Females, 916,670; deaf and dumb, 842; blind, 642; aliens, 52,488. Total, 
1,868,166.— Free . Coloured Males, 21,465; Females, 23,404. Total, 44,869. 
Slaves— Males, 12; Females, 64. Total, 76. 

The city of New- York is the largest, most wealthy, and most flourishing, of all 
American cities ; the greatest commercial emporium of America, and, after Lon- 
don, the greatest in the world. 

No city in the world possesses equal advantages for foreign commerce and in 
land trade. Two long lines of canals, stretching back in every direction, have 
increased its natural advantages, and rendered it the great mart of an almost in- 



III 1701, . . 


30,000 


In 1800, . 


. 586,050 


1731,.. 


50,395 


1810, . 


. 959,049 


1749, . 


100,000 


1820, . 


. 1,372,812 


1771, ., 


163.338 


1825, . 


. 1,616,458 


1790, . . 


340,120 


1830, . 


. 1,918,608 



UNITED STATES. 173 



definite extent of country, while its facilities of communication with all parts of 
the world, have made it the thoroughfiire of the same vast region. The proofress 
of its population has never been paralleled ; in 1790, it was 33,131 ; in 1810, 
96,373; in 1830, 203,007, and in 1835, 270,089, or, including Brooklyn, upwards 
of 297,500. 

New- York is well built and regularly laid out, with the exception of the older 
part, in which the streets are crowded, narrow, and crooked ; but this now forms 
only a small portion of the city. It is chiefly as a great mart of foreign and in- 
land commerce that New- York is most advantageously known. The shipping be- 
longing to the port in the beginning of 1835, amounted to 359,222 tons ; entered 
during the year, 4d5,665 tons ; cleared, 366,389 tons : whole number of arrivals 
from foreign ports in 1835, 2049. There are 16 regular packets plying between 
this place and Liverpool ; 16 packets to Havre ; with lines to London, Vera Cruz, 
Carthagena, &c. The whole number of passengers arrived here from foreign 
countries, in the five years from 1831 to 1836,^ was 205,500. The inland and 
coasting-trade is also immense. There are here 23 banking institutions, with a 
capital of 18,861,200 dollars, and 43 insurance companies, with a capital of 
14,800,000 dollars. Among the public buildings are the City Hall, a handsome 
edifice of white marble, with a front of 216 feet; the Hall of the University, a 
splendid building, 180 by 100 feet ; the Hall of Columbia College ; the Hospital ; 
the City Ly<;eum ; 150 churches ; Astor House, a hotel, of Quincy granite, 200 
feet by 150 and 77 feet high, containing 390 rooms ; the Almshouse at Bellevue, 
on East River ; the Penitentiary, on BlackwelPs Island, in the same river, several 
miles firom the city ; the Custom House, an elegant building, 177 feet long, by 89 
feet wide, on the model of the Parthenon ; the new Exchange about to be erected 
in place of the one destroyed by fire in 1835, &c. 

The benevolent societies are numerous and well suppcnrted. They comprise an 
Hospital, with which is connected a Lunatic Asylum at Bloomingdale ; an Hos- 
pital at Bellevue, for the sick and insane poor, connected with the city Alms- 
house ; three Dispensaries ; an Institution for the Blind ; one for the Deaf and 
Dumb ; and a great number of orphan asylums, relief associations, education, 
bible, and tract societies, &c. Neither is New- York behind her sister cities in her 
literary and scientific establishments. Beside the educational institutions already 
mentioned, the Historical Society ; the New- York Society Library, with 25,000 
volumes ; the Lyceum of Natural History, and the American Lyceum, have pub- 
lished some valuable papers; while the Mercantile Library Association, and the 
Apprentices' Library, show that the merchants and mechanics are not indififerent 
to the intellectual improvement of their apprentices and clerks. 

There are also here an Academy of Fine Arts and an Academy of Design. The 
American Institute, for the promotion of domestic industry by the distribution of 
premiums and other rewards, holds annual fiiirs for the exhibition of the products 
of American industry. 

The city of Brooklyn, on Long Island, opposite to New-York, is pleasantly situ- 
ated on a rising ground which commands an agreeable view, and it partakes in 
the commercial activity and prosperity of its neighbour. Here is a Navy-yard of 
the United States, on Wallabout Bay. There are in Brooklyn a handsome city 
hall, 17 churches, 3 banks, 2 insurance companies, &c. Steam ferry-boats ure 
constantly running between this place and New- York, and a rail-road extends to 
Jamaica, 12 miles of which, the continuation to Greenport, is already in progress. 
Its population has increased from 15,394 in 1830, to 24,529 in 18a5. About 50 
miles above the city of New- York, and on the west side of the Hudson, is West 
Point, a celebrated military post during the war of independence, and now the 
seat of the United States Military Academy for the education of officers of the 
army. Newburgh, 10 miles above West Point, and on the right bank, with 5000 
inhabitants, and Poughkeepsie, 14 u\\l^=^ higher, on the lefl, with 6281, are neat, 
thriving villages, with considerable trade, and several ships engaged in the whale- 
fishery. Near the head of ship navigation, 117 miles from the sea, stands the city 
of Hudson, on a commanding eminence on the left bank of the river. Its trade 
and manufactures are extensive and increasing, and it has eleven ships, of about 

15* 



174 UNITED STATES. 



*T 



4000 tons, engaged in the whale-fishery. The city is well laid out and prettily 
built, and the neighbourhood presents many charming prospects. The population 
in 1830 amounted to 5392, and in 1635 to 5531. 

On the western bank of the Hudson River, 145 miles above New- York, is the 
city of Albany, the capital, and in point of size the second city of tbe State. Its 
wealth and trade have been greatly increased by the opening of the Brie and 
Champlain canals, which terminate in a large basin in the city ; and its situation 
renders it a great thoroughfare, not only for traders, but also for travellers on the 
northern route. It contains several handsome public buildings, cimong which 
are the old State Hall ; the new State Hall, and the City Hall, both of white 
marble ; the Academy, of red freestone; 14 churches, &c. The Albany Institute, 
with a library, and cabinet of minerals, coins, and casts; the Athenieum has a 
library of above 8000 volumes ; and there is also an Academy of Fine Arts here. 
Regular steam -packets leave twice a day for New- York; numerous canal-packets 
and rail-road can are constantly departing for the northern and western routes ; 
and several lines of stage-coaches keep up a communication with the east. The 
number of persons who annually pass through the city has been estimated at up- 
wards of 600,00a The population in 1820 was 12,630; in 18:30, 24,209, and in 
1830, 28,109. The city of Troy, six miles above Albany, is situated on the oppo- 
site side of the river. The trade and manufactures of this place are both con- 
siderable. The city is regularly laid out and prettily built. The population in 
1830 was 11,405, and in 1835, 16,959, having increased nearly 50 per cent in 
five years. Nearly north from Albany, at a distance of 29 and 36 miles respect- 
ively, are the most frequeoted of American watering-places, Ballston Spa and 
Saratoga. At the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the head of a deep bay, is 
Sacket*8 Harbour, an important naval station during the three years* war; and on 
the Black River, 7 miles from its mouth, is tho flourishing village of Watertown, 
prettily situated and neatly built, with a population of 3500 inhabitants. 

Up the valley of the Mohawk, and along the line of the Grand Canal and its 
branches, are a number of cities and towns, which have sprung up, as if by en- 
chantment, in the bosom of a wilderness. Schenectady, Utica, Syracuse, Os- 
wego, Auburn, Ithaca, Seneca, Canandaigua, Rochester, Lockport, and Buffalo, 
are -the principal. The city of Schenectady, situated in the midst of a fertile 
tract, affording numerous mill-seats, traversed by the canal, and connected by rail- 
roads with Albany, Saratoga, and Utica, has an extensive and increasing trade, 
and some manufactures. It is the seat of Union College, one of the principal 
collegiate institutions in the State. The population increased from 4268 in 1830, 
to 6272 in 1835. 

Upwards of ninety miles north-west from Albany, on the Grand Canal, is the 
city of Utica. In 1794, the spot contained only 4 or 5 log houses, in the midst of 
a wilderness : in 1835, the city had a population of 10,183 souls, 13 churches, an 
academy, a State and county Lyceum, a city library, a Mechanic's Association, 
with an extensive trade, and numerous manufactories and mills. Utica is in the 
valley of the Saquoit, which, on a territory of ten miles square, has a population 
of about 30,000, and contains numerous cotton, saw, and grist mills, with bleach- 
eries, woollen manufactories, machine-shops, &c. 

Still farther west, on the canal, are the villages of Salina, Syracuse, Geddes, 
and Liverpool, the seat of the Onondaga salt-springs, which are the property of 
the State : the manufacturers pay a dutv of six cents a bushel, and in the year 
1835 made 2,209,867 bushels, much of which is sent out of the State. The works 
are capable of producing three million bushels a year. Population of Syracuse in 
1835, 4105 ; of Salina, 2500. From Syracuse, a branch canal extends to Oswego, 
on Lake Ontario, one of the most flourishing villages in the State : the river of 
the same name furnishes an inexhaustible water-power, which is very extensively 
employed for useful purposes ; and an excellent harbour, protected by piers, con- 
structed by the general government Since the opening of the Welland canal, a 
considerable portion of the trade of the upper lakes, as well as that of Lake On- 
tario, enters at Oswego, and large quantities of vfheuX are brought in to be ground 



UNITED STATES. 175 



here. The population of the village nearly doubled between 1830 and 1835, 
having increased from 2117 to 4000 inhabitants. 

The city of Rochester, situated on the Genesee, seven miles from its mouth, 
and traversed by the Great Canal, is a busy and flourishing town. The river has 
hero a fail of m^wards of 90 feet, and a few miles below, it descends by a &11 of 
75 feet to the level of Lake Ontario : the whole descent from Rochester is 255 
feet The motive power thus produced is constant and immense, and there are 
now in the city 21 large flour-mills, several cotton and woollen manu&ctories, and 
a great numb^ of other manufacturing establishments. The aqueduct over the 
river is a fine piece of work, consisting of ten arches of hewn stone. The popu- 
lation of the city increased from 1502 in 1820, to 9269 in 1830, and 14,404 in 
1635. The city of Buflalo, at the western termination of the canal, has a harbour 
,on Lake Erie, protected by a long pier. The city is well built and finelv situ- 
ated, overlooking the lake ; and it contains a great number of large warehouses 
and manufactories. The population in 1820 was 2095 ; in 183Q, 6321 ; and in 
1835, 15,661. The lake-trade is very extensive. In 1817, there were but 25 
vessels, and no steam-boal, on Lake Erie ; and in 1835 they amounted to 375 
sloops, schooners, and brigs, and 34 steam-boats, most of which exceeded 200 
tons burthen ; beside several ships, &x;. Buflalo contains, in addition to its nu- 
merous churches, a handsome exchange, a large and splendid theatre, &«. The 
village of Ithaca, at the head of Cayuga Lake, increased its population from 3324 
in 1^0, to 5000 in 1835. By the Owego rail-road it is connected with the Sus- 
quehaunah, and by the lake, with the Erie canal and tide- water. Its situation is 
highly picturesque. There are numerous manu&cturing establishments here. 



STATE OP NEW JERSEY. 

The State of New Jersey is bounded north by New York, east by the Atlantic 
Ocean and New York, south by Delaware Bay, and west by Pennsylvania. It is 
138 miles in length, and 50 miles in breadth; the area is about 6600 square miles. 
The soil of this State is not naturally well adapted to agricultural pursuits, much 
of the land being either sandy or marshy ; yet its proximity to two of the largest 
markets in the United States, and the industry of the inhabitants, have rendered 
it exceedingly productive of all sorts of grain, fruits, and vegetables, common to 
the climate. New Jersey is intersected by many navigable rivers, and has numer- 
ous streams fortnills, iron works, and every species of manufactures requiring 
water-power. The principal of these streams are the Raritan, Hackensack, Pas- 
saic, Salem, Tom, Cohanzey, and Maurice rivers. 

New Jersey abounds in valuable iron ores ; rich veins of zinc ore occur in the 
northern part of the State; copper also abounds, and has been extensively worked. 
The greater part of the sandy tract is covered with extensive pine forests, which 
have afibrded supplies of fuel for the numerous furnaces of the State, and the 
steam-boats of the neighbouring waters ; the middle section is the most highly 
improved and wealthy part of the State, being divided into small farms and 
kitchen-gardens, which are carefully cultivated, and which find a ready market in 
the numerous manufacturing towns of the district, and in the great cities of the 
adjacent States. The norUiem counties contain much good pasture land, with 
numerous fine farms. The apples and cider of the north are as noted for their 
superior quality as the peaches o( the south. The industry of the inhabitants is 
chiefly devoted to agriculture, commerce being mostly carried on through the 
ports of New York and Pennsylvania ; the north-eastern comer is, however, the 
seat of flourishing manufactures. The shad and oyster fisheries in the rivers and 
great estuaries that border on the State, aflbrd a profitable employment to many 
of the inhabitants. The value of the iron manufactures was estimated, in 1831), 
at about 1,000,000 dollars annually ; of glass, 500,000; of cottons, 2,000,000; of 
woollens. 250,000 ; but all these branches have very much increased since that 
time. Hats, boots and shoes, carriages, harness, &.C., are also largely produced. 



176 UNITED STATES. 



The system of common school instruction has hitherto been defective ; but, in 
consequence of the recent efforts of the friends of education, measures have been 
commenced which promise cheering* results. The State possesses a school-fund, 
which commenced in 1816. The income from it, which is about $22,000, is 
annually distributed, in small sums, to such towns as raise an equal amount for 
the support of schools. There are two colleges in New Jersey ; the College of 
New Jersey, or Nassau Hall, at Princeton, is a highly respectable institution ; it 
has thirteen instructors, upwards of 200 students, a library of 8000 volumes, &c. 
Rutgers College, at New Brunswick, was founded by the Dutch Reformed Church, 
and has a theological seminary connected with it The Presbyterians have also 
a distinguished theological school at Princeton. There are several academies and 
high schools in .the State. The Presbyterians are the prevalent sect ; but the 
Baptists, Methodists, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, and Friends, are numerous, 
and there are some Roman Catholics, Universalists, &c. 

Several important canal and rail-road routes connect the eastern and western 
waters, or unite different sections of the State. The Morris canal extends from 
Jersey City to the Delaware opposite Easton, 102 miles ; inclined planes have 
been 'in part used instead of locks, and the boats raised and let down in a frame or 
cradle, moved by water-power. The Delaware and Raritan canal, uniting the 
navigable waters of the rivers from which it takes its name, extends ftx)m Borden- 
town, through Trenton, to New Brunswick, 45 miles, admitting vessels of 100 
tons ; a navigable feeder, 23 miles in length, extends from Bull's Island, in the 
Delaware, to Trenton. The Camden and Amboy rail-road is an important work 
on the great line of travel between the north and south, 61 miles in length. The 
Paterson and Hudson rail-road, from Patersou to Jersey City, opposite New York, 
is 14 miles long; the New Jersey rail-road extends from New Brunswick, through 
Newark, to the last-mentioned road, a few miles from the Hudson ; length, 28 
miles. The Camden and Woodbury rail-road, 6 miles, is in progress. 

The city of Trenton, on the east bank of the Delaware, at Uie head of sloop 
navigation, is the capital qf the State. It is regularly laid out, and contains the 
State-House, State-Prison, and eight churches. A wooden bridge 1000 feet in 
length here crosses the river, just below the falls, and the Delaware and Raritan 
canal passes through the city. "The falls afford extensive water-power for manu- 
facturing purposes, and there are ten mills and manufactories in the vicinity. 
Population, 3925. Ten miles from Trenton is the village of Princeton, the seat 
of New Jersey College, and celebrated in the revolutionary history for the action 
of January 3d, 1777. 

The city of New Brunswick, at the head of sloop navigation on tlie Raritan, 
and at the termination of the Delaware and Raritan canal, and the New Jersey 
rail-road, is the dep6t of the produce of a fertile district, and a place of considerabre 
trade. The upper streets are spacious and handsome, and command a fine pros- 
pect Here are Rutgers College, and a theological seminary of the Dutch 
Reformed. The population of the city is about 6000. 

At the mouth of the Raritan stands the city of Amboy, or Perth Amboy, with a 
good harbour, which is, however, little used. Elizabethtown is a pretty and 
thriving town near Newark Bay, with 3450 inhabitants; it contains several mills. 

The city of Newark, the largest and most important town in New Jersey, 
stands on the Passaic, three miles from Newark Bay, and has easy communication 
with New York by means of steam-boats and the New Jersey rail-road ; the Morris 
canal also passes through the city. Newark is prettily situated and well built, 
with spacious streets and handsome houses, many of which are ornamented with 
fine shade trees. The manufactures are extensive, and its surplus produce sent 
off is estimated to amount to 8,000,000 dollars yearly. Carriages, shoes and boots, 
saddlery, jewelry, hats, furniture, &c., are among the articles produced. The 
population in 1830 was 10,053, in 1835 about 16,000. Paterson, at the falls of 
the Passaic, which afford an immense water-power, and are extensively applied 
to economical purposes, is one of the principal manufacturing towns in the counti7. 
Here are cotton-mills, with numerous other works, such as paper-mills, machine- 
^ shops, button factories, iron and brass founderies, nail factories, woollen-mills, &c. 



UNITED STATES. / 177 



The town contains ten churches, and the population increased from 7731, in 1830, 
to about 12,000, in 1835. 

Below Trenton, on the Delaware, is Bordentown, pleasantly situated on ele- 
vated ground overlooking the river, and standing at the termination of the Dela- 
ware and Raritan canal. The city of Burlington, below Bordentown, is also a 
neat little town prettily situated on the banks of the river, with 2670 inhabitants. 
Steam-boats from Philadelphia touch at these places several times a day. The 
city of Camden, opposite Philadelphia, carries on some branches of manufacturing 
industry; ten steam ferry-boats are constantly plying between the two cities. 
Population, 2340. 

New Jersey is divided into 14 counties, which are subdivided into 120 town- 
ships. Owing to the great emigration, the population increased slowly until 1820, 
but since that time the increase has been more rapid, on account of the growth 
of manufacturea 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 
East and West Jersey, in 1701, 15,000; in 1749, 60,000. 

IMCRKA8S. 

In 1790, 184,139 

1800 211,149 11 From 1790 to 1800, 27,010 

1810, 245,562 1800 to 1810, 34,413 

1820, 277,575 1810 to 1820, 32,013 

1830, 320,823 1| 1820 to 1830, 43^248 

Of the foregoing population of 1830, there were, white Males, 152,529 ; white 
Females, 147,737; deaf and dumb, 207; blind, 205: aliens, 3365. Total whites, 
300,266. Free coloured, 18,303 ; slaves, 2254. Total coloured, 20,557. 



■LAVBS. 

11,423 

12,422 

10,851 

7,557 

2,254 



COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

This State, which, from her central position, her dimensions, her natural re- 
sources, her great lines of cQminiiiiir.ati£in^ uui har population, mfiy rank as one 
of the most miportant in the Union, is bounded on the north by New York and 
Lake Erie, east by New Jersey, south-east by Delaware, sooth by Maryland and 
Virginia, and west by part of Virginia and Ohio. Its greatest length, from east 
to west, is 307 miles, and its breadth 157 ; area, 46,000 square milea 

The principal rivers are the Delaware, Schuylkill, Lehigh, Susquehannah, 
Juniata, Alleghany, Monongahela, and Ohio. The various ridges of the Alle- 
ghany range intersect the central parts of this State, whose general direction is 
from south-west to north-east. The valleys between many of these ridges are 
oflen of a rich black soil, snited well to the various kinds of grass and grain. 
Some of the mountains admit of cultivation almost to their summits. No State 
in the Union shows to the passing traveller a richer agriculture than this. It is 
emphatically a grain country, raising the greatest abundance of fine wheat It 
produces all the fruits and productions of the northern and middle States, and is 
particularly famous for the great size, strength, and excellence, of its breed of 
draught horses. 

Pennsylvania spreads a wide surface in the Ohio valley, and is rapidly ad- 
vancing in wealth and population. New towns and villages are springing up in 
every direction. The State abounds in all the elements of wealth and power. 
Public opinion has given it a strong impulse towards manufactures, and it has 
a gigantic system of internal improvements. Its inhabitant^:, though composed of 
all nations, are distinguished for their habits of order, industry, and frugality. 
The passing stranger, as he traverses the State, is struck with the noble roads 
and public works, with the well-cultivated farms and their commodbus and im- 
perishable stone houses, and oflen still larger stone barns. An agricultural coun- 
try, alike charming and rich, spreads under his eye. 

The mineral wealth of Pennsylvania is very great, and, although but recently 



178 UNITED STATES. 



begun to be developed, already gives an earnest of future importance. Coal, iron, 
and salt, occur in vast quantities. The coal of Pennsylvania is of two kinds, the 
Anthracite and Bituminous, which are quite distinct in their qualities and locali- 
ties. The first is found in the eastern part of the State, between the Delaware 
and Susquehannah Riven^, and is estimated to cover an extent of about 624,000 
acres. In 1835, the quantity sent from the coal region, exclusive of that shipped 
by the Susquehannah, was upwards of 600,000 tons, valued at more than 3,(XX),000 
dollars. The bituminous coal is found in the western parts of the State : it is 
supposed that about 460,000 tons are annually consumed in Pittsburgh, and at the 
different salt-works on the Kiskiminetas, &c., besides what is sent down the 
river Ohio to Cincinnati, New Orleans, and other towns. About 1,000,000 bushels 
of salt are manufactured yearly at the works on the Kiskiminetas, Alleghany, 
and Beaver. 

Iron ore of an excellent quality is abundant and extensively wrought The 
iron-mines in the eastern part of the State were explored and worked at an early 
period of colonial settlement, and had become an interest of great value before 
the Revolution. Since tlie peace of 178?^, with much fluctuation, iron has at all 
times employed a vast amount of capital and labour. In 1832, upwards of 60 
furnaces, and 100 forges, produced near 90,000 tons of pig iron, blooms, bar iron, 
and castings; and no doubt the amount has much increased since that time. The 
manufactures of Pennsylvania constitute an important branch of its industry ; 
they include cotton and woollen goods, iron ware of all kinds, manu&ctures of 
leather, hats, paper, furniture, porcelain, &c. In the year 1832, there were 67 
cotton factories in the State, with an aggregate capital of 3,758,500 dollars, and 
making annually 21,3:32,667 yards of cloth. The total value of manufactures, 
including about 250 different articles, is estimated at upwards of 70,000,000 
dollars. 

The foreign commerce of Pennsylvania is in part curied on through New 
York, Baltimore, and New Orleans ; and its actual amount cannot therefore be 
fully ascertained. The valae of the direct imports in 1834, was 12,389,937 dol- 
lars; of exports, 3,739,275 dollars ; an active inland trade is prosecuted on her 
canals, on Lake Erie, and ob the Ohio; and her coasting-trade is extensive and 
valuable. The ehippintf boloo^ii^ w Um^ sutLo^i^ isivy amounted ^to 78,993 
tons. 

Little attention has been paid to the education of the people in this State, and, 
notwithstanding an express injunction of the constitution, no attempt was made 
to establish a general system of popular instruction, until 1834, when an act was 
passed for that purpose, which was modified in 1836. This act authorizes the 
towns to raise money for the support of common schools, and provides for the dis- 
tribution of the proceeds of the State school-fund among those towns which shall 
adopt the school system. Ample provision has, however, been made for the gra- 
tuitous instruction of poor children in the county of Philadelphia, in which about 
9500 annually enjoy its benefits. There are in the State 55 academies, 2 univer- 
sities, 8 colleges, 5 theological seminaries, and 2 medical schools. The University 
of Pennsylvania is in Philadelphia, and the medical school connected with it is the 
most distinguished and most fully attended in the United States. The Western 
University is at Pittsburgh. Jefi^erson College, at Canonsburg, which has a medi- 
cal department in Philadelphia ; Dickinson College, at Carlisle ; Alleghany Col- 
lege, at Meadville ; Washington College, at Washington ; Pennsylvania College, 
at Gettysburg ; Lafayette College, at Eaeton ; the Manual Labour Collegiate In- 
stitution, at Bristol ; and Marshall College, at Mercersburg, are now in operation. 
Girard College, endowed with a fund of 2,000,000 dollars, by Mr. Girard, and in- 
tended for the support and education of destitute orphans, is not yet organized. 

The Methodists and Presbyterians are the most numerous religious sects. The 
Lutherans, Baptists, German Reformed, and Friends, rank next in point of num- 
bers ; after them, come Episcopalians and Roman Catholics, witli some Moravians 
or United Brethren, Dutch Reformed, Universal ists, &c. 

The works for the improvement of internal intercommunication have been ex- 
I ecuted partly by the State, and partly by individuals, on a grand scale. Those of 



UNITED STATES. 179 



the State consist of several divisions composed of rail-roads and canals, extending 
across the country from tide-water to the Ohio, and branehin? off in different di- 
rections to almost every section of the State. The grand trunk extends from Phi- 
ladelphia to Pittsburgh, a distance, by this route, of 400 milea 

The first division of the work, from Philadelphia to Columbia on the Susque- 
hannah, is a rail-road, 81 miles in length. At Columbia, the canal begins, and is 
continued up the Susquehannah and Juniata, to Holidaysburg, 172 miles. The 
canal is 40 feet wide at top, and 4 feet deep. The Alleghany ridge is then sur- 
mounted by the Alleghany Portage Rail-road, 37 miles in length, with a rise and 
fall of 2570 feet; the summit^levcl is 2490 feet above the sea. At Johnstown, the 
route is again continued by a canal, down the Kiskiminetas and Alleghany, to 
Pittsburgh, 104 miles. A branch of this great undertaking is the tSusquehannah 
canal, extending from the mouth of the Juniata, up the Susquehannah and the 
North Branch, to the mouth of the Lackawanna, 1 15 miles : a second lateral divi- 
sion runs up the West Branch, to Dunnstown, 66 miles, The Delaware branch 
extends from Bristol to Easton, 60 miles : the Beaver branch, from the town of the 
name, up the Big Beaver and Shenango rivers, to Newcastle, affords a navigable 
channel of 30 miles, by means of eight miles of excavation, and seven dams in 
the river. The French Creek branch extends up that river, from Franklin, at its 
mouth, to Meadville and Conneaut lAke ; total length, 46 miles, or, with the lake, 
50 miles, of which 27 miles is by excavation. Appropriations were also made in 
the spring of 1836, for continuing the Susquehannah branch towards the State 
line ; for extending the West Branch division ; for continuing the canal in the 
western part of the State toward Erie; and for ascertaining, by surveys, the prac- 
ticability of connecting the West Branch with the Alleghany, by a canal. 

The principal works constructed by individuals are as follows : the Lacka waxen 
canal, extending from the mouth of that river, on the Delaware, to Honesdale, 25 
miles, whence it is continued by a rail-road to Carbondale coal-mines, 16^ miles : 
the cost of these works was 2,000,000 dollars. The Lehigh canal starts from the 
termination of the Morris and Delaware canals, and goes to White Haven, 66 
miles : the Mauch Chunk, Room Run, and Bei^ver Meadow rail-roads, connect 
this canal with the first and second coal bamns. The Schuylkill canal connects 
Poft Carbon with Philadelphia, by a succession of pools and canals ; the whole 
length t)f the navigation is 106 miles: the cost of this work was 2,500,000 dollars. 
About 50 miles of rail-road branch from this canal to various collieries. The 
Union canal connects the Schuylkill at Reading with the Susquehannah at Mid- 
dletown, 82 mileB. A lateral branch to Pine Orove, 23 miles up the Swatara, is 
connected by a rail-road with the coal-mines. The Union canal, by the junction 
of the Grand Trunk and the Schuylkill canals, afibrds uninterrupted navigation 
from Philadelphia to the Lackawanna, Dunnstown, and Holidaysburg. The Sus- 
quehannah canal, from Columbia to Port Deposit, 40 miles, connects the main 
trunk of the Pennsylvania canal vith tide- water. The Nescopeck canal, in pro- 
gress, will connect the Lehigh with the North Branch of the Susquehannah. 

The principal rail-roads, exclusive of those in the coal region, which make an 
aggregate of about 100 miles, are the Philadelphia and Trenton rail-road, con- 
necting those two cities, 26J miles ; the Philadelphia and Norristown, 17 miles, 
which is to be continued to Reading; the Central rail-road from Pottsville to Sun. 
bury, 44i miles, with a branch to Danville. The Philadelphia and Delaware rail- 
road, 17 miles, is a part of the line of rail-road by Wilmington to Baltimore, now 
in progress. The Oxford rail-road, from Coatesville, on the Columbia rail-road, to 
Port Deposit, 31 miles ; the Lancaster and Harrisburg rail-road, 37 miles ; the 
Cumberland Valley rail-road, from the Susquehannah opposite Harrisburg, to 
Chambersburg, 49 miles; the Wrightsville and Gettysburg rail-road, from Colum- 
bia, through York, to Gettysburg, 40 miles; the Susquehannah and Little Schuyl- 
kill rail-rwid, from Catawissa to Tamaqua; the Williamsport and Elmira rail-road, 
from the West Branch to the Tioga, 70 miles ; and the continuation of the Balti- 
more and Susquehannah, from the Maryland line, through York, to the Susque- 
hannah, are in progress. 



180 



UNITED STATES. 



I 



Pennsylvania is divided into 53 counties, which are subdivided into townships 
and cities. The whole population amounted in 1830 to 1,348,238. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1701, 20,000 

1763 280,000 

1790, 434,373 

1800, 602,545 

1810 810,091 

1820 1,049,313 

1830, 1,348,233 



INCRCASK. 

From 1701 to 1763 260,000 

1763 to 1790 154,373 

1790 to 1800 168,172 

1800 to 1810 ..' 207,546 

1810 to 1820 239,222 

1820 to 1830 298,920 



3,737 

1,706 
795 
211 
403 



Of the above population of 1830, there were white males, 565,812 ; white 
females, 644,068 ; deaf and dumb, 758 ; blind, 475 ; aliens, 15,865 ; total, 1,309,900. 
Free coloured males, 18,377 ; females, 19,553 ; total, 37,930. Slaves, males, 172 ; 
females, 231; total, 403. 

The city of Philadelphia, the principal city of the State, and one of the most 
regularly laid out and handsomely built in the world, stands between the Dela- 
ware and the Schuylkill Rivers, about 5 miles above their junction, and 100 miles 
from the sea by the course of the former. It yields to none in the Union in the 
wealth, industry, and intelligence of its citizens. Philadelphia has the advantage 
of a double port, connected with very remote sections; that on the Schuylkill is 
accessible to vessels of 300 tons, and is the great depdt for the coal of the inte- 
rior ; the other, on the Delaware, admits the largest merchant-vessels to the doors 
of the ware-houses, and is spacious and secure. 

The streets are broad and straight, crossing each other at right angles, and 
dividing the city into numerous squares, some of which have been reserved for 
public walks, and are ornamented with fine shade and flowering trees. The 
dwelling-houses are neat and commodious, and the public buildings, generally con- 
structed of white marble, are the most elegant in the country. Two bridges 
cross the Schuylkill, one of which is remarkable for its arch of 324 feet span, the 
longest in the world. Numerous steam-boats afford constant and easy communi- 
cation with Baltimore and New York^ and, with the rail-roads into the interior, 
render this city the great thoroughfare between the north and south, and the east 
and west 

Philadelphia includes the City Proper, with Southwark, Moyameliriil'^^ and 
Passyunk, on the south ; and Kensington, Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, and 
Penn Township, on the north ; having a population in 1790, of 42,520 ; in 1810, 
of 96,664; and in 1830, of 167,811. 

The manufactures of PJiiladelphia are various and extensive : her foreign com- 
merce is considerable : the arrivals from foreign ports in 1835 having been 429 ; 
and the value of her imports being between 10,000,000 and 12,000,(X)0 dollars a 
year : her inland commerce is also very extensive, and rapidly increasing, in con- 
sequence of the fHci lilies afforded by the numerous canals and rail-roads that 
centre here, affording an easy communication with all sections of the State, and 
with the great western valley. There are about 500,000 barrels of flour, and 
3600 hogsheads of tobacco inspected, and upwards of 800,000 bushels of grain 
measured here annually. 

The shipping belonging to the port in 1835, was 83,520 tons. There are in the 
city 16 banks, with a capital of 51,900,000 dollars. Philadelphia is noted for the 
number and excellence of -its benevolent institutions. Among these are the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, the Dispensary, Wills' Hospital for the lame and blind ; the 
institutions for the deaf and dumb, and for the blind ; the Aims-House, Magdalen 
Asylum, Orphan Asylums, Girard College for Orphans, &c. The Society for alle- 
viating the miseries ol' public prisons, has not only distinguished itself by its suc- 
cessful efforts in reforming the penal code of the State, but in improving the con- 
ditions of the prisons : the discipline adopted by the influence of this Society con- 
sists, in solitary confinement with labour ; and the penitentiaries of Pennsylvania 
are conducted on this plan. The learned institutions of Philadelphia are equally 
distinguished : they are the American Philosophical Society, the Academy of , 



UNITED STATEa 181 



Natural Sciences, the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and the Franklin Institute ; 
all of which have published some, valuable volumes. The Medical Schools are 
also much frequented and highly -celebrated. The City Library, including the 
Loganian collection, consists of 42,000 volumes. There is also an Academy of 
Fine Arts here. Free schools are supported at the public charge, and educate 
about 9500 scholars annually, at an expense of about 56,000 dollars. The princi- 
pal public buildings are the United States Bank, on the model of the Parthenon, 
and the Pennsylvania Bank, of the Ionic order, both elegant specimens of classical 
architecture : the Mint, a handsome building, with Ionic porticoes 62 feet long on 
each front; the Exchange, 96 feet by 114, containing a spacious Hall, News 
Room, the Post Office, du;. ; the Girard Bank, the Girard College, a splendid struc- 
ture, 111 feet by 169, with a colonnade of Grecian Corinthian columns, entirely 
surrounding it ; all of these buildings are of white marble. The United States 
Marine Asylum, capable of accommodating 400 men, with a front of 385 feet ; 
the Aims-House, on the west bank of the Schuylkill, consisting of four distinct 
buildings, with nearly 400 rooms ; the State-House, interesting from its having 
been the place where the Declaration of Independence was adopted and promul- 
gated ; the United States Arsenal, &c., also deserve mention. There are here 100 
churches and places of public worship, including 2 synagogues. The State peni- 
tentiary and the County prison are not less remarkable for their architecture, than 
for their discipline. The County Prison, built of Quincy Granite, has a front of 
310 feet by 525 in depth. There is a Navy- Yard here, but ships of war of the 
largest class cannot ascend to the city with their armament The inhabitants are 
liberally supplied with water by the Fairmount works, constructed at an' expense 
of 432,500 dollars ; 93 miles of pipe convey it to all parts of the city. The daily 
consumption in summer is ^ut 4,000,000 galtons. The annual rents amount to 
92,116 dollars, and the annual charge to 14,000. 

Frankfbrd and Grermantown are flourishing towns in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia. The former is the seat of numerous manufacturing establishments, includ- 
ing several cotton-mills, calico-print works, and bleacheries, woollen-mills, iron 
works, &c. Here are also an Arsenal of the United States, and a Lunatic Asy- 
lum, belonging to the Frienda Germantown is a flourishing and pleasant town, 
with 4311 inhabitants, containing a bank, some manufactures, &c. The other 
most important places in Pennsylvania are Lancaster City, Harrisburg, Reading, 
Easton, and Pottsville, in the eastern section of the State ; in the western are 
Pittsburgh, Beaver, &c. 

The City of Lancaster, 62 miles west of Philadelphia, pleasantly situated in the 
fertile and highly cultivated Conestoga valley, is one of the handsomest in the 
State: the streets are regular, and among the public buildings are 12 churches, 
an academy, &c. Its trade is extensive, and the manufactures various and consi- 
derable : it is noted for the superior quality of its rifles, coaches, rail-road cars, 
stockings, saddlery, &c. The population amounts to 7704. ' Lancaster is con- 
nected with Philadelphia and Harrisburg by rail-roads, and with the Susquehan- 
nab, below Columbia, by a canal. 

Harrisburg, the capital of the State, stands on the left bank' of the Susque- 
hannah. The State-House is a neat and commodious building, from the cupola 
of which is one of the finest panoramic views in the United Statea Here are 
also a CourtrHouse and a number of churches. Population, in 1830, 4,312. Be- 
yond the Sttsquehannah are the thriving ^owns of Carlisle and Chambersburg ; the 
former containing 3707, and the latter 2^ inhabitants. Carlisle is the seat of 
Dickinson College. 

Reading, about 50 miles north-west from Philadelphia, is a prosperous town on 
the left bank of the Schuylkill, and at the termination of the Union Canal. The 
town is regularly built, and was originally settled by Germans : several newspa- 
pers are still printed in that language, though English is genecally understood. 
Population, 6856. 

Easton, at the confluence of the Lehigh and the Delaware, and the termination 
of the Morris canal, is one of the most flourishing inland towns in the State. In 
its immediate neighbourhood are numerous flour-mills, oil-mills, saw-mills, Slc. 

SSaSB^iSSSBBaBBSSSBSSS^i=SSSBBBSB8BBBBBBaBBapS$B^Bi^BaB«a^ 



16 



182 UNITED STATES. 



The situation is highly picturesque, and it contains five churches, a manual labour 
collegiate institution, a library with a mineralogical cabinet, &c. The population 
in 1830 was 8700, but at present is about 5000. Pottsville is situated in a wild 
district on the Schuylkill, in the raidsi of the coal re^n. It contains many hand- 
some dwellings, and its popoulation, which in 1625 did not exceed 300, amounted, 
in 1835, to 8;^0. Mauch Chunk, first settled in 1821, is also built on very broken 
ground ; but, in addition to the coal trade, it enjoys the advantage of an extensive 
water-power, which is used for manufacturing purposes: and its population at 
present exceeds 2000. Wilkesbarre stands in the delightful valley of Wyoming, 
whose rural beauty, and peaceful shades, once stained with blood and desolated 
with fire, have been consecrated by the deathless muse. The population of 
Wilkesbarre is 2233. 

Pittsburgh, the principal city of Western Pennsylvania, is built at the junction 
of the M onongahela and the Alleghany. The city proper includes only the tract 
between the rivers ; but, as the little towns of Birmingham, Alleghanytown, &^c., 
really form a part of Pittsburgh, they must properly be included in its description. 
Perhaps its site is unrivalled in the world, commanding a navigation of about 
50,000 miles, which gives it access to the most fertile region on the face of the 
globe, surrounded by inexhaustible beds of the most useful minerals. Connected by 
artificial works which top the great natural barrier on the east, with the three 
principal cities of the Atlantic Imrderon one side, and by others not less extensive, 
with those great inland seas that already bear on their bosoms the trade of indus- 
trious millions, Pittsburgh is doubtless destined to become one of the most important 
centres of population, industry, and wealth, in the United States. The population 
of the place in 1800 was about 1600; in 1820, 10,000; in 1830, 18,000, of which 
the city proper comprised 12,568; and in 1835 it was estimated to exceed 35,000. 
In 1835 there were here 120 steam-engmes, 16 large fouuderies and engine fac- 
tories, with numerous small works; rolling-mills, cotton establishments, white 
lead factories, breweries, saw and grist-mills, glass works, with brass founderies, 
steel manufactories, tanneries, salt works, paper-mills, manufactories of cutlery and 
agricultural implements, &c., are among the 300 manufacturing establishments of 
Pittsburgh. The city is regularly built, but the clouds of smoke in which it is 
constantly enveloped give it rather a dingy appearance. Among the public 
establishments here, are the Alleghany Arsenal, (belonging to the United States, 
the Western Penitentiary of the State, the Western University, a Presbyterian 
and a Reformed Theological Seminary, 50 churches and places of worship, 55 
Sunday schools, 60 common and 12 select schools, &c. A steam-engine supplies 
the city with 1,500,000 gallons of water daily. 

In the district to the south of Pittsburgh, Washington, Brownsville, and Union, 
are thriving towns. Canonsburg is the seat of Jefferson College. Below Pittsburgh, 
Beaver, at the mouth of the river of the same name, is a thriving town, which is 
indebted for its prosperity to the great water-power afforded by the falls of that 
stream. Numerous mills and manufacturing establishments have recently been 
erected on both sides of the river above the village, and the whole population of 
the neighbourhood is about 5000. The completion of the connecting links 
between the Ohio and Pennsylvania canals will give a great impulse to the trade 
of this place. 

Erie, on the lake of the same name, is important on account of its harbour, 
which is protected by several piers. This place is increasing rapidly, and bids 
fair to become of considerable commercial importance. 



STATE OP DELAWAHE. 

The boundaries of this State are,-— on the north Pennsylvania, on the south 
Maryland, on the east Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

The extent from north to south is 90 miles ; from east to west 25 miles ; area in 
square miles, 2120. The principal streams, besides the Delaware, which forms a 



UNITED STATES. 183 



part of its boundary, are Brandywine creek, Christiana creek, Duck creek, Mis- 
pillion creek, and Indian, Choptank, and Nanticoke rivers. 

The general aspect of Delaware is that of an extended plain, mostly ftvourable 
for cultivation. 

On the table-land forming the dividing ridge between the Delaware and Chesa- 
peake Bays, is a chain of swamps, from which the waters descend in one direction 
to Chesapeake, and in the other to Delaware Bay. The upper part of the State 
ie generally a fine tract of country, and well adapted to the growing of wheat, and 
other grains. The staple commodity, however, is wheat, which is produced of a 
superior quality. The flour is highly esteemed for its soilness, and is preferred in 
foreign markets. Brandywine creek, in the upper part of the State, furnishes 
water-power for great and growing manufacturing establishments. The chief arti- 
cles are flour, cottons, woollens, paper, and gunpowder. Delaware contains but 
few minerals ; in the county of Sussex, and among the l^anches of the Nanticoke, 
are large quantities of bog iron ore, well adapted for casting; but it is not wrought 
to any extent. This State has a school-fund of ^^170,000. There are academies 
at Wilmington, New Castle, Newark, Smyrna, Dover, Milford, Lewistown, and 
Georgetown. Schools are established in every district of four miles square. No 
district is entitled to any share of the fund that will not raise by taxation a sum 
equal to its share of the income of the fund. 

The foreign commerce of Delaware is inconsiderable, but an active coasting- 
trade is carried on. There were in the State, in 1833, 15 cotton-mills, 6 machine- 
shops, 2 founderies, and one rolling-mill ; 2 woollen manufactories ; 30 tanneries ; 
3 paper-mills; 2 powder-mills; 20 querciiron-mills; 72 flour-mills, 22 of which are 
merchant-mills; 40 saw-mills, &c. The Delaware and Chesapeake canal is a 
highly important work, from its connecting those two great estuaries by a channel 
navigable by sea-vessels ; it is 10 feet deep, 66 feet wide, and nearly 14 miles in 
length ; it has two tide and two lifl-locks, and was constructed at an expense of 
2,200,000 dollars. Here is also a rail-road extending across the State from New 
Castle on the Delaware, to Frenchtown on Elk river, 16^ miles long ; and the 
Wilmington and Susquehannah rail-road, now in progress, forms a link in the route 
which is to unite Philadelphia and Baltimore. 

Delaware is divided into three counties, which are subdivided into hundreds. 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

INCREASE. 

In 1790, 59,094 . 



1800, 64^73 

1810, 72,674 

1820, 72J49 

1830, 76,739 



From 1790 to 1800 5,179 

1800 to 1810, 8,401 

1810 to 1820 75 

1820 to 1830, 3,990 



SLAVES. 

8,887 
6,153 
4,177 
4,509 
3,292 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 28,845; white Fe- 
males, 28,756; deaf and dumb, ;^; blind, 18; aliens, 313. Total whites, 57,601. 
Free coloured Males, 78S2; Females, 7973. Total, 15,855. Slaves— Males, 
1806; Females, 1486. Total, 3292. 

The city of Wilmington, pleasantly situated near the junction of the Brandy- 
wine and Christiana, is a well-built, growing town, and the most important in the 
State. It contains an arsenal, hospital, 13 churches, &c., and is supplied with 
water by water-works on the Brandywine. Its trade is extensive, and it sends 
several ships to the whale-flshery. In the immediate vicinity there are about 100 
mills and manufactories, producing flour, paper, iron-ware, powder, and cotton and 
woollen goods; the Brandywine flour-mills are among the most extensive in the 
United Sutes. The population, which in 1830 was 6628, is now about 10,000. 
New Castle, below Wilmington, is a little village at the termination of the rail- 
road. Dover, the seat of government, contains the State-House, and about 1500 
inhabitants. Lewistown is a village near Cape Henlopen, in front of which has 
been erected the Delaware Breakwater. The work consists of two piers, an ice- 
breaker 1500 feet in length, and a breakwater 3600 feet long, not yet fully com- 
pleted ; estimated cost 2,216,950 dollars. 



184 UNITED STATES. 



STATE OF MARYLAN1>. 

Maryland is bounded north by Pennsylvania and Delaware ; east by Delaware 
and the Atlantic ; south-west and west by Virginia. Length 196 miles, and 120 
miles in breadth ; area in square miles 10,950, in acres 7,0^,000. The principal 
rivers are the Potomac, which divides it from Virginia, the Susquehannah, Pa- 
tapsco, Pawtuxent, Elk, Sassafras, Chester, ChoptanK, Nanticoke, and Pocomoko. 

The maritime part of this State is penetrated fkr into the interior by Chesa- 
peake fitey, as a vast river dividing it into two distinct portions, called the eastern 
and western shores. These shores include a level, low, and alluvial country, 
intersected by tide-water rivers and creeks, and like the same tracts of country 
&rther south are subject 'to intermittents. The genuine white wheat, which is 
supposed to be peculia^to this State, is raised on these shores. Above the tide- 
waters, the land becomes agreeably undulating. Beyond this commences the 
Alleghany mountain, with its numerous ridges : the valleys between them are of 
a loamy and rich soil, yielding fine wheat and all the productions of the middle, 
together with some of those of the southern States. The national road passes 
through the wide and fertile valleys in which Frederick and Hagerstown are 
situated, being booad belts of the same admirable soil which is seen in Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania. Among these mountains and hills the air is elastic, the 
climate salubrioas, and the waters clear and transparent 

In manufactures and commerce, Maryland sustains a very respectable rank ; 
numerous woollen and cotton-mills, copper and iron rolling-mills are established 
in and near Baltimore, and are also scattered over other parts of the State. Flour 
and tobacco are the staple productions : the exports of the former are very great, 
and of the latter the product is considerable and of excellent quality. The 
herring and shad fisheries are actively carried on, and yield valuable returns, con- 
stituting an important article of trade, as well as of home consumption ; the com- 
merce of Maryland is extensive, and her ports serve as the outlets of lai^e tracts 
of productive country in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the Western States, whose 
consumption is also in part supplied through the same channels. Her imports 
from foreign countries amounted in 1835 to 5,647,153 dollars; her exports to 
3,925,234 dollars ; and her coasting trade is also valuable. The shipping belong- 
ing to the State amounted in the l^ginning of that year to 101,587 tons. 

There is a free school fund of 50,000 dollars, belonging to different counties, 
and appropriated to the education of indigent children, and the proceeds of a 
small school fund belonging to the State, are also applied to the same object. The 
State also grants annually a sum of 5000 dollars to the University of Maryland, 
and a further sum, amounting in 1835 to 18,600 dollars, to other colleges, acade- 
mies, and schools. The colleges are St. John's College, at Annapolis, St Mary's 
at Baltimore, Mount St Mary's at Emmittsburg, and Mount Hope, near Baltimore. 
The Academical and Medical Departments of the University of Maryland, at 
Baltimore, are in operation, and there is also another medical school, styled the 
Washington Medical College, in the same city. The Roman Catholics, Episco- 
palians, and Methodists, are the prevailing sects ; and the Presbyterians, Baptists, 
German Reformed, and Friends, are pretty numerous. There are also some 
Universal ists, Lutherans, Swedenborgians, Tunkers, and Menonists. 

The canals and rail-roads of Maryland are on a gigantic scale ; the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal is to extend from Georgetown to Pittsburg, 340 miles; it is 
already completed to above Williamsport, 105 miles, and is in progress to Cum- 
berland, 185 miles, an appropriation of 3,000,000 dollars having recently been 
made by the State, to enable the Company to finish this section of the work. The 
cost of this work, thus far, is estimated to have been about 4,100,000 dollars. The 
Legislature of the State has also appropriated 1,000,000 for the construction of 
branches to Baltimore and Annapolis. The Susquehannah Canal, extending from 
Columbia to Port Deposit, is in progress. The Baltimore and Ohio rail-road is 
completed to Harper's Ferry, 80 miles, where it is connected with the Winches- 
ter rail-road ; the work is now going on towards Cumberland, and an appropria- 



UNITED STATE& 185 



tioD of 9,000,000 dollars has been made by the State to aid in its completion. A 
branch has been constructed to Washington, a distance of 32 miles, from a point 
about 12 miles from Baltimore. Number of passengers conveyed on the road in 
1835, d7,758 ; tons of merchandise, 72,634 ; receipts, 263,368 dollars ; expenses, 
156,204 dollars; there are 1140 burden cars, and 44 passenger cars, with seven 
locomotive engines, employed on the road. It has been ascertained by surveys, 
to be practicable to carry the rail-road over tlie Alleghany Mountains, at an eleva- 
tion of 2278 feet, without having recourse to the use of inclined planes. The 
Baltimore and Philadelphia rail-road is chiefly in this State ; the whole distance 
is 92 miles; from Baltimore, by Havre de Grace, to the Delaware State line, 53 
miles ; the Susquehannab will be crossed by a steam ferry-boat ; the work is 
nearly completed. The Baltimore and Susquehannah rail-road extends from 
Baltimore, by York, to the Susquehannab, 75 miles, and is also approaching its 
completion. A rail-road from the northern part of the Eastern Shore to Poco- 
moke Bay, is about to be constructed, and the State has voted 1,000,000 dollars 
towards its execution. 

Maryland is divided into nuieteen counties, of which eight are on the Eastern, 
and eleven on the Western Shore. In 1820, the population of the Eastern Shore 
was 121,617; in ia30, it had sunk to 119,472; that of the Western Shore, on 
the other hand, had increased from 275,733, to 327,568. Of the whole popula- 
tion, amounting to 447,040, 155,932 were blacks. The number of slaves had 
lessened, from 111,502 in 1810, to 102,932 in 1830. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1660, 12,000; in 1676, 16,000; in 1701, 25,000; in 1733, 36,000 ; in 1749, 
85,000; in 1755, 108,000; in 1763, 70,000 whites. 

INCREASE. SLAVES. 



In 1790, 317,728 

1800 345,824 

1810 380,546 

1820, 407,350 

1830, 446,913 



103,036 
108,554 
111,502 
107,398 
102,878 



From 1790 to 1800 26,096 

1800 to 1810, 34,722 

1810 to 1820, 16,804 

1820 to 1830, 39,563 

Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 147,315 ; white 
Females, 143,778; deaf and dumb, 131; blind, 156. Total, whites, 291,093. 
Free Coloured Males, 34,920; Females, 28,022. Total, 52,942. Slaves- 
Males, 534^; Females, 49,449. Total, 102,878. { 

Baltimore, the principal city of the State, and, in point of population, the third 
in the Union, stands on an arm of Patapsco Bay, about 14 miles from the Chesa- 
peake, and 20d from the sea, by the ship channel. The harbour is capacious and 
safe, and consists of an inner basin, into which vessels of 200 tons can enter, and 
an outer harbour, at Fell's Point, accessible to the largest merchant-ships. The 
entrance is commanded and defended by Fort M^Henry. Baltimore possesses 
nearly the whole trade of Maryland, that of part of Western Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Western States, and its inland communication has been extended 
and facilitated, by the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio rail-road. Manu- 
factures of cotton, woollen, paper, powder, alum, chrome yellow, pottery, &c., 
are also carried on in the city and neighbourhood. Baltimore is the greatest flour 
market in the world; the quantity of flour inspected in 1835, amounted to 
516,600 bbls. and 21,333 half-barrels, with 1405 hhds. and 4301 barrels of Indian 
corn meal, and 4807 barrels of rye flour. Its foreign trade has, however, some- 
what declined ; its shipping amounted, in 1833, to 59,870 tons. The numher of 
banks, in 1834, was ten, with a capital of about 7,000,000 dollars. The public 
buildings are, 45 churches, two hospitals, a penitentiary, exchange, the college 
and university halls, &c. The Battle Monument, erected in memory of the suc- 
cessful defence of the city, when attacked by the British, in 1814, is an elegant 
marble obelisk, 35 feet high, on which are inscribed the names of those who fell 
in that gallant aflfair. The Washington Monument is the most splendid structure 
of the kind in the country ; it is a Doric column of white marble, with a circula r 

10* Y 



i\B6 



UNITED STATES. 



staircase inside, hj which you ascend to the top ; the column is 140 feet in height, 
and 20 feet in diameter at bottom ; it stands upon a base 23 feet high, and is sur- 
mounted by a colossal statue of the Father of his Country. The Exchauge is a 
large and handsome edifice, 366 feet by 140; the Roman Catholic Cathedral is, 
perhaps, the finest church in the country, and it contaios some good paintings. 
The citizens of Baltimore are not more distinguished for their bold and persever- 
ing enterprise, than for hospitality and agreeable manners. In 1766, there were 
not more than fifty houses on the site of the city ; in 1800, the population had 
increased to 23,971 ; in 1820, to 62,738; and in 1830, to 80,625. 

The city of Annapolis, agreeably situated on the Severn, three miles from 
Chesapeake Bay, is the capital of the State. It is regularly laid out, with the 
streets diverging from the State-House and the Episcopal church. The State- 
House is a handsome building, in which the Old Congress held some of their ses- 
sions, and the Senate Chamber, in which Washington resigned his commission, 
has \^en preserved unaltered; here is likewise the State library of 10,000 
volumes. Annapolis is also the seat of St. John's College. The channel to the 
city is narrow and difficult Population, 2623. Frederick city, 47 miles west 
of Baltimore, is, in point of wealth, elegance, and population, the second city in 
Maryland. A branch of the Baltimore and Ohio rail-road terminates here. The 
population of this flourishing place is 7255. North-west f;rom Frederick city and 
near the Aorth line of the State, is Hagerstown, a well-built and flourishing 
town, containing the usual county buildings, several churches and academies, and 
a population of 3371 souls. Wiliiamsport, at the mouth of the Conococheague, 
is a flourishing village, on the route of the Baltimore and Ohio T&il-road, and the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

This is a territory of ten miles square, under the immediate government of 
Congress. It is divided into two counties and three cities, the counties and cities 
being separate. The cities are Washington, Alexandria, and Georgetown ; the 
counties, Washington and Alexandria. This district lies on both sides of the Po- 
tomac, 120 miles from its mouth, between Maryland and Virginia, and was ceded 
to the general government by those States in 1790. The seat of government of 
the United States was established within its limits in 1800^ It has never yet 
been represented in Congress. The population of the District amounted, in 1830, 
to 39,834, of which 6119 were slaves, and 6152 free blacks. 

The City of Washington was laid out, under the superintendence of the great 
man whose name it bears, in 1791, and became the seat of government in 1800. 
It stands in the centre of the District, upon the north bank of the Potomac, be- 
tween the river and one of its tributaries, called the E^t Branch. The actual 
city occupies a spot about a mile and a half above the junction of the two streams, 
although the original plan embraces the whole extent below. The plan of the 
city combines regularity with variety, and is adapted to the variations of the sur- 
face, so that the spaces allotted to public buildings occupy commanding positions, 
and the monotonous sameness of a rectangular design is avoided, while all its advan- 
tages are secured. The minor streets run at right angles, but the larger avenues 
diverge from several centres, intersecting the streets with various degrees of obli- 
quity, and opening spaces for extensive squarea The smaller streets run N. and 
S. E. and W., and are firom 90 to 110 feet wide. The grand avenues are firom 
130 to 160 feet in width, and are planted with trees. Several of the largest unite 
at the hill on which the capital is situated. These bear the names of the several 
States of the Union. 

Washington is the residence of the President of the United States, and of the 
other chief executive officers of the Federal Government, and of foreign minis- 
ters to the United States. The Congress meets here annually on the nret Mon« 
day of December ; and the Supreme Federal Court also holds its annual 
here. 



L 



mssssBBBaBssssssasmaatBaBBasBBSsssssssatssssssse 
UNITED STATES. 187 



The population of tlie City is 18,627, including. 3129 free blacks, and 2819 
slaves ; but during the session of Cdngress the City is thronged with visiters from 
all parts of the world. The buildings which it contains are in three distinct 
parts ; one portion being in the neighl»urhood of the Navy-Yard, another in that 
of ihe Capitol, and another in the Pennsylvania Avenue, which extends from the 
Capitol to the President's House. The City presents the appearance of a group 
of villages ; the ^ces between the inhabited parts not being occupied or marked 
ouL 

The Capitol is a large and magnificent building of white freestone, 852 feet 
long, in the shape of a cross, with the Representatives' Hall and the Senate Cham- 
ber in the two wings, and a spacious rotunda in the centre. The Representatives' 
Hall is semicirculu*, 95 feet in length, and 00 in height, lighted from the top, and 
adorned with a colonnade of pillars of breccia, beautifully polished ; it is one of 
the most elegant halls in the world. The Senate Chamber is of the same shape, 
and 74 feet long. The Rotunda is 96 feet in diameter, and is 96 feet high to the 
top of the dome within. It is all of marble, and the floor is beautifully paved ; 
the whole has a most grand and imposing effect Several pieces of sculpture are 
placed in niches in the walb, representing events in American history. The 
sound of a single voice uttered in this apartment is echoed from the dome above 
with a Tumbling like distant thunder. The National Library is contain«l in the 
Capitol, and embraces also a series of national paintmgs by Trumbull. 

The President's House, also of freestone, is two stories high, with a lofly base- 
ment, and it has a front of 180 feet, adorned with an Ionic portico ; it is surrounded 
by extensive grounds. On each side ate the four offices of the executive depart- 
ments; the War Office contains a gallery of Indian portraits, and the State Office 
several interesting original papers, as the Declaration of Independence, Wash- 
ington's Commission, &c. There are also here an Arsenal and a Navy- Yard, with 
a City Hall, an Hospital, Penitentiary, 20 Churches, the Halls of Columbia Col- 
lege, &Ai. A branch of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal terminates in the City. 

Georgetown is about three miles west of the Capitol, and is pleasantly situated, 
commanding a prospect of the river, the neighboCiring city, and the diversified 
country in Uie vicinity. The houses are chiefly of brick, and there are many ele- 
gant villas in diflerent parts. The Catholic College here is a respectable institu- 
tion. Georgetown is a thriving place, and has considerable commerce ; but the 
navigation of the river is obstructed by a bar just below the town ; here is also a 
cannon foundery. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal reaches the Potomac at this 
place. Population, 9441. The city of Alexandria, six miles below Washington, 
on the opposite side of the Potomac, which is here a mile wide and from 30 to 50 
feet deep, carries on an extensive trade in flour, tobacco^ &c., and is actively en- 

giged in the valuable shad and herring fisheries of the river. The city is regu- 
rly laid out, and prettily situated at 3ie foot of green and gently swelling hills : 
and it has a good harbour, with commodious wharves, accessible to the largest ships ; 
the shipping of the port is 9600 ton& Here are a High School, a girls^ boarding- 
school, under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, an Orphan Asylum, nine 
Churches, several tanneries, engine manufactories, founderies, coUon-mills, &c. ; 
population, 8263. 



SOUTHERN STATES. 

The States of Virg^ia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida Ter« 
ritoiy, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, are those usually termed the South- 
era Dtates : the whole region extends from the Potomac to the Sabine River : its 
coasts are washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and it is in area 
about 420,000 square miles, with a population of 3,744,000 souls^ 

The tract of country in the Soutbera States bordering on the Atlantic, is a low 
sandy plain, from 50 to 100 miles broad, and, in general, covered with pine forests. 
Beyond this^ tpwaids the Alleghanies, it becomes elevated and hilly, and then 
mountainous. Those portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, which bor- 



188 UNITED STATES. 



:l 



der on the Gulf of Mexico, are low and level. In the interior they are diversi- 
fied and in some parts mountainous. The low countries in all the Southern States 
are mostly barren, except on the borders of rivers, where the soil is very fertile. 

The inhabitants of the Southern States are nearly all occupied with ag-ricul 
ture. The commerce, which is extensive, is principally in the hands of foreign 
ers, or of their northern countrymen, and carried on in northern vessels. The 
great staples of this region are cotton, rice, sugar, and tobacco : nearly the whole | 
of the cotton crop of the United States is raised here, which, with rice and sugar, | 
is confined to its southern section : in the nortliern the principal productions are 
tobacco, wheat, and corn : in the low regions of the Caroliuas pitch-pine grows in 
great perfection; and tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber, are the staples of these 
districts. Gold is almost exclusively confined to the upper and middle portions of 
this region, and is now so extensively found as to have become an object of national 
importance. 

The population is chiefly of English descent, but is in some places somewhat 
mixed. There are many descendants of the French and Spanish, particularly in 
Louisiana and Florida. In Louisiana the French language is extensively spoken, 
and the laws and some of the newspapers arc printed both in that tongue and in 
Eziglish. 

The negroes, who form about two-fiflhs of the population, constitute a separate 
class, and are mostly held in slavery. The Indians are still numerous, although 
the Choctaws have been recently removed, and the Creeks are now emigrating, to 
the western Territory. The Cherokees, Chickasaws, and Seminoles, however, 
still remain. 

The inhabitants of the Southern States are seldom collected together in villages 
and towns, like their northern countrymen, but live in a scattered manner over 
the country. This is in a measure owing to the predominance of agriculture over 
commercial and mechanical occupations, but principally to the circumstance that 
the bulk of the labour is performed by slavea Instead of small proprietors tilling 
then" little farm with their own hands, we here find extensive plantations culti- 
vated under the direction of the owner or his agent, who merely attends to the 
pecuniary af&irs, directs the operations and oversees the labourers. This state of 
things has a decided influence upon the manners and character of the people, yet 
there are individual differences so great that no general description will apply 
equally to the Virginian, the Carolinian, and the Lonisianian. Generosity, great 
hospitality, a high sense of honour, and a manly independence of thought and 
conduct, are among the favourable traits of the southern character. The poorer 
class of whites are in general less frugal and industrious, and enjoy fewer advan- 
tages in respect to education and religious instruction than the same class in the 
Northern States. 

The rivers of the Southern States, south of Chesapeake Bay, are generally dis- 
tinguished by sluggish currents, and sand-bars at their mouths. Although there 
is no stream, exclusively belonging to this section of the Union, that can be ranked 
in point of extent with the great rivers of the country, there are several which, 
from the length of their course and the volume of waters which they flow, would 
in other countries be considered as large streams ; and there are not a few which 
furnish useful navigable channels. The population of the Southern States, in 
1830, was 3,744,017; of whom, 1,556,517 were slaves. 



COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA. 

Natu&b has bestowed on Virginia advantage of position, soil, climate, and navi- 
gable rivers. She is often distinguished by the title of the Ancient Dominion, 
probably from the circumstance of her having been the first settled of the colonies. 

This State is bounded on the north by Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; south 
by North Carolina and Tennessee ; east by Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean, and 
on the west by Kentucky and Ohio. Extent from north to south, 220 miles ; from 
east to west, 370 miles. Area, about 64,000 square miles. 



UNITED STATES. 189 



Every portion of Virginia is penetrated by fine rivers and streams, usefiil either 
as channels of navigation, or for mechanical purposes. The principal rivers are 
the Potomac, Shenandoah, James, Bappahannock,. Mattapony, Pamunky, York, 
Rivannah, Appomattox, Elizabeth, Nottoway, Meherrin, Staunton, Ohio, Sandy, 
Great Kanawha, Little Kanawha, and the Monongahela and its principal branches. 

The AUeffhany range of mountains, with its numerous ridges,xovers the whole 
middle section of this State, and gives it a rugged surfiice. The country east of 
the mountains descends gradually to the fiat and sandy alluvion of the coast. 
The district west ol the mountains is hilly. The soil varies greatly, being sandy 
and sterile on the coast, very fertile on the banks of rivers, and productive in the 
valleys of the AUeghanies. The climate is equally varied, being hot, moist, and 
unhealthy in the lower alluvial country, and cool and salubrious among the moun- 
tains. To the productions common to the northern and middle sections of the 
Union, this State adds the sweet potato, the finest tobacco, and in the southern 
parts cotton as a crop. The productions of the north and the south, apples and 
wheat, cotton and tobacco, meet here as in Tennessee in the western country. 
The temperature, soil, and circumstances, are supposed to be favourable in the 
highest degree to the cultivation of the grape and the silk mulberiy. 

The mineral wealth of Virginia is boundless ; gold, copper, lead, iron, coal, salt, 
limestone, marls, gypsum, magnesian, copperas, and alum earths, thermal, chaly- 
beate, and sulphuretted springs, excellent marbles, granites, soai)-stones and sand- 
stones, &c., are among the treasures as yet for the most part lying idle in the 
bowels of the earth. Mining industry has, however, recently taken a start, and 
will doubtless soon afibrd profitable employment to many of the inhabitants. 

Of the metallic products of Virginia, gold is at present the most important It 
is found on both sides of the North and Rapid Ann Rivers, of the North and South 
Anna near their heads, of the Rivanna- in the lower part of its course, and of the 
James River above and below the mouth of the Rivanna. The belt of country in 
which this metal exists, extends through Spottsylvania, and some neighbouring 
counties, in a south-west direction, into North and South Carolina, Georgia, and 
Alabama. In this State the gold is difiused over large surfaces, and has not been 
found sufficiently in mass, except in a few places, to make mining profitable. Se- 
veral companies, in difiereot parts of the gold region, are at present working 
mines, some of which premise to yield a handsome remuneration. 

Vast fields of coal exist m Virginia, both of the bituminous and anthiacite 
kinds ; of the fonner great beds have been found spreading over an extent of many 
miles, in which the seams are sometimes 30, 40, and even 60 feet thick, and of 
excellent quality. Ck>al has been mined and exported in considerable quantities 
from the Ticinity of Richmond, fbr many years past Iron ore exists also in vast 
quantities, in various parts ; in some places it is found between immense layers of 
coal. 

Salt springs occur at various places ; at some of which works for manufacturing 
the water into salt have been erected : the roost important are on the Great Ka- 
nawha River, in the vicinity of Charleston. The quantity made here is about 
3,000,000 bushels annually ; 70 gallons of brine yielding 1 bushel of salt. Vir- 
ginia contains a pro^sion of mineral springs, of great and various virtues, many 
of which have acquired much reputation for their medicinal properties, and some 
of them are much reaarted ta 

The State has a fund for internal improvement amounting to nearly 3,000,000 
dollars, the income of which, exceeding 280,000 dollars, is applied, under the 
direction of a Board of Public Works, to aid in useful undertakings fbr fecilitating 
the intercommunication between difierent parts of the State. The Dismal Swamp 
Canal unites Deep Creek with Joyce's Creek, and thus connects Chesapeake Bay 
with Albemarle Soand; it is 6^ feet deep, 40 wide, and 22^ miles long. Short 
canals have been constructed round the falls of the Appomattox, Dan, Shenan- 
doah, apd Rappahannock. But the greatest work undertaken in this State is the 
James and Kanawha Conununication, which comprises canals and dams for the 
improvement of the James River, above Richmond, a canal connectinjg; its head 
waters with the New River, and the improvement of the navigation of that river 



190 UNITED STATES. 



and the Kanawha to Charleston. The portion of the work between Richmond 
and Lynchburg' is in an advanced state, and the continuation above that point is 
also in progress. Several important rail-roads have been constructed. The Pe- 
tersburg and Roanoke rail-road extends from Petersburg to Blakely on the Roan- 
oke, 60 miles. A continuation of this work is now in progress to Richmond, 22 
miles. The Richmond and Potomac rail-road, from Richmond through Fredericks- 
burg to the Potomac, 75 miles, also in progress, will complete the connexion 
between the Potomac and Roanoke. The Winchester railroad extends from 
Winchester to Harper*s Ferry, 30 miles, and is there connected with the Balti- 
more and Ohio rail-road. The Portsmouth and Roanoke rail-road extends from 
Portsmouth, opposite Norfolk, to Weldon, on the Roanoke, 77 miles. 

The Literary Fund belonging to the State amounted, in 1833, to 1,551,857 dol- 
lars, and the revenue from the same to 78,340 dollars. In 1817, a. permanent 
appropriation was made of 45,000 dollars a year for the instruction of poor children, 
to be distributed among the several counties and towns in proportioB to their white 
population. There are numerous grammar schools and academies in the State, and 
in many families the children are instructed by domestic tutors. The college of 
William and Mary, at Williamsburg, is the oldest in the United States ailer Har- 
vard College ; it was chartered in 1691. 

The University of Virginia, established at Charlottesville, is, however, the most 
important educational institution in the State; it consists of nine schools, namely, 
of Ancient Languages, Modern Languages, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, Medicine, Anatomy and Surgery, Moral Philoso- 
phy, and Law ; and each student attends only to such schools as he chooses. The 
University went into operation in 1825, and it receives 15,000 dollars a year from 
the State; the library consists of 10,500 volumes. Washington College at Lex- 
ington, Ham pd en-Sidney College in Prince Edward County, and Randolph-Macon 
College in Mecklenburg, are respectable institutions. The theological schools 
are, an Episcopal Seminary in Fairfax County, the Union Seminary founded by 
the Presbyterians in Prince Edward County, and the Virginia Baptist Seminary 
near Richmond. The predominant religious sects are Baptists, Methodists, Pres- 
byterians, and Episcopalians. The Lutherans and Reformed Baptists are also 
numerous, and there are some Roman Catholics, Friends, and Tuukers. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1642. 20,000; in 1660, 30,000; in 1703, 60,606; in 1749, 85,000; in 1763. 170,000; 
viz: about 70,000 whites, and 100,000 negroes. 



In 1790, 747,610 

1800, 880,200 

1810, 974,622 

1820 1,065,366 

1830 1,211,375 



From 1790 to 1800, . 


...132.590 


1800 to 1810, . 


... 94.422 


1810 to 1820, . 


.. 90.744 


1820 to 1830, . 


..146,009 



SLAVES. 

292,627 
346,968 
392,518 
425.153 
469,724 



54,341 
45,550 
32,635 
44,571 

Of the above population there were, white Males, 347,887 ; white Females, 
346,383; deaf and dumb, 422; blind, 230; aliens, 518. Total whites, 694,270. 
Free coloured, 47,348 ; slaves, 469,757 ; coloured deaf and dumb^ 132 ; blind, 445. 
Total coloured, 517,105. 

Richmond, the capital of the State, and its principal city, stands on several 
eminences, which command fine views of the surrounding country, and give to the 
city an air of singular beauty. The western division occupies a hic^h plain cnlled 
Shockoe Hill, overlooking the lower town, and containing a beautiful square of 
about ten acres, which is adorned with fine shade trees, and laid out in gravelled 
walks; here, in a commanding situation, stands the Capitol or State-House, one 
of the most elegant structures in the United States, containing a statue of Wash- 
ington by Houdon ; and contiguous to it is the City Hall, a neat edifice of the 
Doric order. The other public buildings are the Armoury, Penitentiary, 16 
churches, a theatre, &c. The city is supplied with pure water from three reser- 
voirs, each containing 1,000,000 gallons, and filled by two pumps, which raise at 



UNITED STATES. 



191 



the rate of 800,000 gallons in the 24 hours. Richmond is 110 miles from the 
mouth of the river, which carries 15 feet of water to within a few miles of the 
city, and affords boat navigation for 220 miles above the falls. These advantages 
enable it to carry on an extensive trade, both iiiland and by sea ; the annual value 
of the exports being about 3,000,000 dollars, in addition to a valuable coasting 
trade. Large quantities of wheat, floor, tobacco, &c., are brought down by the 
James River canal. The falls of the river immediately above the city afford an 
unlimited water-power, which is largely applied to manufacturing purposes; there 
are here and in the village of Manchester, opposite to Richmond, 4 large flour- 
mills with 52 run of stones, grinding annually about 700,000 bushels of wheat, 3 
cotton-mills, tobacco manufactories, a cannon foundery, 2 rolling and siitting-mills, 
paper-mills, &c. The population in 1830 was 16,060 ; at present, including that 
of Manchester, which is connected with it by a bridge, it exceeds 20,000. A 
rail-road extends from Manchester to the coal-mines, on the same side of the river, 
13 miles, which yfeld at present above 50,000 tons of coal annually. 

The prmcipal sea-port of this State is Norfolk, which is situated on the Eliza- 
beth River, eight miles from Hampton Roads. Its harbour is deep and capacious, 
easy of access, and perfectly secure; the Road, an expansion of James River just 
above its mouth, affords the finest anchorage in the world, and is capable of con- 
taining its united navies. The entrance, between Old Point Comfort and a sand- 
bar called the Rip Raps, is rather more than a mile in width, and is defended by 
Fort Monroe and Fort Calhoun. The favourable situation* of Norfolk, in regard 
to the sea, and its connexion with the interior by means of the Dismal Swamp 
canal and the Portsmouth and Roanoke rail-road, have made it the chief commer- 
cial depdt of Virginia, and, in 1835, 18,801 tons of shipping belonged to the port. 
The town is built on low ground, and the neighbourhood is marshy ; the principal 
streets are well paved and clean, but the others are less commodious .and more 
irregular. The buildings are not disting^uished for elegance, but some improve- 
ments have been made of late yeare in this respect There are eight churches, a 
marine hospital, a theatre, lyceum, &c., and a popuHtion of 9816. At Gosport, in 
Portsmouth, on the opposite side of the river, is one of the most important navy- 
yards of the United States, containing a magnificent dry-dock, of hewn granite, 
constructed at a cost of 974,356 dollars. Population of Portsmouth, 2000. Suf- 
folk is a thriving little town to the south-west, with 1200 inhabitants ; it stands on 
the Nansemond river, and is accessible to vessels of 100 tons. 

Petersburg, on the right bank of the Appomattox river, is a handsome and flou- 
rishing town, with 8322 inhabitants, combining an active trade in cotton, flour, 
and tobacco, with manufacturing industry. Vessels drawing sevon feet of water 
come up to the town, but large ships unload at City Point, at the mouth of the river. 
The falls of the Appomattox furnish ample water-power, and there are here seve- 
ral cotton-mills, merchant flour-mills, a brass and iron foundery, tanneries, cotton- 
seed oil-mills, &c. 

North-west from Richmond, and on the Ravenna river, is Charlottesville, with 
about 1000 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated in a charming vnlley, and derK^es 
its interest firom its being the seat of Virginia University. The halls of this 
highly respectable and vcduable institntion form a fine collection of buildings. 
Three miles i^om Charlottesvilio is Monticello, the seat of the late President Jef- 
ferson. The mansion occupies a lofly suqamit of the South- West Mountain, 500 
feet above the Rivanna, and commands a view of the Blue Ridge on the west, and 
of the low country as far as the eye can reach on the east. A simple granite 
obelisk over the grave of Jefferson bears this inscription, written by himself: 
Thomas Jefferson, Author of the Declaration of Independence, and Founder of 
the University of Virginia, Nearly west from Richmond, and 120 rniles distant, 
is Lynchburg, situated on the southern bank of James River, which is here bold 
and broken. It is a neat and flourishing town, carrying on aa active trade, and 
containing some manufactories. The water-power afforded by the river is par- 
tially employed in propelling a cotton-mill with 2500 spindles, and several saw 
and flour-mills; and there are here tanneries, tobacco factories, smitheries, &c. 
The town is supplied with water from a reservoir containing 400,000 gallons, fed 



192 UNITED STATE& 



by a double fbrcing-pump, and placed at such an elevation as to throw a copious 
stream over the tops of the houses. Lynchburg is one of the largest tobacco mar- 
kets in the world, from 10,000 to 16,000 hhds. having been inspected here annu- 
ally during the last ten years. Population, 4690. Danville, on the Dan river, 
which is navigable by boats some aistance above, is a flourishing village, with 
1000 inhabitants ; its position commands some trade, and there are some manufiic- 
tories here. 

The Great Valley Section consists of an elevated table-land between the Blue 
Ridge and the Alleghany chain, from 1200 to 1500 feet above the sea. It is, 
however, traversed by several ihountain chains, forming numerous subordinate 
valleys, at once fertile and picturesque, and constituting a region of singular 
wildness and beauty. Its rare combination of great agricultural resources with 
extraordinary mineral riches, must one day render it the seat of a populous and 
wealthy community. At the lower end of the valley stands the town of Harper's 
Ferry, celebrated for the majestic scenery in its vicinity, which has already been 
described. The town had a population of about 2000 inhabitants, and contains 
three churches, two academies, several large flour and saw-mills, an Arsenal of 
the United States, containing about 80,000 stands of arms, and an Armoury for 
the manufacture of fire-arms. A rail-road extends from this place to Winchester, 
one of the most flourishing towns in the State, with 3620 inhabitants. It stands 
on the site of old Fort Loudoun, in the midst of a very rich and highly cultivated 
tract, inhabited by an industrious and thriving population. Winchester is the 
dep^t of the surrounding country, and its trade and manufactures are extensive. 

Fredericksburg is a flourishing town at the head of navigation on the Rappa- 
hannock River, which admits vessels of 140 tons up to the town. Its situation 
makes it the dep6t of a well-cultivated tract, and its trade is considerable. 
Tobacco, wheat, flour, maize, gold, &c., are the principal articles of exportation. 
Population, 3308. Falmouth, Port R(^al, Tappahannock, and Urbanna, are 
small villages on the Rappahannock. In Westmoreland county on the Potomac, 
is shown the spot where Washington was bom ; the house, which stood on Pope's 
creek, about half a mile from the river, on a plantation called Wakefield, is now 
in ruins. A simple stone, with the inscription. Here, on the 11th of February, 
1732, George Washington was bom, designates the consecrated spot Further 
up the river, eight tniles from Alexandria, is Mount Vernon, the seat and the 
tomb of that great and good man. The mansion house is a simple wooden build- 
ing, two stories high, with a plain portico, extending the whole length, and com- 
manding a view of the river ; the tomb is merely a walled excavation in the bank, 
with a brick front and closed by an iron door. 

The country lying between the James and Rappahannock, is a fine and fruitful 
region. The towns of this section are few and small, as the trade centres in 
those which lie below the lower fklls of the rivers. Leesburg is a neat and 
thriving town, with about 2000 inhabitants, situated in a productive and highly 
cultivated district Fairfax, further south, is a flourishing village, and further on 
is Barboursville, in the vicinity of which ore the seat and tomb of the late Presi- 
dent MiMlimn. 

In the western part of the State is the city of Wheeling, surrounded by rich 
coal-beds and a highly fertile country ; and, standing at the head of steam-boat 
navigation on the Ohio during the season of low water, is one of the most 
flourishing trading towns in the country. The population increased from 1567 in 
1820, to 5222 in 1830, and in 1835 was estimated to exceed 8000. There are 
20 steam-boats owned here, 26 steam-engines are in operation, and a great 
quantity of goods is forwarded from this point in wagons by the National Road 
to the east, and by keel-boats, flat-boats, and steamers down the river. The 
number of steam-boat arrivals here in 1834 was 738. Iron-founderies, steam- 
engine factories, cotton and woollen-mills, glaas-honses and cut-glass works, an 
extensive rolling and slitting-mill and nail-ftictory, steam flour-mills, paper-mills, 
copperas, white-lead, and sheet-lead manufactories, tobacco-manufactories, tan- 
neries, smitheries, &c. are among the manufacturing establishments, in which 
about 34,000 tons of coal are consumed annually. 



UNITED STATES. 193 



STATE OP NORTH CAROLINA, 

North Carolina is bounded on the north hy Virginia, east by the Atlantic 
Ocean, south by South Carolina, and west by Tennessee. . Length 362 miles, and 
breadth 121 miles ; area, 43,800 square miles. The country, for more than 60 
miles from the coast, is a low plain, with many swamps and inlets from the sea. 
The greater portion of this district, except along the water-courses, is a vast forest 
of evergreens. The rich lands near the swamps and rivers are insalubrious. 
Having passed this -monotonous region, we emerge to the pleasant and mild parts 
of the State, at the base of the Alleghanies, from wnose summits the eye tra- 
verses an immense extent of beautiful country to the west, and vision is lost in 
the agreeable succession of hill, dale, forest, and valley, with an elastic and salu- 
brious atmosphere. 

In the western part of the State the Blue Ridge, which forms the separating 
line between the waters of the Atlantic and tlie Mississippi, attains an elevation 
of about 5500 feet The western boundary of the State is formed by the pro- 
longation of the same ridge ; its different parts are known by various local names, 
one of which, the Black Mountain, has been recently ascertained to be the most 
lolly in the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains ; its height is 6476 feet, 
or 48 feet more elevated than Mt Washington, in New Hampshire: another sum- 
mit of the Blue Ridge, the Roan Mountains, is 6038 feet in height, forming on its 
top a broad level meadow, of considerable extent. The tract between the two 
ridges is an elevated table-land, from 2000 to 2500 feet above the sea. 

North Carolina abounds in considerable rivers, but enjoys few facilities for navi- 
gation in proportion to the number and size of the streams, which are shallow or 
broken in their course, or lose themselves in lagoons difficult of access, or are 
obstructed by bars. The Chowan, which is formed by the junction of the Me- 
herrin and Nottoway, flows into Albemarle Sound, and admits small vessels to 
Murfreesboro*. The Roanoke also empties itself into the same shallow basin. 
The Tar River and the Neuse both flow into Pamplico Sound: the first is navi- 
gable 90 miles, to Tarboro*, and the latter to Kingston. Cape Fear River, the 
principal stream, which has its whole course within the State, rising on the north- 
ern border, pursues a south-easterly course of 280 miles ; and at Cape Fear, the 
Waecamaw, the Lumber, and Yadkin, which take the names of the Little and 
Great Pedee, and the Catawba, which rises in the Blue Ridge, all flow into South 
Carolina; while the French, Broad, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee, and New River, 
descend in an opposite direction from the same mountain. 

The swamps are a striking feature in the eastern part of the State. The Great 
Dismal Swamp lies in the north-eastern part and extends into Virginia. It is 30 
miles in length and 10 in breadth. In the centre, on the Virginia side, is Lake 
Drummond, 15 miles in circuit; a canal is carried through it from Norfolk to Al- 
bemarle Sound. Between Albemarle and Pamplico Sound is another, called Alli- 
gator or Little Dismal Swamp ; this has been partly drained, by means of a canal, 
and the land rendered fit for the cultivation of rice. These swamps have a clay 
bottom, over which lies a thick stratum of vegetable compost The drained lands 
are found to be exceedingly fertile. 

The pine forests of North Carolina, which cover nearly the whole of the east- 
ern part of the State, yield not only much lumber for exportation, but also nearly 
all the resinous matter used in ship-building in this country. The resinous pro- 
ducts are turpentine, spirits of turpentine, rosin, tar, and pitch ; turpentine is 
merely the sap of the tree obtained by making an incision in the bark; the tur- 
pentine flows out in drops, which fall into a box placed to receive them. 

Among the mineral productions, the most important appear to be gold and iron. 
The gold region of North Carolina embraces the section on both sides of the Blue 
Ridge, and extends to the east of the Yadkin. The deposite or surface mines are 
the most easily worked, but the vein mines are the most durable. In almost any 
part of this district, gold may be found in greater or less abundance mixed with 
the soil. It exists in grains or masses from almost imperceptible particles, to 
pieces of one or two pounds weight; one of the largest lumps ever found, was 



IT T 



194 UNITED STATES. 



dug up in Cabarras county — it was wolrth between 7 and 8000 dollars. Lumps 
from the value of 1 or 200 to 1000 dollars, are not uncommon. There are innu- 
merable diggings over the whole country, anid a host of adventurers, relinquishing 
all other employments, are diggiitg the hill-sides for gold. The opening of the 
mines indubitably proves that they were known in past ages; crucibles and other 
mininif instruments have been repeatedly discovered under circumstances to pre* 
elude the possibility of their having been left there by descendants of the Euro- 
pean races. 

The great diversity of climate between the eastern lowlands and the western 
hi^h country, produces' a corresponding diversity in the agricultural productions 
or the two sections; while the former yields cotton, rice, and indigo, the more 
northern grains and fruits thrive in the latter^ which yields wheat, Indian-corn, 
tobacco, and hemp. The totton crop of North Carolina is about 30,000 hales. 
Manufactures Can hardly be fiaid to exist, except in the shape of household indus- 
try ; and the dangers of the coast, and the want of good harbonrs, carry the trade 
of North Carolina chiefly through Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and Ten- 
nessee. Nor has much been done in this State towards extending the facilities 
for transportation, although the most important productions are of a bulky cha- 
racter, requiring cheap and easy modes of conveyance. The Dismal Swamp Ca- 
nal is partly, and its branch, the Northwest Canal wholly, in this State. The 
Clubfoot and Harlow Canal connects- the Neuse with' the harbour of Beaofort, and 
there are several side-cuts round the fklls of the rivers. The Raleigh and Gaston 
rail-road, from the former place to the Roanoke, is in progress. 

The University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, about 30 miles from Baleigh, 
is the principal educational institution in the State ; there is a pretty large num- 
ber of academies, but no system of general education has been adopted. The 
Methodists and Baptists are the most numerous religious sects, and there are also 
a good many Presbyterians and Episcopalians, with some Lutherans, Moravians, 
Friends, and Roman Catholics. 

The State is divided into 65 counties, and contains a population of 737,967, of 
which 472,846 are whites, 19,540 free blacks, and 245,601 slaves. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1701, 5,000; in 1749, 45,000; in 1763, 95,000. 



In 1790, 393,951 

1800, 478,103 

1810, 555,500 

1820, 638,829 

1830, 738,470 



SLAVES. 



100,571 
133,296 
168,824 
205,017 
245,601 



33,275 
35,528 
36,193 
40,584 



i From 1790 to 1800 84,152 

I 1800 to 1810 77,397 

I 1810 to 1820 83,329 

I 1820 to 1830 99 641 

Of the above population of 1890, there were, white Males, 235,954 ; white fe- 
males, 236,889; deaf and dumb, 230; blind, 223; aliens, 206: total whites, 
472,843. Free coloured Males, 9,561 ; Females, 9,982: total, 19,543. Slaves— 
Males, 124,313; Females, 121,288: total, 245,601. 

Raleigh, the capital of the State, not far from the west bank of the Neuse, is a 
thriving town with 1700 inhabitanta A fine State-House of granite is now erect- 
ing here, in place of the one destroyed by fire in 1831, when Canova's statue of 
Washington was unfortunately ruined. Fayctteville is a busy and flourishing 
town at the head of boat navigation on Cape Fear River, with 2868 inhabitants. 
It contains an United States Armoury. Salem, Salisbury, and Charlotte, are 
small towns in this section. The last mentioned has of late rapidly increased in 
population and importance on account of its proximity to the gold mines, and has 
at present 2000 inhabitants. A mint for the coinage of gold is now erecting here. 

Beaufort, the only port of North Carolina directly upon the sea, admits vessels 
drawing 12 feet of water, and the harbour is safe and commodious ; but the town 
is Inconsiderable. Wilmington, 40 miles from the sea on Cape Fear River, is the 
most important commercial town of the State, and it carries on a considerable 
trade with the West Indies. The population is about 3000. Newbem, on the 



UNITED STATES. 195 



south bank of the River Neuse, 80 miles from Pamplico Sound, is a place of some 
commerce^ although large vessels cannot comeNup to the town, and the navigation 
is tedious and difficult for smaller crafi. Newbern is pleasantly situated and well 
built, and, with a population of 3762 souls, is the principal town in the State. 
Washington and Tarboro' on the Pamplico River, Plymouth and Halifax on the 
Roanoke, Edenton on the Chowan, and Elizabeth on the Pasquotank, are small 
trading townsL 



STATE OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

The State of South Carolina is bounded on the north and north-east by North 
Carolina, south-east by the Atlantic Ocean, and soutb^we&t by Georgia, t'rom 
which it is separated by the Savannah river ^ it is in length 168 miles, by 160 in 
bread th« the area being about 30,000 square miles. 

The rivers of South Carolina afibrd some considerable navigable facilities for 
small river crafl; but in the lower part of their course they are shallow, and 
obstructed by bars. The principal are the Waccamaw, Pedee, Black river, San- 
tee, Cooper, Ashley, Stono, Edisto, Aabapo, Combahee, Coosaw, Broad, and 
Savannah. 

The harboam of this State are generally of little value ; but the coast presents 
numerous entrances, which are accessible to small vessels, and which afibrd 
advantages fbit an active coasting trade. The harbour of Charleston is obstructed 
at the entrance by a dangerous sand-bar, and that of Georgetown will only admit 
small vessels. The harbour of Beaufort or Port Royal is the best in the State, 
and ifl sufficient to receive a navy, but is little frequented. Stone Inlet has nine 
or ten feet of water, and was used during the blockade of Charleston in 1775. St. 
Helena Sound is the most spacious opening for a great distance along the coast, 
but, although about three miles wide and ten miles long, it is too much beset with 
shoals tb be of any great commercial value. 

The sea-coast is bordered with a fine chain of Islands, between which and the 
shore, there is a, very convenient navigation. The main land is by nature divided 
into the lower and upper country. The low country extends 80 or 100 miles 
from the coast, and is covered with extensive forests of pitch-pine, called pine 
barrens, interspersed with swamps and marshes of a rich soil : beyond this is the 
sand-hill region, 60 miles in width, the sterile hills of which have been compared 
to the arrested waves of the sea in a storm. To this distance the broad extent of 
country is denominated the lower country ; beyond it we approach the ridge or 
upper country, the Atlantic, ascent of which is precipitous. From the summit 
stretches a fine belt of table-land, fertile and well cultivated, watered by rivers, 
and irrigated by smaller streams, exte.iding from the Savannah to Broad river. 
The country beyond the ridge resembles in its scenery the most interesting of the 
northern State& The traveller is gratified by the pleasant alternation of hill and 
dale, the lively verdure of the hills is contrasted with the deeper tints of the 
extensive forests which decorate their sides, and in the valleys broad rivers roll 
their streams through the varied beauties of luxuriant and cultivated fields. The 
ascent hence to the mountains is gradual and imperceptible. A number of moun- 
tains of striking forms, here swell with their peaks to a very considerable eleva- 
tion. Table Mountain is the most conspicuous; its summit is supposed to be 4000 
feet above the level of the sea. 

The Jow country is infested with many of the diseases which spring from a 
warm, moist, and unelastic atmosphere. Of these, the most frequent are fevers, 
from which the inhabitants suffer more than from any, or perhaps from all other | 
diseases together. The districts of the upper country enjoy as salubrious a climate 
as any part of the United States. During the most unhealthful period of the year, 
it is customary for the wealthy South Carolinians to seek relaxation in a tour { 



196 UNITED STATES. 



through the northern States, or in a sojourn at some of the watering-places in the 
upland country. 

The staple commodities of this State are cotton and rice, of which great quan- 
tities are annually exported. 

The cotton crop of South Carolina is about 66 millions of pounds, of which a 
part is the much-prized long staple, or sea island kind. Rice, first introduced in 
1693, is raised only in the low country, where the immense swamps in which it 
is grown may be easily irrigated, by means of the rise of the tide in the rivers. 
The rice exported fix)m the United States, chiefly the produce of South Carolina, 
varies from 120,000 to 175,000 tierces, of the value of from 2,000,000 to nearly 
3,000,(X)0 dollars. Indigo was for some time one of the staples of this State ; its 
cultivation was introduced in the middle of the last century, and at the breaking 
out of the revolutionary war, about 1,000,000 pounds were exported annually ; 
1 but toward the close of the century the price was so much lowered by large 
' importations from the East Indies into England, that it gave way to cotton, which 
is raised on the same lands. 

There are no manufactures of any importance in South Carolina, but the com- 
merce of the State is necessarily extensive ; it consists in the exports of her own 
raw produce, including rice, cotton, tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber, and of 
large quantities of the productions of Georgia and North Carolina, and in the 
import of manufactured articles, wipes, tropical fruits, &c., for home consumption. 

The region in which gold is found extends through this State. Although -the 
mines are abundant, the diggings have been less numerous than in North Carolina. 
Various ochres, used in painting, are found near Yorkville. Marble, limestone, 
iron and lead ore, potters clay, fullers' earth, nitrous earth, talc, and most of the 
useful fossils, are common. 

Free schools for poor children have been established throughout the State ; and, 
in the beginning of 1833, 8390 children were instructed, in 817 schools, at a 
charge of 37,000 dollars. There is a considerable number of useful and rp9})ccta- 
ble academies; the Charleston College in Charleston, and the College of South 
Carolina at Columbia, are valuable institutions ; the latter has a library of 10,000 
volumes, and has been liberally endowed by the State. There are three medical 
schools in Charleston, a Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Columbia, a 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Lexington, and a Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary at the High Hills. The prevailing religious sects are Baptists, Methodists, 
and Presbyterians ; there are also many Episcopalians and Lutherans, and some 
Roman Catholics. 

Several useful canals have been constructed in this State, but none of tliem is 
of great extent ; the Santee canal extends from the head of sloop navigation on 
Cooper*s River, 34 miles from Charleston, to the river Santee, a distance of 'jvi 
miles, and forms the channel to the sea for large quantities of the produce of the 
upper country. The Charleston and Augusta rail-road, extending from the former 
city to Hamburg on the Savannah, opposite Augusta, 135 miles in length, is the 
longest work of the kind yet constructed. Another great work is now projected, 
and the necessary reconnoissance has proved its practicability. This is the 
Charleston and Cincinnati rail-road, which will pass through Columbia, up the 
valley of the Broad River into North Carolina, surmount the Blue Ridge by 
inclined planes, and follow down the valley of the French Broad River, to Knox- 
ville, whence it will be continued through Lexington to the Ohio river; tlie esti- 
mated cost is 10,000,000 dollars; whole distance, 600 miles. 

South Carolina is divided into 29 districts, which are subdivided for local objects 
into parishes. Of the whole population, amounting to 581,185, the whites aie 
257,864, and the slaves 315,401; there are also 7920 free blacks; the blacks aro 
therefore considerably more numerous than the whites, and as they are unequally 
distributed, their numerical superiority is still greater in tiie low country, whore 
they are to the whites as three to one; in the hilly country, the whites are rather 
the most numerous, and in the western part of the State there are nearly three | 
! whites to one black. 



UNITED STATES. 



197 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS 
In 1701,7000; in 1749,30,000^ in 1750, 64,000; in 1765, 40,000 whitea, and 90,000 



oolouretL 

In 1790, 349,073 

1800, 345,590 

1810, 415,115 

1820, 502,741 

1830, 581«458 



11 From 1790 to 1800, . . 


.. 96,518 


1800 to 1810, . . 


.. 69,524 


1810 to 1820, . . 


.. 86,626 


1820 to 1830, . . 


.. 78,717 



8LAVK8. 

107,094 
146,151 
196,365 
258,475 
315,365 



39,057 
50,214 
62,110 
56,890 



Of the above population of 1890, there were, white Males, 130^590; white Fe- 
males, 127,273; deaf and dumb, 174; blind, 102; aliens, 489. Total whites, 
257,878. Free coloured Males, 8672; Females, 4249. Total, 7921. Slaves— 
Males, 165,625; Females, 160,040. Total slaves, 315,365. 

Charleston, the principal city of Sooth Carolina, and the only considerable city 
in the Atlantic States south of the Potomac, stands on a point of land between 
the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, six miles from the ocean. The city is regularly 
laid oat, with streets running east and west from Ashley to Cooper River, and 
others intersecting them nearly at right angles, from north to south. It is also 
in general well built. Among the public buildings are 19 churches, the City Hall, 
Exchange, two Arsenals, Theatre, College Halls, Aims-House, Orphan Asylum, 
&c. ; the City Library contains about 15,000 volumes, and the Orphan Asylum 
supports and educates 150 destitute children. The city is healthier than the 
surrounding country, and the planters from the low country, and many opulent 
West Indians, spend the summer here. Its commerce is extensive, comprising 
nearly the whole of that of the State, and its shipping amounts to 13,244 tons. 
The population increased from 18,711, in 1800, to 30,289 in 1830, of which num- 
ber 12,928 were whites; including the Neck, which is adorned with numerous 
plantations in a high state of cultivation, the population may be stated to exceed 
40,000 souls. The approach to the city is defended by Fort Moultrie, on Sulli- 
van^s Island, at the mouth of the harbour, and by Castle Pinckney opposite the 
extreme point of the city within. 

Columbia, the capital of the State, is pleasantly situated cm the Congaree, 
below the junction of the Saluda and Broad Rivers. It is regularly laid out 
with very wide streets, and is a neatly built town with 3310 inhabitants. It con- 
tains a handsome State-House, a Lunatic Asylum, the Halls of South Carolina 
College, and several churches. Granby is a little town on the opposite side of 
the river. Camden is a place of some trade, situated on a rising ground on the 
Wateree, with about 150i0 inhabitants. 

Beaufort, to the south of Charleston, is a little town on Port Royal Island, 
about 16 miles from the sea, with a fine harbour, which is little used. George- 
town, to the north on Winyaw Bay, being the dep6t of an extensive and well- 
cultivated district, has considerable trade, but is not accessible to vessels drawing 
nx>re than 11 feet of water. It is, however, unhealthy, and during the autumn, 
many of the inhabitants resort to North Island at the mouth of the bay. Cheraw 
is also a small trading town on the Pedee near the North Carolina line. 

In the middle country, Orangeburg, Hamburg, Camden, and Columbia, are the 
principal towns. Hamburg derives its importance from its being the inland 
terminus of the rail-road from Charleston to the Savannah River. 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 

GsoBOiA IS bounded north by Tennessee and North Carolina, north-east by 
South Carolina, and south-east by the Atlantic Ocean, south by Florida, and west 
by Alabama. Length, 300 miles; breadth, 200; area, 58,000 square miles. The 
principal rivers of Georgia are the Savannah, (which forms the boundary between 

17* 



198 UNITED STATES. 



it and Soath Carolina,) Alatamaha, Ogeechee, Satilla, Ockmulgee, Oconee, St. 
Mary's, Flint, Chattahoochee, Tallapoosa, and Coosa. The coast of Geor^ for 
four or five miles inland, is a salt marsh, mostly uninhabited. In firont of this, 
towards the sea, there is a chain of islands of a gray, rich soil, covered in their 
natural state with pine, hickory, and liveKxtk, and yielding on cultivation the 
finest quality of sea-island cotton. The principal are Wassaw, Ossabaw, St 
Catherine, Sapelo, St Simon's, Jekyl, and Cumberland. Beyond the swamps 
which line the coast, commences that extensive range of pine4)arrens eleeely re- 
sembling those of South Carolina; above this range the country begins to be 
pleasantly diversified by gentle undulaticms. This region is bounded on the west 
by the Blue Ridge, which here swells into elevations 1500 feet in height, which 
thence subside, and are lost in the sea. Beyond the mountains is an extensive 
and rich table-country, with a black soil of great fertility. 

The climate of Georgia diflers but little from that of South Carolina. The 
low-country planters have their sickly season and summer retreats in the high 
pine woods. The districts central to tlie rice-swamps, in the Carolinas and 
Georgia, are universally insalubrious. There are districts in this State that ap- 
proach nearer to tropical temperature than any part of South Carolina, and better 
adapted to the sugar-cane, olive, and sweet orange. The hilly and western parts 
are as healthy as any in America. As an average of the temperature, winter 
may be said to commence in the middle of December, and terminate in the mid- 
dle of February. The climate of the low-country compares very nearly with 
that of Louisiana. 

The mineral resources of Georgia are very imperfectly known ; copper and 
iron have been found, but the most valuable mineral production, hitherto, has been 
gold. Although first found here but a few years ago, a large quantity has already 
been procured, chiefly from deposits, and scarcely any attempts have been made 
to carry on systematic mining operations. The gold occurs in the northern part 
of the State, on both sides of Chattahoochee as far north as the Blue Ridge, and 
to a considerable, but not well-ascertained distance on the south. The Indian 
Springs of Butts county are sulphureous waters, and are much resorted to for 
their efficacy in cutaneous and rheumatic complaints. The Madison Springs, 
near Athens, are chalybeate. 

The great agricultural staples of Georgia are cotton and rice ; the cotton crop 
of the year 18& was estimated at 300,000 bales; the export of rice for the same 
year amounted to about 25,000 casks. The other exports are tar, pitch, turpen- 
tine, and lumber — the products of the pine forests. 

Georgia is well supplied with usefiil navigable channels, which are highly 
necessary for the transportation of its bulky staples. A canal firom the Savannah 
to the Ogeechee, 13 miles, is the only artificial channel of navigation. The 
Georgia rail-road from Augusta to Athens, 114 miles, with branches to Greens- 
boro' and Warrenton, and the Central rail-road from Savannah to Macon, 200 
miles, are now in progress. The Macon and Forsyth rail-road, 25 miles, is a 
continuation of the latter work. Surveys have also been* made preparatoiy to 
the construction of a rail-road firom Athens to the Tennessee, or to the Mississippi, 
at Memphis. 

The State has an academic fiind, the proceeds of whieb are distributed annually 
among the academies ; the sum thus divided in 1834 was 18,710 doilars, and 
there is a considerable number of respectable academies. There is also a poor 
school fimd, the income of which is divided among the counties, according to 
their respective population, but no general system of common education has l^n 
established ; 18,078 dollars were distributed for the instruction of the poor in 
1834. There is a college at Athens, styled the University of Georgia. The 
Baptists and Methodists are numerous, and the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and 
Cluristians number many adherents. There are also some Roman Catholics, 
Friends, Lutherans, &c. 

The State is divided into 90 counties ; the population increased from 340,967 
m 1820, to 516,823 in 1830; number of slaves at the former period 140,656, at 
the latter 217,531 ; there are but few fi-ee blacks. 



UNITED STATES. 199 



In 1749, . . 


.. 6,000 


1790, . . 


.. 83,548 


1800, .. 


. . 162,686 


1810,.. 


. . 252,433 


1820, .. 


.. 348,989 


1830, . . 


. . 516,567 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

INCRXABK. BLATm. INOIKASB. 

29,264 

From 1790 to 1800, 80,138 59,699 30,435 

1800 to 1810, 89,747 1054^18 45^19 

1810 to 1820, 88,456 149,656 44,438 

1820 to 1830, 165,578 217,470 67,814 

Of the above popalation of 1890, th^re were, white Males, 1534296; white Fe- 
males, 143,378; deaf and dumb, 147; blind, 143; aliens, 86: total whites, 
296,614. Free coloured Males, 1256; Females, 1227: total, 2483. Slaves^ 
Males, 108,946; Females, 108,524: total, 217,470. 

The city of Savannah is advantageously situated for a commercial town, being 
accessible to large ships from the sea, and communicating with the interior by the 
noble river on which it stands. It is built on the southern side of the Savannah, 
on a high bank rising about 50 feet above the water, from which it makes a fine 
appearance, with its spacious and regular streets, and its handsome public build- 
ings, mingling pleasantly with the groves of trees which surround them and 
adorn the squares and principal streets. The site was formerly unhealthy, on 
account of the surrounding swamps, but this evil has been cured by judicious 
drainings, and by the substitution of the dry for the wet culture of rice around 
the city. In 1820 it suffered so much from a terrible fire, that its prosperity re- 
ceived a temporary check, and the population (7423) was less in 1830 than it had 
been (7523) m 1820 ; but it has recovered from this shock, and is at present one 
of the most fiouri^ing cities in the Southern States, its population having in- 
creased to 11,000 in 1835. Savannah is the chief commercial dep6t in the State, 
and most of the cotton and rice, with large quantities of the other articles of 
exportation, pass tiirough this port In 1835 the exports amounted to 14,000,000 
dollars ; 20 steam-boats of a large class, and 50 steam tow-boats are employed oh 
the river, and the shipping of the port amounts to 14,000 tons. Among the public 
buildings are ten churches, an Exchange, City-Hall, Hospital, Theatre, &c. 

The city of Augusta, the great interior emporium of the State, stands on>the 
Savannah, at the head of steam-boat navigation. It is handsomely built, and con- 
tains a City-Hall, seven churches, an Hospital, Arsenal, Theatre, &c. ; a bridge 
across the Savaniudi, 1200 feet long, connects it with Hamburg^. The population 
amounted, in 1830, to 6G9b, but had increased to nearly 8000 m 1835. Augusta 
is the dep6t of an extensive tract of productive and populous country, and is con- 
nected with the sea by the Charleston and Hamburg rail-road, and the Savannah 
river ; 175,000 bales of cotton were brought into the city in 1835. 

Milledgeville, the capital of the State, is pleasantly situated on the Oconee, at 
the head of steam-boat navigation, and is a place of some trade ; the population 
in 1835 exceeded 2000 inhabitants. It contains the State-House, the Peniten- 
tiary, on the Auburn plan, &c Athens, a thriving little town above Milledge- 
ville, is the seat of the University of Georgia. 

Macon, on the Ocmulffee, consisted in 1822 of a single cabin ; in 1890 it had 
a population of* 2600 aouls^ and at present the number of inhabitants is 3500. Its 
trade is extensive and growing, and there, is a great number of saw and grist- 
mills in the vicinity ; 80,000 bales of cotton were shipped from Macon in 1835, 
and 8 steam-boats were employed on the Ocmulgee, beside numerous tow-boats 
and po]e-boat& 

Columbus is situated on the Chattahoochee, just below the falls, and 430 miles 
fVom the sea. The town was first laid out in 1828, when the site was yet cover- 
ed with the native forest, and in 1835 it contained 4000 inhabitants, with several 
churches, newspapers, &c. Steam-boats run regulaiiy fix>m here to New Orleans, 
and 40,000 bales of cotton were shipped firom the town in 1835, when there were 
no less than 12 steam-boats employed on the Chattahoochee. Dahlonega, in the 
northern part of tiie State, between the Chestatee and Etowa, is the seat of one 
of the offices of the United States Mint 



200 



UNITED STATES. 



Darien is a neat and thriving little town, with an active trade in cotton, and in 
the lumber which is brought down the river in large qnantitiea. Its population 
is about 2500. Brunswick, with a fine spacioas harbour, is situated on Turtle 
river about 10 miles nearly due west from the opening between St Simon's and 
Jekyll islands* A rail-road from this place to St Mark's, on Appalachee Bay, is 
contemplated. St Mary's, a small town on the river of the same name, just 
above its entrance into Cumberland Sound, derives importance from its deep and 
commodious harbour, the most southerly on the coast from Geoigia to Florida 
Point 



FLORIDA TBRRITORY, 

Fu>RiDA is bounded north by Alabama and Georgia, from the last of which it is 
separated in part by the River St Mary's ; east by the Atlantic Ocean ; south and 
west by the Grulf of Mexico. Formerly the name of Florida was applied to the 
whole country east of the Mississippi, and bounded on the north as follows : By 
the River St Marjr's, from the sea to its source ; thence west, to the junction of 
the Flint River with the Appalachicola ; then up the Appalachicola to the parallel 
of 31^ north latitude ; then due west along that parallel to the Mississippi. The 
River Appalachicola divided this country into Eaist and West Florida. The part 
lying between the Mississippi and Pearl River is now included in the State of 
Louisiana ; the part between Pearl River and the Perdido, belongs to the States 
of Mississippi and Alabama ; and the part east of the Perdido is the country that 
is now called Florida. Its mean length, from north to south, is 360 miles, and the 
mean breadth 150^ the area being 57,750 square miles. 

The surface of Florida is in general level, and not much elevated abovq the sea. 
It is intersected by numerous ponds, lakes, and rivers, of which the principal are 
the St John's, Appalachicola, Suwanee, Ocklockony, Choctawhatchie, Escambia, 
and Yellow- Water Rivers. The souUiern part of the peninsula is a mere marsh, 
and terminates at Cape Sable in heaps of sharp rocks, interspersed with a scat- 
tered growth of shrubby pine& 

The gulf stream setting along the coast has here worn away the land, forming 
those islands, keys and recks, known by the fireneral name of the Reef^ and by 
the Spaniards called cayos, between which and the main land is a navigable chan- 
nel. These islands contain some settlements and many good harbours. One of 
the most important is Key West, or Thompson's Island, 6 miles long and two in 
breadth, on which is the town of Key West, a naval station, and the seat of an 
admiralty court: the harbour is good, well sheltered and commodious, and of suffi- 
cient depth of water to admit the largest vessels. 

The eddies which set towards the wore firom the gulf stream cause many ship- 
wrecks on this part of the coast, furnishing employment to the Bahama wreckers. 
The soil of Florida is in some parts, especially on the banks of the rivers, equal 
to any in the world ; in other parts, it is indmerent ; and there are large tracts 
which are represented to be of little value. 

Live-oak timber, one of the most valuable products of Florida, is cut and ex- 
ported to a considerable amount ; also cedar logs, boards, staves, hides, tallow, and 
bees- wax. The fig, pomegranate, orange, and date, are among the firoits; cotton 
is the chief agricultural staple, the annual crop being about 60,000 bales ; the 
suoar-cane is idso pretty extensively cultivated ; rice is raised in large quantities ; 
and indigo formerly furnished a valuable article of exportation, but is now only 
raised for family use. But Florida is on the whole better suited for a grazing 
country; and its vast herds of cattle, horses, swine, &c., find a boundless extent 
of range in its fine pastures. 

The climate, from October to June, is generally salubrious ; but the months of 
July, August, and September, are extremely hot and uncomfbrtable ; and during 
this season, fevers are prevalent At St Augustine, however, the climate is de- 
lightful, and ^is place is the resort of invalids. The population in 1830 amounted 
to 34,720; the different classes of which are as follows: whiles, 18,375; firee 
coloured, 844; slaves, 15,501. 



UNITED STATEa 201 



There are about 3000 Indians in the peninsula in addition to the population as 
above stated. They are known under the name of Seminolei>, hot they belong to 
the Muscogee or Creek Nation, from whom, however, they h^ve long been pohli- 
cally separated. Gradually driven back from their original hunting-grounds to 
tiie great morass of the South, they were induced to enter into a treaty to aban- 
don the Territory and remove to the west Preparations were made for thei/* 
removal in 1835, but they showed great reluctance to go, and finally commenced 
open hostilities under an able chief, named Oseola. 

SL Augustine, the oldest town in the United States, stands at the junction of 
two small creeks» called the Matanzas and the North River. It is regularly built, 
but the streets are narrow ; the houses are generally two stories high, surrounded 
with balconies and piazzas, and built of a sliell-stone, or a concretion of shells and 
sand. Many of them are deserted and in ruins, the population of the place hav- 
ing been reduced from between 4000 and 5000 to about 2000, mostly Spaniards 
and negroes. The nunnery, now used as barracks, is an imposing structure in 
the Spanish style ; there is a monument 30 or 40 feet high in the public square, 
commemorative of the Spanish Constitution ; and the Castle of St. Marks is a 
massive and noble work, completed in 1716. Although the country is poor, yet 
there are fine gardens in and around the town ; the beautiiul orange groves, which 
ornamented the neighbourhood and were very profitable to their owners, were 
mostly destroyed by the late severe cold. To the north, on Amelia Island, is the 
little village of Fernandina, during the embargo and late war an important dpp6t. 

Jacksonville, on the St. John's, is a flourishing town, forming the dep6t of the 
trade of the surrounding country; it is also a considerable thoroughfare, and the 
projected East Florida rail-road is to run from this point to St. Marks. In the 
middle section of the Territory, are St. Marks, Tallahassee, Quincy, Marianna, 
Monticello, and Appalachicola. St Marks is the shipping port of a populous and 
productive district, and is a growing town, with a good harbour; the entrance 
aflfords 12 feet of water, but up to the town, 8 miles from the sea, the bay carries 
only 9 feet A rail-road connects St. Marks with the capital, Tallahassoe, 21 
miles. A work of tlie same kind, 190 miles in length, is contemplated from hunce 
to Brunswick, Georgia. Tallahassee stands on an eminence in a fertile district, 
and contains the Capitol, several churches and banks, with about 1200 inhabitants. 
Appalachicola is a flourishing little town, at the mouth of the river of the same 
name. About 50,000 bales of cotton were ejcported from Appalachicola during 
the year 1835. 

St Joseph's, on the bay of the same name, is also a place of growing trade ; the 
bay afibrds 25 to 33 feet of water, and is well sheltered from all winds. A rail- 
road from St Joseph's to the little lake or lagoon of VVimico, connects the town 
with the River Appalachicola. Pensacola, on the bay of the same name, is im- 
portant as a naval station of the United States; it is accessible to small vei^sels 
through Santa Rosa Sound, a long, shallow lagoon, sheltered by the Inland of 
Santa Rosa, which also fironts the Bay of Pensacola, and through the main chan- 
nel to ships of war, up to the Navy-Yard, about six miles below the town. The 
population of Pensacola is about 2000. 



STATE OF ALABAMA. 

The State of Alabama is bounded north by Tennessee, east hy Georgia, south 
by Florida, and west by the State of Mississippi. Length 280 miles; breadth 160 
miles; area 46,000 square miles. 

The principal rivers are the Alabama, Tombeckhe, Black Warrior, Coosa, Tal- 
lapoosa, Tennessee, Chattahoochee, Perdido, and Cahawba. 

The southern part of the country, which borders on the Gulf of Mexico and 
West Florida, for the space of 50 miles wide, is low and level, covered with pine, 
cypress, &c. ; in the middle it is hilly, with some tracts of open land; the northern 
part is somewhat broken and mountainous, and the country generally is more ele- 
vated above the sea, than most other parts of the United States at equal distance 

' 2A 



202 



UNITED STATES. 



from the Dcean. The Allegany mountains terminate in the north-east part. The 
forest trees in the middle and northern part consist of black and white oak, hickory, 
poplar, cedar, chestnut, pine, mulberry, &c. 

Alabama possesses great diversity of soil, climate, natural, vegetable, and 
minesai productions. Occupying the valley of the Mobile, and its tributary 
streams, together with a fine body of land on both sides of the Tennessee river, 
its position in an agricultural and commercial point of view is highly advan- 
tageous. A considerable portion of that part of the State which lies between the 
Alabama and Tombeckbe, of that part watered by the Coosa and Tallapoosa, and 
of that on the Tennessee, consists of very excellent land. On the margin of many 
of the rivers there is a considerable quantity of cane-bottom land, of great fertility, 
generally from a half to three-quarters of a mile wide. On the outside of this, is 
a space which is low, wet, and intersected by stagnant water. Next to the river 
swamp, and elevated above it ten or fitleen feet, succeeds an extensive body of 
level land of a black, rich soil, with a growth of hickory, black oak, post oak, dog- 
wood, poplar, &c. After this come the prairies, which are wide-spreading plains 
of level, or gently waving land, without timber, clothed with grass, herbii^e, and 
flowers, and exhibiting in the month of May the most enchanting scenery. 

The sugar-cane has been found to succe^ very "well in the extreme southern 
strip, between Florida and Mississippi, and indigo was formerly raised in consider- 
able quantities ; rice also grows well on the alluvial bottom near the Gulf; but 
cotton, which thrives throughout the State, is the great agricultural staple. The 
cotton crop »t present exceeds 350,000 bales. There are extensive beds of bitu- 
minous coal and iron ore in the central part of the State, both of which are of 
excellent quality, and several forges are in operation on the Cahawba. Gold is 
found in tlie northern section, and good marble has been obtained from the central 
tract; but the mineral resources of Alabama have never been carefully explored. 
The value of the exports from Alabama in 1834 was 5,664,047 dollars. 

Alabama has a sea-coast of only 60 miles, which, however, contains Mobile 
Bay, one of the deepest basins on the Gulf. It is about 30 miles long, and from 
3 to 18 broad, and the main entrance has 15 feet of water at low tide ; but vessels 
drawing nnore than 8 or 9 feet cannot approach nearer than 11 miles from the 
town of Mobile, except at high water. Small vessels may go to New Orleans by 
an inland channel, through Pascagoula Sound, a long, shallow lagoon, lying 
between a range of low sand islands and the mainland. 

Several useful works have already been constructed, or are in active progress 
in this youthful State. The Tuscumbia and Decatur rail-road extends round the 
Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee river, 45 miles. And there is also a canal, 60 
feet wide and 6 feet deep, surmounting the same obstruction. The Florida and 
Georgia rail-road, from Pensacola to Columbus, 210 miles ; the Montgomery and 
Chattahoochee rail-road, from Montgomery to West Point, Georgia, 85 miles, and 
the Wetumpka and Coosa rail-road, are in progress. The connexion of these 
works with the valley of the Tennessee is also contemplated. 

The growth of Alabama has been extremely rapid, there having been a constant 
tide of immigratbn, chiefly of planters with their slaves, from the Atlantic States. 
In 1810 the population did not amount to 10,000; in 1820 it was 127,901, and in 
1830 it was 309,527, including 117,549 slaves. As the high price of cotton, and 
the bringing into the market of extensive tracts of Indian lands, have contributed 
to keep up iuimigration into Alabama, its population may be estimated to have 
exceeded 400,000 in 1835. 

The constitution enjoins it upon the General Assembly to encourage schools 
and the means of education within the State ; and by act of Congress in 1819, one 
section of 640 acres of the public lands, in each township, was reserved for the 
support of common schools in the township ; two entire townships, or 46,080 acres, 
were also granted to the State for the support of a seminary of learning, the pro- 
ceeds of which have been appropriated to the endowment of the University of 
Alabama, in Tuscaloosa. Lagrange College, at New Tuscaloosa, on the Tennes- 
see, and Spring Hill College, near Mobile, are also useful institutions, and there 
are numerous academies in the State. The Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyte- 



UNITED STATES. 203 



rians, are the prevailing sects, and there are some Episcopalians and Roman 
Catholics. 

Alabama is divided into 46 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS, 
tn 1810, less than 10,000; in 1816, 29,683; in 1818, 70,542. 



1N0REA8K. 

In 1820, 127,901 

1830,' !.'!;!!!!."!.'.' 309,527 11 From 1S20 to 18301 *.\V. 181,626 



BLATES. 

41,879 

93,008 

117,549 



51,129 
24,541 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 100,846; white Fe- 
males, 89,560 ; deaf and dumb, 89 ; blind, 68 ; aliens, 65. Total whites, 190,406. 
Free coloured Males, 844 ; Females, 728. Total, 1572. Slaves— Males, 59,170 ; 
Females, 58,379. ToUl, 117,549. 

The city of Mobile is a flourishing commercial town, being the dep^t for nearly 
the whole State of Alabama and part of Georgia and Mississippi ; it is built on a 
dry and elevated spot, but was formerly rendered unheal thv by the surrounding 
marshes ; these, however, have been drained, and the streets have been paved with 
shells, and of late years Mobile has not suffered from diseases. The harbour is 
good, and numerous steam-boats run on the river and to New Orleans. The 
annual export of cotton from the port is about 250,000 bales. The population in 
1830 was 8194 ; in 1835 it was estimated to exceed 6000. Blakeiy, on the oppo- 
site side cf the bay, on a high, open, and healthy site, with deeper water and a 
harbour easier of access than that of Mobile, has not thriven in the same manner, 
and is only a little village. 

Montgomery, near the head of the Alabama, is a busy, growing place, with 
about 2000 inhabitants. Wetumpka, on the Coosa, at the head of steam-boat 
navigation, was cut out of the forest in 1832, and in 1835 it was a place of con- 
siderable business, with 1200 inhabitants. Gainesville, on the Tombeckbe river, 
is a thriving place, lately settled. 

Tu^aloosa, the capital, stands in a rich district, on a fine site, near the centre 
of the State, on the Black Warrior river, and, being accessible to steam-boats, is 
a place of considerable trade ; it contains the State-House, the halls of the Univer- 
sity, the county buildings, &c. The population of the town is about 2000. 

Florence, below Muscle Shoals, at the head of steam-boat navigation on the 
Tennessee, is a growing place of about 2000 inhabitants, with a prosperous and 
increasing trade. Tuscumbia, opposite to Florence, is also a thriving town. Above 
the Shoals, and about ten miles north of the river, is Huntsville, situated in a very 
fertile and beautiful region, with about 2500 inhabitants. 



STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

The State of Mississippi is bounded on the north by Tennessee, east by Ala- 
bama, south by the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana, west by Louisiana and Arkan- 
sas. It is about 300 miles in average length, and 160 in breadth ; area, about 
48,000 square miles. 

The principal rivers are the Mississippi, Pearl, Pascagoula, Yazoo, Big Black, 
Tennessee, and the western branches of the Tombeckbe. The Mississippi forms 
the western boundary from lat. 31® to 35° north ; 308 miles in a right line, but by 
the course of the river near 700 miles. 

The Yazoo or Mississippi Swamp is an extensive tract of country north of the 
Yazoo river, and between that river and the Mississippi, about 175 miles in 
length and 50 in breadth, with an area of 7000 square miles. A considerable 
part of it is annually overflowed by the waters of the Mississippi, and at that 
period it assumes the appearance of a vast marine forest Many parts of it have 
an excellent soil, and produce large crops of cotton, &c. ; it is also intersected by 
numerous creeks and bayous, leading to and from the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. 



204 UNITED STATES. 



Numerous mounds, walls, and enclosures, are found in it, attesting the existence 
of a considerable population at some former period. The Cold Water river, the 
head branch of the Yazoo, communicates with the Mississippi by a bayou or creek 
called the Yazoo Paiss, through which boats of considerable burthen pass and 
repass during periods of high water. It is proposed to clean out and deepen this 
channel sufficiently to admit steam-boats of large burden. 

I'he southern part of the State, extending alx)ut 100 miles north from the Gulf 
of Mexico, is mostly a ch«nipaign country, with occasional hills of moderate ele- 
vation, and is covered with forests of the long-leaved pine, interspersed with 
cypress swamps, open prairies, and inundated marshes. A considerable portion 
of this part is susceptible of cultivation. The soil is generally sandy, sometimes 
gravelly and clayey. It is cdpable of producing cotton, com, indigo, sugar, gar- 
den vegetables, plums, cherries, peaches, figs, sour oranges, and grapes. 

In proceeding north, the face of the country becomes more elevated and agree- 
ably diversified. The growth of timber consists of poplar, hickory, oak, black 
walnut, 8ug[ar-maple, buckeye, elm, hackberry, &c., and the soil is exceedingly 
lertile, producing abundant crops of cotton, com, sweet potatoes, indigo, garden 
vegetables, and fruit Nearly all the country watered by the Yazoo, is described 
as incomparably fertile and well watered. Its climate, and the value of its pro- 
ductions, will doubtless cause it to remain an important part of the Union. 

Tobacco and indigo were formerly the staples of Mississippi, but cotton, at pre- 
sent, is the chief production of the State, and it absorbs nearly all the industry 
of the inhabitants, to the exclusion even of corn and cattle. The crop is about 
300,000 bales. Some sugar is produced in the southern strip, but the cane does 
not appear to thrive. Some works of magnitude have already been undertaken 
for facilitating the transportation of the bulky staple of the State. The Missis- 
sippi Rail-road, which is to extend from Natchez, through Jackson, to Canton in 
Madison county, a distance of 150 miles, is in progress. The Woodville and St 
Francisville Rail-road, from Woodville to the Mississippi in Louisiana, 30 miles, 
is completed. The Port Gibson and Grand Gulf Rail-road, 8 miles long, connects 
the former place with the Mississippi. The Vicksburg Rail-road, from that town 
to Clinton, 35 miles, is also in progress. The Jackson and Brandon Rail-road is 
8 miles in length. 

A large portion of this State was, until recently, in the possession of the Choc- 
tawsaud Chickasaws. The former occupied an extensive tract on the eastern 
border, between the head waters of the Pearl and Big Black Rivers, and the Tom- 
bee kbe ; in 1830, they ceded these lands to the United States, and in the course 
of the three succeeding years removed to the Western Territory ; their number 
is 15,000. The Chickasaws are Btill in possession of a part of the country between 
tiie head waters of the Yazoo and Tennessee. But they cease to form a distinct 
nation, and they have ceded their lands to the United States on condition tliat 
they shall receive the proceeds of the sale. If they remain ki the State, they 
become citizens and subject to its laws; those who choose to remove provide a 
home for themselves. Their number is about 5000. The same provision was 
made by Congress for the support of schools in' this State, as was made in Ala- 
bama ; and the State has also a small literary fund, devoted to the same purpose. 
There are in the State several academies and three colleges; Jeflferson College at 
Washington, Mississippi College at Clinton, and Oakland College at Oakland. 

The population of Mississippi has increased with astonishing rapidity. In 1810, 
th'j population of the Territory of Mississippi, which included the present State 
of that name and Alabama, was 40,352 ; in 1820, the State of Mississippi con- 
tained 75,448 inhabitants, and in lb30, 136,806, of whom 65,659 were slaves. 
During the last three or four years the emigration has been active and uninter- 
mpLftd, and it was estimated, in 1835, that the population of the State exceeded 
325,000 souls. Mississippi is divided into ^) counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

INCREASE. SLAVES. JNCRKA8K. 

In 1820 75,448 1 11 32,814 1 

1830, 136,806 | From 1820 to 1830, 61,358 1| 65,659 | 32,845 



UNITED STATES. 205 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 38,466 ; white Fe- 
males, 31,d77; deaf and dumb, 29; blind, 25: total whites, 70,443. Free coloured 
Males, 288 ; Females, 231 : toUl, 519. Slayes— Males, 33,099 ; Females, 32,560 : 
total, 65,659. 

Natchez, the largest and most important town in the State, is situated on the 
east bank of the Mississippi, 300 miles above New Orleans. It consists of two 
distinct parts ; the lower town, called Natchez under the Hill, or the Landing, is 
built on a dead level on the margin of the river, about half a mile in length, and 
from iOO to 200 yards in breadth, and is occupied ])y warehouses, tippling-shops, 
boarding-houses for the boatmen, &c. ; the upper town stands on a lofty bank or 
blufi^ rising abruptly to the height of 300 feet, and is the residence of the better 
class of citizens. The streets are wide, regularly disposed, and adorned with fine 
shade-trees, while many of the houses are embosomed in groves of the 'orange, 
palmetto, and other trees, and ornamental shrubs. This place has been occasion- 
ally visited by the yellow fever and other diseases, but it is during the greater 
part of the year an agreeable and healthful residence, and seems of late years to 
have lost its character for insalubrity. Natchez is 300 miles above New Orleans, 
yet it carries on a considerable direct trade with foreign countries, and larg^ ships 
come up to the town. Its river and inland trade is, however, more extensive. In 
1835, 35,000 bales of cotton were shipped from the port. Its population in 1830 
was 2790, but at present it is probably 4500. 

Vicksburg, 106 miles above Natchez, and about 12 miles below the mouth of 
the Yazoo River, stands in a picturesque situation, on the declivity of several con- 
siderable eminences, called the Walnut Hills, rising abruptly from the river. It 
is surrounded by numerous large and rich plantations, and is the depdt of a large 
tract of newly settled countiy, which a few years since -was owned and occupied 
solely by Indians. In 1835 it shipped off 55,000 bales of cotton, and contains at 
present ptobably 3500 inhabitants, having doubled its numbers within the last 2 
years. The merchants have commenced a direct intercourse by sea with the At- 
lantic ports, and are making exertions to have it declared a port of entry. All 
the trade of the Yazoo country centres in this place. Vicksburg is upwards of 
500 miles firom the Gulf of Mexico, by the Mississippi River. 

On the west bank of Pearl River is Jackson, the capital of the State : it is 
finely situated in a plain about a half mile square, on which stand the State-House, 
the Penitentiary, and some other public buildings. It contains about 1000 inha- 
bitants. 

Woodville, in the south-western part of the State, 18 miles from the Missis- 
sippi, is a very pretty, and growing village with 1000 inhabitants. The little vil- 
lage of Fort Adams is considered as its port on the Mississippi, but Woodville is 
now connected with the river at St. Francisville by a rail-road. 

Port Gibson, or Gibsonport, is a flourishing little town, prettily situated in a 
charming tract of country on the Bayou Pierre, and laid out with great regularity. 
The river is navigable for steam-boats to this place in time of high water, and a 
rail-road connects it with Grand Gulf, its port on the Mississippi. The latter, 
finely situated on a natural terrace, receding to a crescent of wooded hills, takes 
its name from a remarkable eddy in the river, and is a thriving town with 1000 
inhabitants; 55,000 bales of cotton were shipped fi-om this place in 1835. Port 
Gibson has 1200 inhabitants. 

Grenada and Manchester, both on the Yazoo, are thriving places, as are aJso 
Aberdeen and Columbus, on the Tombeckbe : the latter place has a population 
of moro than 2000, and an extensive commercial business is transacted hero. 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 

Louisiana is bounded on the north by the States of Arkansas and MissisBippi; 
on the east, by the latter State ; on the south, by the Gulf of Mexico ; and on the 
west, by the republic of Texas. The 33d degree of north latitude is the northern 

18 



206 UNITED STATES. 



boundary, west of the Missbsippi river ; and the Slat degree on the east of that 
river ; the Pearl River is its extreme eastern boundary, and the Sabine its west- 
ern. It is in length 240 miles, by 210 in breadth ; and contains 48,220 square 
miles. 

Three-fourths of the State are without an elevation that can be properly called 
a hill. The pine woods generally have a surface of a very peculiar character, 
rising into fine swells, with table surfaces on the summit, and valleys intervening 
from 30 to 40 feet deep. The alluvial soil is level, and the swamps, which are 
the only inundated alluvions, are dead flats. The vast prairies, which constitute 
a large portion of the surfiice of the State, have, in a remarkable degree, all the 
distinctive aspects of prairies. To the eye they seem as level as the still surface 
of a lake. They are, except the quaking prairies, higher and drier than the 
savannas of Florida. 

That part of the surface of the State periodically overflowed by the waters of 
the Mississippi, was found to contain, fVom a survey made by order of the govern- 
ment of the United States in 1828, an extent of above 5,000,000 acres, a great 
proportion of which is deemed unfit for cultivation in its present condition. This 
immense alluvial tract embraces soil of various descriptions, which by proper 
draining may be rendered capable of producing all the staple commodities of this 
region. 

The Miseissippi, ailer having formed the boundary of the State for about 450 
miles, enters its limits, 350 miles from the sea by the course of the river channel. 
Throughout this distance of 800 miles, its western bank is low, and flooded in 
high stages of the river. Outlets, or bayous, receive its surplus waters during 
the peri<d of the annual inundation, which are carried off by them to the sea : 
the principal of these bayous are the Atchalafaya, Plaquemine, La Fourche, &c. 
The rivers in this State, in addition to the Mississippi, are, the Red River ; the 
Washita, flowing into the Red River ; the Teche, Vermillion, Mermentau, and 
Calcasiu, run into the Gulf of Mexico, together with the Pearl, on the cast, and 
the Sabine, on the west. The Red River is the most important, and, indeed, 
with the exception of two or three insignificant streams on the eastern side above 
Baton Rouge, the only tributary of the Mississippi within this State. Soon after 
entering Louisiana, its bed is choked up by an immense accumulation of fallen 
timber, called The Raft ; and the water is here dispersed into numerous chan- 
nels, and spread over wide expanses. The Rafl extended formerly over a dis- 
tance of 160 miles ; but 130 miles of it have been removed by the exertions of 
the general government, and the whole mass will soon be cleared away. 

On the banks of the Mississippi, La Fourche, the Teche, and the Vermillion, 
below lat 80® 12' north, wherever the soil is elevated above the annual inunda- 
tions, sugar can be produced ; and the lands are generally devoted to this crop. 
In all other parts of the State, cotton is the staple. The best districts for cotton 
are the banks of Red River, Washita, Teche, and the Mississippi. Rice is more 
particularly confined to the banks of the Mississippi, where irrigation can be 
easily performed. — ^The quantity of land within the State adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of the three staples, has been estimated as follows : sugar, 250,000 acres ; 
rice, 250,000 ; cotton, 2,400,000. Some of the sugar-planters have derived a 
revenue in some years of l|600 from the labour of each of their slaves; from 
$350 to $450 is the ordinary calculation. The cultivation of cotton is believed 
to be equally profitable. The amount of sugar has gradually increased in tliis 
State, from 1783 to the present time. The crop of sugar is now from 70,000 to 
90,000 hhd& ; and of cotton, about 200,000 bales. The prairies of the west 
afford fine pastures, and here are found large herds of cattle and horses. Rice, 
maize, tobacco, and indigo are also produced. In the eastern part of the State, 
between the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers, much lumber is, cut for exportation, 
and some tar, pitch, and turpentine are prepared. 

There are valuable school lands in Louisiana, reserved, like those in the other 
new States, on the sale of the Public Lands, and there are three colleges in the 
State, Louisiana College at Jackson, Franklin College at Opelousas, and Jefl^rson 
College ; in 1835, the Legislature voted an allowance of 15,000 dollars a year to 



UNITED STATE& 207 



each of these institutions, and some attempts have been made, although with not 
much success, to provide for the education of poor children. There is a Medical 
School in New Orleans. The Roman Catholics form the majority of the popula- 
tion ; but there are many Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Episcopalians. 

Several rail-roads are constructing in the State. The New Orleans and Nash- 
ville rail-road is in progress from New Orleans to the Mississippi State line, B8 
miles. This vast work, when finished, will no doubt bring a great increase of 
trade to New Orleans : it will be upwards of 500 miles in length. The Atchala- 
faya rail-road, from New Orleans to that river, is also in progress, and a rail-road 
has been made IVom Alexandria to a point on the B^you B^uf, a distance of 30 
miles. The Woodville and St. Francisville rail-road, 30 miles, is principally 
within this State. The New Orleans and Teche Canal, extending from the Mis- 
sissippi to the river Teche, is in progress. Some useful works of less extent 
have also been executed. Among these are the Pontchartrain rail-road, 4J miles, 
from New Orleans to the lake of that name, and the Carrollton rail-road, from the 
same city, 6 miles up the river; a rail-road to Lake Borgne, 10 miles, is about to 
be constructed ; this last work, in connexion with a harbour on the lake, will 
afford a new and convenient access to the city, from the sea. There are also 
canals from New Orleans to Lake Pontchartrain. 

The population of Louisiana consists in part of the French and Spanish colo- 
nists by whom it was occupied at the time of the cession, but it comprises also a 
large and increasing number of immigrants from the other States. The French 
language is used exclusively by a considerable proportion of the population, but 
the English is also familiar to many inhabitants of French origin. 

The subdivisions bear the name of Parishes, of which there are 33. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1810 76,556 

1830 153,407 

1830, 215,739 



INCREASE. ' ILAVES. INCREASE. 



[ 34,660 

From 1810 to 1820, 76,851 ' 69,064 

1820 to 1830, 62,322 1 1 109,588 



34,404 
40,524 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 49,794 ; Females, 
39,397; deaf and dumb, 45; blind, 38; aliens, 1,700: total whites, 69,441.^ 
Free coloured, 16,441 ; Slaves, 109,588. 

New Orleans, the third commercial mart in the Union, stands on the left bank 
of the Mississippi, 100 miles from the sea by the course of the river, and four 
miles from Lake Pontchartrain. Steam-boats and small vessels come up to the 
landing on the latter, where an artificial harbour has been form^, and whence a 
rail-road and two canals extend to the rear of the city. In the ^nt of the city 
on the river, the largest merchant-ships lie close up to the levee or bank, so that 
no wharves are necessary to enable them to load and discharge. The river is 
here from 100 to 160 feet deep, and a half-mile wide. 

New Orleans is the dep6t of the whole Mississippi Valley, and must increase in 
importance with the daily growing wealth and population of that vast region. 
Thousands of huge arks and fiat-b(»t8 float down its mighty artery for thousands 
of miles, loaded with the produce of New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, as 
well as with that of the more western States. The number of steam-boat arrivals 
in iaS5 was 1172 ; and from 1500 to 2000 flat-boats, 50 to 60 steamers, and a 
forest of the masts of sea-vessels may be seen lying at once along its levee. 

In 1835, 535,000 bales of cotton, 34,365 hhds. of tobacco, 47,015 hhds. and 4«32 
barrels of raw sugar, 1,539,267 lbs. of crushed, and 358,749 lbs. of clarified sugar, 
18,597 hhda and 23,577 bbls. of molasses, beside large quantities of flour, salted 
provisions, whiskey, lead, &€., were exported; in which year the shipping 
amounted to 357,414 tons, comprising 507 ships, 493 brigs, and 604 sloops and 
schooners ; the total value of the exports for tlie year, including the foreign and 
coasting trade, was about 40,000,000 dollara 

The city stands on a dead level, and is regularly laid out, with the streets 
intersecting each other at right ansrles ; as the surface of the water is firom two to 



208 UNITED STATES. 



four feet above the level of the city at high water, and even in low eta^fes of water 
is above the swamps in the rear, a levee, or embankment, from four to eight feet 
high, has been made all along the river to prevent inundations ; a breach or cre- 
vasse sometimes occurs in this dike, but it is rarely permitted to do much damage 
before it is closed. Among the public buildings are the Roman Catholic Cathe- 
dral, a massive and imposing building with four towers, the State-House, Custom- 
House, Exchange, United States Mint, Ursuline Convent, several theatres, some 
of which are splendid structures, the College of Orleans, the Ch&rily Hospital^ in 
which 9000 patients have been received in a single year, and three other hospitals, 
the Orphan Asylum, &c. The charitable institutions are numerous and well eon- 
ducted. Population, in 1810, 17,242; in 1820, 27,176; in 1830, 46,310; and in 
1835, about 70,000, exclusive of from 40,000 to 50,000 strangers during the 
winter. 

Donaldsonville, for some time the capital of the State, is a village with about 
1000 inhabitants, at the mouth of the^Lafourche outlet Baton Rouge, 130 miles, 
by the river, above New Orleans, is a pretty village, with houses in the French 
and Spanish style, and it contains a military post and an arsenal of the United 
States. It stands on the first highland or bluff point passed in ascending the 
river, but although, contrasted with the dead level that surrounds it, the site has 
the appearance of being quite elevated, it is only 25 feet above high water. The 
population of Baton Rouge is about 1200. St Francisville, at the mouth of the 
Bayou Sara, is a neat, busy, and thriving village, consisting chiefly of one street 

The Bolize, at the mouth of the Mississippi, is a little settlement occupied by a 
few pilots, and taking its name from the Spanish Baliza, a beacon. The ground 
is marshy, and can be passed from house to house only on timbers or planks laid 
for the purpose. Alexandria, on Red River, 100 miles from the Mississippi by 
the windings of the stream, is a pleasant little village in the centre of a rich cotr 
ton region, and ships lar^e quantities of that staple for New Orleans. Natchi- 
toches, 80 miles above, is the frontier town of the United States towards the 
Mexican or Tcxian territories. It was founded in 1717, and the population is a 
mixture of French, Indians, Spanish, and Americans. It was formerly the centre 
of the trade with the Mexican interior provinces, receiving bullion, horses, and 
mules, and sending ofi* manufactured goods, tobacco, and spirits. St Martinsville, 
and New Iberia, on the Teche, and Opelousas or St Landre, to the north, are 
small villages containing from 300 to 500 inhabitants, but surrounded by a fertile 
and well cultivated country. 



WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

This section of the United States comprises the States of Ohio, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, and Arkansas, the organized 
Territory of Wisconsin, together with the nominal Territories of Missouri and 
Oregon, and the Western or Indian Territory, assigned by the Federal Govern- 
ment for the residence of the einigrant Indian trib^ It includes the whole of 
that vast space extending from the western base of the Alleghany Mountains to 
the Pacific Ocean, and from the Red River of Louisiana and the 42d degree of 
latitude on the south to the parallels of 49° and 54° 40' on the north, extending 
from east to west 2300 miles, and from north to south 1100 miles, comprising an 
area of 1,683,000 square miles. 

The Chipewayan or Rocky Mountain range are the most important mountains 
in this region. They are but imperfectly known to us, and present a very rugged 
and sterile appearance, and oppose generally a formidable barrier to an intercourse 
between the countries on their opposite sides. The other elevations are the Ozark 
Mountains, extending from Missouri south-west to Mexico; the Black Hills, 
between the Missouri and Yellow-Stone rivers ; and between the former river and 
the St Peter's river a low ridge intervenes, known as the Coteau des Prairies ; 
farther to the eastward, and immediately south of Lake Superior, the Porcupine 



UNITED STATES. 209 



Moontains extend, separating the rivers of Lake Superior from those of the Mis- 
sissippi and Lake Michigan. 

The immense prairies of this region cpnstitute the most remarkable feature of 
Uie country. Those are level plains stretching as fiir as the eye can reach, totally 
destitute of trees, and covered with tall grass or flowering shrubs. Some have an 
undulating surface, and are called rolling prairies ; these are the roost extensive, 
and are the favourite resort of the bufialo. Here, without a tree or a stream of 
water, the traveller may wander for days, and discover nothing but a grassy ocean 
bounded on all tides by the horizon. In the dry season the Indians set fire to the 
grass ; and the wide conflagration which ensues, oflen surprises the bison, deer, 
and other wild onimslb, who are unable to escape from the flames, and are burn^ 
todetth. 

Much of tbir' great country, especially the northern and western parts, 
remains to be explored. Of the region west of the Mississippi, hardly any thing 
was known before the beginning of the present century, when the government of 
the United States dispatched Captains Lewis and Clark on an expedition of dis- 
covery* These officers, at the head of a large party, well equipped, proceeded up 
the Missouri in boats to its source, crossed the Rocky Mountams to the Pacific 
Oceant and returned by the same course. The southern part was explored by an 
expedition under Lieut Pike ; and at a later perkxl. Major Long and other travel- 
lers have visited different parts of the country. 

But the great physical features of this region are its giant rivers, with their 
hundred arms spreading for thousands of miles through every comer of the terri- 
tory, and bringing its most remote recesses, in the very heart of a vast continent, 
almost into contact with the sea. The main trunk of this great system of rivers 
has been already described. The Ohio, on the east, and the Arkansas, Red River, 
and Platte, on the west, are the greatest of the subordinate streams. The first, 
gathering up the waters of one of the most fertile regions of the globe, bears upon 
its gentle current the products of a highly cultivated country. The last mentioned 
take their way for a considerable part of their course through barren tracts of 
sand. The Arkansas, however, has vast tracts of productive territory for many 
hundred miles in the lower part of its course. The Red River also passes through 
a less desert region than the Platte, the country in its lower part being highly 
fertOe. The Alleghany and Monongahela, rising in Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
unite at Pittsburgh, and take the name of Ohia From Pittsburgh to the Missis- 
sippi, the river has a course of 950 miles, receiving numerous navigable streams, 
from the two great inclined planes between which it runs. 

'*The great rivers, which form so striking a natural feature of this region, give 
to the m<^e of travelling and transportation in general, a peculiar cast, and have 
created a peculiar class of men, called boatmen. Crafl of all descriptions are 
found on these waters. There are the rude, shapeless masses, that denote the 
infancy of navigation, and the powerful and richly adorned steam-boat which 
makes its perfection; together with all the intermediate forms between these 
extremes. Since the use of steam-boats, numbers of the other craft have disap- 
peared, and the number of river boatmen has been diminished by many thousands." 
The first steam-boat on these waters was built at Pittsburgh, in 1811 ; smce that 
time, in a period of 25 years, about 600 have been built at different places, some 
of which are fit)m 400 to 500 tons burthen, but the greater number are from 90 to 
150, 200, and 300 tons ; there are at present not fiur from 800 steam-boats on the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, making an aggregate of about 60,000 tons. 

Lead, iron, coal, salt, and lime abound in the Western States ; and probably no 
region in the world exhibits such a combination of mineral wealth and fertility of 
soil, united with such rare ftcilities of transportation. Tobacco, Indian corn, hemp, 
cotton, salted provisions, flour, whiskey, hides and furs, coarse bagging, and lead, 
are the most important articles of export; and all sorts of manufactured goods and 
colonial produce are imported. 

The character of the Western States is mixed, but the predominant traits are 
those of Virginia, and of New England* Kentucky was settled firom Virginia and 
North Carolina; while Ohio is a scion of New Engl and. These two States have 



18* 2B 



210 UNITED STATES. 



in turn sent tbeir popalatioQ farther west. But there is much sectfonal character, 
much of the openness and boldness of the men and their descendants, who con- 
tested every inch of territory with savages, whose houses were garrisons, and 
who fought at the threshold for their hearths and altars. The population of the 
western States and Territories, in 1830, was 3,015,672 ; of whom 336,473 were 
slaves. The inhabitants of this section have since greatly increa^sed, and are pro- 
bably not less than 4,000,000. 

The negroes constitute a considerable part of the population. They are held 
as slaves in all the States but Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Many Indians yet 
remain within the limits of the western States^ 



STATE OP OHIO. 

This enterprising and populous State is bounded on the north by Lake Erie 
and Michigan Territory ; east by Pennsylvania and Virginia ; south by the Ohio 
River, which separates it from Western Virginia and Kentucky ; and west by Indi- 
ana. Its length is 210 miles, and mean breadth 200, containing about 40,000 
square miles. The Ohio River forms the boundary of this State, on the south- 
east and south, for near 500 miles. 

The rivers which flow into Lake Erie on the north, are Maumee, Sandusky, 
Huron, Vermillion, Black, Cuyahoga, Grand, and Ashtabula ; those on the south 
flowing into the Ohio, are the Muskingum, Hockhocking, Little and Great Mi- 
ami. The Au-Glaize and St Mary*s in the western part of the State, arc branches 
of the Maumee. 

The interior and northern parts of the country, bordering on Lake Erie, are 
generally level, and in some places marshy. Nearly one-third of the eastern and 
south-eastern part is very hilly and broken. The hills are exceedingly numerous, 
but they seldom rise into considerable mountains. Immediately upon the banks 
of the Ohio, and several of its tributaries, are numerous tracts of interval or mea- 
dow-land, of great fertility. In the interior, on both sides of the Scioto, and on 
the Great and Little Miami, are perhaps the most extensive bodies of level and 
rich land in the State. In manj parts there are large prairies, particularly on the 
head waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the two 
Miamis. Some of these prairies are low and marshy ; other prairies are elevated, 
and are frequently called barrens; not always on account of their sterility, for 
they are often fertile. The most elevated tracts of isountry between the rivers, 
are the wettest and most marshy in the State ; and the driest land is that which 
borders on the various streams of water. 

This State produces abundantly everything which grows in the middle States. 
Com grows luxuriantly : wheat grows finely ; and flour is exported in vast quan- 
tities by the Ohio and Lake Erie to southern and eastern markets. Many steam- 
mills have been erected, especially in the vicinity of the Ohio River, for the ma- 
nufacturing of flour. Mills for the same purpose, propelled by water, are to be 
found in every part of the State. Rye, oats, buckwheat, &c., are produced abun- 1 
dantly ; and tobacco is raised to the amount of 25,000 hogsheads annually. Horses, | 
cattle, and hogs are here raised in great numbers, and driven to an eastern mar- 
ket ; and thousands of barrels of beef and pork are boated from all the towns on 
the navigable streams, for the southern part of the valley, or to New York. 

Coal is found in great quantities in the eastern parts. Iron ore has been disco- 
vered, and wrought pretty extensively in several places, particularly on the south 
of Licking River, 4 miles west of Zanesville, on Brush Creek, and in some other 
placea Salt-springs are found on some of the eastern waters of Muskingum, and 
on Salt Creek, 28 miles south-east of Chillicothe, where there are considerable 
salt-workd. 

The manu&ctures of the State are yet in their infancy, but are rapidly increas- 
ing in importance. The local position of Ohio gives it great facilities for trade ; 
the Ohio River idSbrds direct communication with all the country in the valley of 
the Mississippi, while by means of Lake Erie on the north it communicates with 






UNITED STATES. 211 



Canada and New York. The northern and eastern counties export great quanti- 
ties of agricultural produce to Montreal and New York, and since the construction 
of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Canals, many of the productions of the southern 
and western counties also find their way to New York and Philadelphia ; an active 
exi)ort trade is also carried on down the river, by way of New Orleans. 

A system of general education has been organized, but is not in efficient opera- 
tion throughout the State. In addition to the funds arising from the sale of school 
lands appropriated by Congfess, a State tax is levied to aid in the support of com- 
mon schools; each township is divided into school districts, and those districts 
which support a school for three months in a year are entitled to receive their 
quota of the State's money. There are about 20 respectable academies in the 
State. The University of Ohio, at Athens ; Miami University, at Oxford ; Ken- 
yon College, at Gambier, with a theological department ; Western Reserve Col- 
lege, at Hudson, with a theological department; Franklin College, at New Athens ; 
Granville College, at Granville, with a theological department ; Marietta College, 
at Marietta ; Willoughby University, at Chagrin ; and Oberlin Institute, at New 
Elyria, are the principal educational institutions. The Lane Seminary, at Cin- 
cinnati ; the Lutheran Theological School at Columbus ; the Medical College of 
Ohio at Cincinnati ; the Reformed Medical College of Obio« at Worthington ; and 
the Law School, at Cincinnati, are devoted to professional studies. The predomi- 
nant religious sects are the Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists. The Luther- 
ans, Episcopalians, Grerman Reformed, and Friends, are also numerous, and there 
are some Roman Catholics, Universalists, Shakers, and adherents of the New 
Jerusalem Church. 

The public works which have been already executed, or are in a state approach- 
ing to completion, are of a magnitude to strike us with surprise, when we coo- 
sider the infant character of the State. Two great works, crossing the State from 
north to south, connect the waters of the Ohio with those of the great lakes, and 
through them with the Atlantic Ocean. The Ohio Canal extends from Ports- 
mouth at the mouth of the Scioto, up the valley of that river, 90 miles, thence 
across the intermediate district to the Muskingum, and by that river and the 
Cuyahoga to Lake Erie, a distance of 310 -miles, with navigable feeders of 24 
miles. The Miami Canal, extending from Cincinnati up the Miami and down the 
Auglaize to the Wabash and Erie Canal at Defiance, 190 miles, is not yet com- 
pleted. The Wabash and Erie Canal, extending from Perrysburg, on the Mau- 
mee, to the Indiana State linei whence it is continued to the Wabaflh in that 
State, is now in progress ; the section within Ohio is 80 miles in length. These 
works are executed by the State. The amount of tolls received on the Ohio 
Canal in 1835, was 185,317 dollars ; on that section of the Miami Canal then in 
operation, viz. from Dayton to Cincinnati, 52,232 dollars. The Mahoning, or 
Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, extending from Akron, on the Ohio Canal, to the 
Beaver division of the Pennsylvania Canal, 85 miles; and the Sandy and Beaver 
Canal, extending from Bolivar, on the Ohio Canal, to the mouth of the Beaver, 87 
miles, are not yet completed, but are rapidly going on in the hands of private 
companies. The Mad River Rail-road, begun in September 1835, will extend 
firom Dayton, at the mouth of Mad River, to Sandusky Bay, 153 miles. A rail- 
road from Cleveland to Pittsburg has been projected and authorised by law. The 
Cumberland or National Road is continued from Wheeling, across this State 
through Zanesville, Columbus, and Springfield, to the Indiana line. 

In competing for the trade of the great West, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Maryland are making strenuous exertions to connect their lines of communication 
with the canals and navigation of Ohio; this being a central point, in relation to 
the Western trade. 

The rapid growth of the population of Ohio has never been paralleled ; in 42 
years firom the time when it received its first white settlers, the number of its m- 
habitants was 937,903. Its fertile and unoccupied lands attracted immigrants not 
only from the other States, chiefly the Eastern and Middle, but large bodies of 
Swiss and Germans, and great numbers of British emigrants, have settled them- 
selves in its smiling valleys and rich plains. 



212 UNITED STATES. 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1790, 3,000 ihckbabk. 

1800, 45,365 From 1790 to 1800 42,365 

1810, 230,760 1800 to 1810, 185,395 

1820 581,434 1810 to 1820, 350,674 

1830, 937,903 1820 to 1830, 356,469 

Of the above popalation of 1890, there were, white Malee, 479,790 ; white 
Fomales, 448,303 ; deaf and dumb, 446 ; blind, 251 ; aliens, 5524 : Total, whites, 
928,093.— Free coloured Males, 4826; Females, 4760 : total, 9586. 

The city of Cincinnati, the principal town 'in the State, and the largest city in 
the west, is situated on the first and second banks of the Ohio river. The streets 
are drawn with ^freat regularity in lines parallel and at right angles to the river. 
There are here 26 chnrches, an Hospital, a Lunatic Asylum, a Theatre, &c., and 
the free sehools of the city are numerous and on an excellent footing. The 
growth of Cincinnati has been astonishingly rapid; it was founded in 1789, and 
in 1800 it had a population of 750 souls ; in 1820, the number of inhabitants had 
increased to 9642; in 1830, to 24,831, and in 1835 it exceeded 31,000. It has 
become the seat of extensive manufactures, and it carries on an active trade by 
the river and canal. In 1836, the number was upwards of 50 ; 100 steam-engines, 
240 cotton-gins, and 20 sugar-mills were made, and 22 steam-boats were built, in 
1R35. Brass and iron founderies, cotton-factories, rolling and slitting-mills, saw 
and grist-mills, and chemical laboratories, are among the manufacturing establish- 
ments ; the value of manufactured articles produced in 1835 was estimated at 
5,000,000 dollars. There were in that year 2237 steam-boat arrivals, and the 
value of the exports was estimated at 6,000,000 dollars ; the amount of toll col- 
lected on the canal at Cincinnati was 25,803 dollars. Beef, pork, wheat and 
flour, whiskey, with various manufactured articles, are among the exports. 

Columbus, the capital of the State, is pleasantly situated on the Scioto, in a 
rich and beautifhl district, at the intersection of the river by the National Road, 
and a branch of the Ohio Canal. It is built on a regular plan, with a pretty 
square in the centre of the town, round which stand some of the principal public 
buildings. Here are the State-House, an Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, a new 
Penitentiary, conducted on the Auburn plan, Court-Houses, five churches, &c. 
Population, in 1830, 2437; in 18SS), 4000. 

Chillicothe stands between Paint Creek and the Scioto, and the streets, extend- 
ing across the neck from river to river, are intersected at right angles by others 
running parallel to the Scioto. Population, in 1830, 2840; in 1835 it exceeded 
4000. The manufactures of the place are pretty extensive, and are rapidly in- 
creasing. Portsmouth, at the southern end of the Ohio Canal, derives importance 
from its situation ; its trade is considerable, and there are here several iron- 
founderies, nail-factories, saw and grist-mills, &c. Population, in 1830, 1066 ; at 
present it is nearly double that number. 

Zanesville stands at the head of steam-boat navigation on the Muskingum, by 
which and the Ohio Canal it has a water communication with New Orleans and 
New York. The fiills in the river have made Zanesville the seat of numerous 
mills and manufacturing establishments, including flour-mills, saw-mills, iron- 
founderies, paper, cotton, and oil-mills, glass-works, &c. The population in 1830 
was 3094 ; m 1835, including the little village of Putnam, on the opposite side 
of the river, it was 5200. Two bridges cross the river here, and the town con- 
tains 8 churches, an athemeum, two academies, &c. Marietta, at the mouth of 
the Muskingum, is the oldest town in the State ; it is pleasantly situated partly 
on a lower and partly on an upper plain, with wide streets, shaded with trees, 
green squares, and neat buildings. There are numerous mounds and embank- 
ments in and around the town. Ship-building was formerly carried on here, and 
many steam-boats are still built; several saw-mills, an iron-foundery, tanneries, 
&c., also furnish occupation to the inhabitants, whose number is 1200. Steuben< 
villc, on the Ohio, in the midst of a rich and populous district, contains a number 
[of \v'>^)llen and cotton manufactories, iron and brass founderies, steam-engine and 



UNITED STATES. 213 



machine fiictoriefl, copperas works, several tanneries, and saw and flour-mills, a 
chemical laboratory, &^., with a population of 2937 souls. Cleveland, the most 
important lake-port of Ohio, stands on an elevated plain at the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga River and of the Ohio Canal. Its harhour has been secured by arti- 
ficial piers, and is commodious and easy of access. The population in 1830 was 
1076 ; in 1835 it amounted to 4200, exclusive of the little village of Brooklyn on 
the opposite side of the river, which contained 1000 inhabitants. The number 
of arrivals in 1835 were 895 lake-vessels and 960 steam-boats, amounting to about 
270,000 tons. The amount of canal tolls paid here in the same year wsb 72,718 
dollars. 

Huron, a thriving little town further west, is the depdt of a verv rich and 
flourishing district, and Norwalk, in its rear, situated in a highly fertile country, 
contains some manufacturing establishftients. Portland or Sandusky city is 
situated on a fine bay, with a good harbour, and is a busy and growing place. 
These villages have each about 1000 inhabitants. Perrysburg, at the head of 
steam-boat navigation on the Maumee, is prettily situated upon a high bank below 
the falls of the river'; its situation combines great advantages both for navigation 
and manufactures, and the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal will give it 
new importance. Toledo, formerly Fort Lawrence, b a flourishing town, further 
down the river, with 2000 inhabitants. 

Dayton, on the Miami, at the junction of the Mad River which furnishes a 
great number of mill-seats, is a rapidly growing town, in a highly productive 
region. It carries on an active trade by the Miami Canal, and it contains numer- 
ous saw and grist-mills, several woollen and cotton factories, an oil-mill, and other 
manufactories. Population, in 1830, 2954; in 1835, 3800. 



COMMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY. 

KsirrucKT is bounded on the north by the Ohio river, which separates it from 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois ; east by Virginia, south by Tennessee, 
and west by the Mississippi, which separates it from the State of Missouri ; the 
greatest lengUi is about 400 miles, breadth 170, area 40,500 square mile& 

The principal rivers of Kentucky are the Ohio, which flows along the State 
637 miles, following its windings ; the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, Ken- 
tucky, Green, Licking, Big Sandy, Salt, and Rolling. 

Cumberland Mountains form the south-east boundary of this State. The eastern 
counties, bordering on Virginia, are mountainous and broken. A tract from 5 to 
20 miles wide, along the l»nks of the Ohio, is hilly and broken land, interspersed 
with many fertile valleys. Between this strip, Green river, and the eastern coun- 
ties, lies what has been called the garden of the State. This is the most populous 
part, and is about 150 miles long, and from 50 to 100 wide. The surface of this 
district is agreeably undulating, and the soil black and friable, producing black 
walnut, black cherry, honey locust, buckeye, pawpaw, sugar-tree, mulberry, elm, 
ash, cotton-wood, and white thorn. The whole Slate, below the mountains, rests 
on an immense bed of limestone, usually about eight feet below the surface. 
There are everywhere apertures in this limestone, through which the waters of 
the rivers sink into the earth. The large rivers of Kentucky, for this reason, are 
more diminished during the dry season, than those of any other part of the United 
States, and the small streams entirely disappear. The banks of the rivers are 
natural curiosities ; the rivers having generally worn very deep channels in the 
calcareous rocks over which they flow. The precipices formed by Kentucky river 
are in many places awfully sublime, presenting perpendicular rocks of 300 feet of 
solid limestone, surmounted with a steep and difficult ascent, four times as" high. 
In the south-west part of the State, between Green river and the Cumberland, 
there are several wonderful caves. 

The principal productions of Kentucky are hemp, tobacco, wheat, and Indian 
com. Salt springs are numerous, and supply not only this State, but a great part 
of Ohio and Tennessee, with this mineral. The principal manufactures are cloth, 



214 UNITED STATES. 



spiriu, cordage, salt, and maple-su^jfar. Hemp, tobacco, and wheat, are the prin- 
cipal ejsporta. These are carried down the Ohio and Miasiasippi to New Orleans, 
and foreigfn goods received from the same place in return. Louisville, on the 
Ohio, is the centre of this trade. The introduction of steam-boat navigation on 
the Ohio has been of incalculable benefit to the commercial and manufacturing 
interests of Kentucky. In addition to the important commerce with New Orleans, 
by the channel of the Mississippi river, Kentucky has intimate cGoimercial rela- 
tions with the chief cities on the Atlantic seaboard. 

The Ohio and Mississippi are the chief theatres of Kentucky commerce, but 
the New York and Pennsylvania canals are also crowded with its materials. 
Some important works have been executed for the purpose of extending the facili- 
ties of transportation afforded by the natural channels. Of these the most mag- 
nificent is the Louisville and Portland oanal, passing round the falls of the Ohio; 
for, although only a mile and a half in length, it is 200 feet wide at the surface 
and 50 feet at the bottom, and from the peculiar difiiculties encountered in its con- 
struction, is estimated to be equivalent to about 75 miles of ordinary canals; it has 
four locks, capable of admitting steam-boats of the largest class^ and a total lockage 
of 22 feet ; it is constructed in the roost solid and durable manner, and the cost of 
constniction was 750,000 dollars. The Lexington and Ohio rail-road extends 
from Lexington to Louisville, 90 miles. In 18& a board of commissioners was 
creatod for the purpose of improving the navigable streams of the State, and 
establif^hing a permanent system of internal improvement 

No system of popular education has been adopted by this State, but in many of 
the ccmnties common schools are supported. There are also several respectable 
academies and six colleges in the State; these are, Transylvania University, at 
Lexington, with law and medical departments, the oldest collegiate institution in 
the Western States ; Centre College, founded by the Presbyterians at Danville ; 
Augiista College, instituted by the Methodists; St. Joseph^s College, a Roman 
Catholic establishment, at Bardstown; Cumberland College, at Prmceton; and 
Georgetown College, in the town of the name. There are also an Episcopalian 
Theological Seminary at Lexington, a Medical College at Louisville, and a Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum at Danville. The predominant religious sects are the Baptists 
and Methodisto; the Presbyterians are also numerous, and there is a considerable 
number of Roman Catholics and Episcopalians. 

Keutucky is divided into 83 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 
In 1790, 73,677 



1800, 220,959 

IBIO, 406,511 

1890, 564,317 

1830, 688,844 



SLAVICS. 

12,430 
43,344 

80,561 
120,732 
165,350 



30,914 
37,217 
40,171 
44,618 



From 1790 to 1800, . . . .147,282 
1800 to 1610, ....185,552 
1810 to 1820, ....147,806 
1820 to 1830, ....124,527 

Of the above population there were, white Males, 266,024; white Females, 
250,054; deaf and dumb, 283; blind, 156; aliens, 173. Total whites, 518,678. 
Free coloured Males, 2559; Females, 2257. Total, 4816. Slaves— Males, 82,231 ; 
Females, 83,119. Total, 165,350. 

Lexington, the oldest town in the State, and for many years the seat of govern- 
ment, is beautifully situated in the centre of the rich tract above described. The 
streets are spacious, well paved, and regularly laid out, and the houses and public 
buildings are remarkable tor neatness and elegance. Fine shade trees border and 
adorn many of the streets, and the principal mansion-houses of the citizens are 
surrouhded by extensive grounds ornamented with noble trees and luxuriant 
shrubbery. The halls of Tran^lvania University, the State Lunatic Asylum, 
eleven churches, &c., are among the public buildings. There are here several 
larsre cotton and woollen manufactories, roachine-shope, rope- works, cotton-bag- 
ging factories, &c. In 1830 the population was 6104. 

Frankfort, the capital, stands on the right bank of the Kentucky river, in a 
highly picturesque situation ; the site of the town is an alluvial bottom, above 



UNITED STATES. 215 



which the river hills rise abruptly to the height of upwards of 200 feet, giving a 
bold, wild character to the scenery, which contrasts finely with the quiet, rural 
beauty of the town itself. Steam-boats go up to Frankfort, 60 miles from Uie 
mouth of the river, and keel-boats much higher. The State-House is a handsome 
edifice, built of white marble taken from the banks of the river, and there is here 
a penitentiary, conducted on the Auburn plan. The population is 1660. 

Louisville, tfae principal city of Kentucky, and in point of wealth, trade, and 
population, one of the most important towns beyond the mountains, is finely situated 
on an extensive and gently aloping plain, at the mouth of Beargrass creek, and 
above the falls of the Ohio. The Louisville and Portland canal enables large 
steam-boats to reach Louisville at all stages of the water. Louisville carries on 
the most extensive trade of any of the western towns, many thousands of fiat-boats 
arriving here yearly from all narts of the upper Ohio, and steam-boats arriving 
and departing daily in every direction. The population of Louisville, which in 
1800 amounted to 600 souls, had increased in 1835 to 10,968. The manufactures 
are various and extensive, comprising cotton-yam and stuffs, iron, ootton-bagging, 
cordage, hats, &c. The town is well built and regularly laid out, with spacious, 
straight, and well-paved streets, running parallel to the river, intersected by others 
meeting them at right angles, and the landing is convenient for boats. There is 
a Nautical Asylum for disabled boatmen at Louisville. Portland is a growing little 
village at the lower end of the canal. 

Maysville is the first considerable town of Kentucky which is paaeed in descend- 
ing the river Ohio. It is the dep6t of the upper part of the State, and its trade is 
pretty extensive ; it has also some manufactures. The population in 1830 was 
2040, but it has since probably doubled. Maysville occupies a narrow, but some- 
what elevated bottom, at the mouth of Limestone creek, which afibrds a harbour 
for boats. Newport and Covington are thriving towns, situated on the opposite 
banks of the -Licking river, and opposite to Cincinnati; they are the seats of some 
manufacturing industry, as well as of an active trade, and contained together, in 
1835, about 4^00 inhabitants. At Newport there is an United States Arsenal. 
About 20 miles south-west is the celebrated Big Bone Lick, which is much resorts 
ed to by invalids in the warm season. 



STATE OF TENNESSEE. 

TsNNttSEE is bounded on the north by Kentucky; east by North Carolina; 
south by Creorgia, Alabams, and Mississippi ; and west by Arkansas Territory, 
from which it is separated by the Mississippi River. It is 430 miles long, and 
104 broad, and contains 40,000 square miles. 

The principal rivers are Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, Clinch, Duck, 
Holston, French-Broad, Nolichucky, Hiwassee, Tellico, Reelfoot, Obion, Forked 
Deer, Wolf, and Elk River. 

Tennessee is washed by the great river Mississippi on the west, and the fine 
rivers Tennessee and Cumberland pass through it in very serpentine courses. 
West Tennessee lying between the Mississippi and the Tennessee Rivers, is a 
level or slightly undulating plain : east of this section is Middle Tennessee, of a 
moderately hilly surface. The eastern part of the State adjoining North Carolina, 
is known by the name of East Tennessee : it abounds in mountains, many of them 
lofly, and presenting scenery peculiarly grand and picturesque. Of these moun- 
tains the Cumberland, or great Laurel Ridge, is the most remarkable. Stone, 
Iron, Bald, Smoky, or Unaka mountains, join each other, and form, in a direction 
nearly north-east and south-west, the eastern boundaiy of the State. 

The soil in a country so uneven must be very various. The western part of 
the State has a black, rich soil ; in the middle are great quartUties of excellent 
land ; in the eastern, part of the mountains are barren, but there are many fertile 
valleya 

The climate is generally healthfbl. In East Tennessee, the heat is so temper- 
ed by the mountain air on one side, and by refreshing breezes from the Gulf c^ 



216 



UNITED STATES. 



Mexico on the other, that this part of the State has one of the most desirable 
climates in North America. The middle part resembles Kentucky in climate. 

The great business of the State is agriculture. The soil produces abundantly 
cotton and tobacco, which are the staple commodities. The inhabitants also raise 
a plentiful supply of grain^ grass, and fruit They export cotton, tobacco, and 
flour, in considerable quantities; also saltpetre, and many other articles. The 
principal commerce is carried on through the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, 
and from them through the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans. This State 
also supplies Kentucky, Ohio, &c. with cotton for inland manufactures ; and from 
Eaei Tennessee considerable numbers of cattle are sent to the sea-ports on the 
Atlantic. 

The most valuable mineral products of Tennessee are iron, gold, coal, and salt. 
Gold is found in the south-eastern section, but it has not been systematically work- 
ed. Iron occurs throughout the State east of the Tennessee ; there is a consider- 
able number of furnaces in East Tennessee, and in Middle Tennessee alone the 
number of furnaces, in 1835, was 27, producing about 27,000 tons of metal annu- 
ally ; there are also several rolling-mills and nail-factories in this section. Coal 
is found in the Cumberland Mountains of excellent quality and in great quan- 
tities ; it is carried from Crab Orchard Mountain^ near Emery's River, down .the 
Tennessee to New Orleans, a distance of about 1700 miles. Good marble, marl, 
buhr-stone, nitrous earth, and other useful minerals are found, and there are some 
valuable mineral springs. 

Various plans have been proposed for connecting difierent parts of Tennessee 
with the sea-board sections of the Union ; the eastern part of the State will pro- 
bably soon have an outlet in that direction by means of the projected rail-road 
from Knoxville to Charleston, forming part of the great Ohio and Charleston rail- 
road. Surveys have been made by which the practicability has been ascertained 
of a passage over the mountains, both from North Carolina towards Knoxville, 
and from Georgia towards the Tennessee river, in the southern part of the State ; 
another great work is in actual progress from New Orleans to Nashville, of up- 
wards of 500 miles in extent, which will ensure an expeditious transit at all sea- 
sons between the extreme and intermediate points, and several other local works 
of the same kind are in contemplation. 

The State has a school fund, the interest of which is distributed to such school 
districts as provide a school-house, but little has yet been done towards the estab- 
lishment or a common school system throughout the State. There aro here 
several respectable academies, and five collegiate institutions: Nashville Uni- 
versity at Nashville, East Tennessee College at Knoxville, Greenville College at 
Greenville, Jackson College near Columbia, and Washington College in Wash- 
ington County ; there is also a Theological Seminary at Mary ville. The Metho- 
dists and Baptists are the most numerous religious bodies in Tennessee; the 
Presbyterians are also numerous, and there are some Episcopalians, Lutherans, 
Friends, &c. 

Tennessee is divided into 62 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



In 1800 105,602 

1810, 261,727 

1820, 420,813 

1830, 681,903 



INCREASE. 



SLAVES. INCREASE. 
13,584 

From 1800 to 1810, 156,125 44,535 30,951 

1810 to 1820, 159,086 80,107 35,572 

1820 to 1830, 261,090 141,603 61,496 

Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 275,066 ; white Fe- 
males, 260,680; deaf and dumb, 208; blind, 176; aliens, 121: total whites, 
535,748. Free coloured Males, 2330; Females, 2225: total, 4555. Slaves- 
Males, 70,216; Females, 71,387: total, 141,603. 

Nashville, the capital, and the only considerable city of the State, is pleasantly 
situated on the southern bank of the Cumberland, in a fertile and picturesque 
tract. The site is elevated and uneven, and the town is well built, containing, 
beside some elegant dwelling-houses, the Courtr House, a Lunatic Asylum, a Peni- 



UNITED STATES. 217 



tentiary conducted on the Auburn system, the Halls of Nashville University, six 
churches, &c. The trade is active and pretty extensive, and there are some 
manufactories, comprising several brass and iron-founderies, rolling-mills, tan- 
neries, &c. The population increased from 5566, in 1830, to above 7000 in 1835. 
Ciarksville, below Nashville, is a thriving little town. Franklin, to the south of 
Nashville, is a busy town with 1500 inhabitants, who carry on some branches of 
mechanical and manufacturing industry pretty extensively. 

Knoxville, having only 1500 inhabitants, stands on a hilly site, on the right 
bank of the Holston River, and was for some time the seat of government, and a 
place of considerable trade; its commercial importance, however, has of late 
much diminished. It contains the Halls of East Tennessee College, a useflil and 
flourishing institution. The other towns of this section, Blountville, Jonesboro, 
RogeiBville, and Mary ville, are little villages of 500 or 600 inhabitanta 

In the southern part of the State, Winchester, Fayetteville, at the head of 
navigation on the Elk River, and Pulaski, are thriving little towns; the last men- 
tioned has 1200 inhabitants, and the two others about 800 each. Columbia, on 
the Duck River, is one of the most flourishing towns in the State, and has about 
1500 inhabitants ; it is the seat of Jackson College. Murfi-eesboro, for some time 
the capital of the State, is pleasantly situated in a very rich and highly cultivated 
district, and it has a population of 1000. Bolivar, at the head of navigation, on 
the Hatchee, a very growing and busy town; Randolph, on the second Chickasaw 
Bluff, below the mouth of the Big Hatchee River, with a good harbour for steam- 
boats in all stages of the water, and conveniently placed for the outlet of a pro- 
ductive region ; and Memphis, at the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, with one of the 
best sites for a commercial emporium on the Mississippi, are all small towns, but 
of growing business and importance. The Chickasaw Blu^ or points where the 
river-hills reach the river, presenting sites above the reach of the floods, are four 
in number ; the first, being below the mouth of the Forked Deer River, is the site 
of Fulton ; the second has been mentioned as that of Randolph ; the third, 18 
miles below, is separated from the main channel of the river by a bayou or slough, 
which is only navigable in times of high water ; and the fourth is the site of 
Memphis. The next similar highland below is at Vicksburg, 365 miles by the 
course of the river. The bluff on which Memphis stands is 30 feet above the 
highest floods, and its base is washed by the river for a distance of three miles, 
while a bed of sand-stone, the only known stratum of rocks below the Ohio, juts 
into the stream and forms a convenient landing. From the Ohio to Vicksburg, a 
distance of 650 miles, it is the only site for a great commercial mart on ei&er 
bank of the Mississippi 



STATE OF INDIANA. 

Thb State of Indiana is bounded on the north by Michigan and Lake Michigan ; 
east by Ohio ; south by the Ohio River, which sepamtes it from Kentucky, and 
west by Illinois, from which it is separated in part by the Wabash River. The 
mean length is about 260, and mean breadth 140 miles ; area, about 36,000 square 
miles. 

The Ohio River flows along the southern extremity of this State for upwards 
of 850 miles, estimated by the course of the stream. The principal river, besides 
the Ohio, is the Wabash, with its numerous branches, of which the most im- 
portant are the Salamanic and Mississinewa, both entering on its southern side in 
the upper part of its course ; from the north it receives the Little, the Eel, and 
Tippecanoe rivers; and from the east the White and Patoka rivers. The White 
River is a valuable channel for trade, as it drains the central part of the State, 
and has several large confluents, of which its east and west forks are the principal. 
In the north-west part of Uie State are the Kankakee and Iroquois, both head 
waters of the Illinois River ; in the north and north-east are the Rivers St Joseph 
of Lake Michigan, and the St Joseph of Maumee ; the former falls into Lake 
Michigan, and the latter, uniting with the St Mary's River at Fort Wayne, forms 

19 2C 



218 UNITED STATES. 



the Maumce, which flows in a north-easterly direction into Lake Erie. The 
streams in the southern part of the State, are the White Water, a tributary of the 
Miami River, and Laughery, Indian, and Anderson^s creeks ; also, Big and Little 
Blue rivers, and Great and Little Pigeon creeks, all of which flow into the Ohio 
River. 

There are no mountains in Indiana ; the country, however, is more hilly than 
the territory of Illinois, particularly towards Ohio River. A range of hills, called 
the Knobs, extends from the falls of the Ohio to the Wabash, in a south-west direc- 
tion, which in many places produce a broken and uneven. surface. North of these 
hills lie the Flat Woods, 70 miles wide. Bordering on all the principal streams, 
except the Ohio, there are strips of bottom and prairie land ; both together, from 
three to six miles in width. Between the Wabash and Lake Michigan, the coun- 
try is mostly champaign, abounding alternately with wood-lands, prairies, lakes, 
and swamps. 

A range of hills run parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth of the Great Mi- 
ami to Blue River, alternately approaching to within a few rods, and receding to 
the distance of two miles. Immediately below Blue River, the hills disappear, 
and there is presented to view an immense tract of level land, covered with a 
heavy growth of timber. 

The agricultural exports are beef, pork, cattle, horses, swine, Indian-corn, hemp, 
tobacco, &c. ; ginseng, bees*-wax, feathers, and whiskey are also exported, but we 
have no means of estimating the value of the trade. There are some grist and 
saw-mills, >a few iron furnaces, and some salt-works, but the manu&cturing indus- 
try is inconsiderable. 

The mineral resources of Indiana have been little attended to, and our know- 
ledge of some of them is but imperfect Coal, iron, lime, salt, &c., are known 
to abound. 

The Wabash and Erie Canal, flrom Lafayette to Perrysburg in Ohio, lies chiefly 
in this State, the distance from Lafayette to the Ohio line being 130 miles ; a con- 
siderable portion of the work is completed, and the remainder is in progress ; it is 
executed by the State. In 1836, an appropriation of 1,300,000 dollars was made 
for continuing this work to Terre Haute, 90 miles, and thence to the Central Ca- 
nal, 40 miles; at the same time 3,500,000 dollars were appropriated for the con- 
struction of the Central or White River Canal, from Uie Wabash and Erie Canal 
above Loganport through Indianapolis, down the White River and Pigeon Creek, 
to Evansville, on the Ohio, 290 miles; and 1,400,000 for the Whitewater Canal, 
to extend through Connersville, down the valley of the Whitewater, to Law- 
renceburg on the Ohio, 76 miles ; further appropriations were also made of 50,000 
dollars to aid Illinois in removing obstructions to the navigation of the Wabash ; 
of 1,300,000 for the making of the Madison and La&yette Rail-road, from the 
Ohio through Indianapolis to the Wabash, 160 miles; of 1,150,000 for a Mac- 
adamized road from New Albany, on the Ohio, to Vincennes, and of 1,300,000 for 
a turnpike or rail-road from the same place to Crawfordsville, near the Upper 
Wabaati, 158 miles. The Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis Rail-road is in process 
of construction by a private company, which has received assistance from the 
State ; length 90 miles. The National Road passes from the Ohio line through 
Indianapolis, but is not yet completed. 

The current of immigration has flowed steadily into Indiana during the last 15 
years, and its population has accordingly increased with great rapidity ; in 1800, 
it amounted to 5641 ; in 1810, to 24,520 ; in 1820, to 147,178 ; in 1830, to 341,582 ; 
and in an official document it was estimated at the close of 1835 to amount to 
600,000. Most of the inhabitants are from Ohio, and the Middle and Northern 
States ; but there are many immigrants from Kentucky and Virginia, as well as 
from foreign countries. 

The same provision has been made by Congress for the support of common 
schools, that has been made in the other new States, but no efficient system of 
general education has yet been adopted; the Constitution makes it '*the duty of 
the General Assembly, as soon as circumstances shall permit, to provide by law 
for a general system of education, ascending in a regular gradation, from town- 



UNITED STATES. 219 ! 



ship schools to a State university, Wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally 
open to all/' Indiana College at Bloomington, South Hanover College at South | 
Hanover, and Wabash College at Crawfordsville, are useful institutions. Acade- 
mies have been established in several of the counties. The Methodists and Bap- 
tists are the prevailing religious sects ; the Presbyterians and Friends are nume- 
rous, and there are Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, &c. 
Indiana is divided into 85 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS 



InlSOO, 5,641 

1810, 24,520 

1820, 147,178 

1830, 341,582 



INCRKASB. BtAYZS. 

133 

237 

190 





From 1800 to 1810 18,879 

- 1810 to 1820, 122,658 

1820 to 1830, 194,404 

Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 176,513 ; Females, 
161,507; deaf and dumb, 104; blind, 72; aliens, 280: total whites, 338,020. 
Free coloured Males, 1792; Females, 1770: total, 3562. 

Indianapolis, the capital of the State, stands on a fine plain near the White 
River, and is laid out with much taste and regularity ; the spacious streets are 
lined with neat houses, and the public buildings are handsome structures. There 
are Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist Churches, a State-House, Court-House, 
Governor's House, &c. The inhabitants are about 1800 in number. 

Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio, just below the mouth of the Whitewater, carries 
on an extensive trade, but its site is so low that it is subject to inundation during 
very high stages of the water. Madison is a flourishing town, pleasantly situ- 
ated, 60 miles below Lawrenceburg, with about 2000 inhabitants. Vevay is a 
little village, settled by a Swiss colony, with about 1000 inhabitants. JeSerson- 
ville, opposite Louisville, is a thriving town ; it contains the State Prison. New 
Albany, below the fiiUs of the Ohio, is the largest town in the State, and contains 
about 3000 inhabitants. 

New Harmony on the Wabash was founded by the German sect called Flar- 
monites, under the direction of Rapp ; in 1824, it was bought by Owen of Lanark, 
who attempted to put in operation here his new social system ; the scheme failed, 
and his followers were dispersed,, but the village is now a flourishing place in 
other hands. Vincennes, higher up the river, is an old French settlement, formed 
in the beginning of the last century. The population in 1830 was 1500, but it is 
now rapidly increasing. Terre Haute, Lafayette, and Logansport are young, but 
growing centres of trade. Richmond, on the National Road, near the Ohio State 
line, is also a prosperous little town. The city of Michigan has lately been 
founded on the lake of that name, but there is no good harbour within this State, 
and the navigation is dangerous on account of the exposure to the winds and surf. 
The whole shore of the lake is lined by lofly, bare sand-hills, rising to the height 
of two hundred feet, with a breadth of a mile an4 upward, in the rear of which is 
a belt of sandy hillocks, covered with white-oak and pine. 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 

This fertile and improving Stale is bounded north by Wisconsin Terrritory, east 
by Michigan and Indiana, south by Kentucky, and west by the State of Missouri 
and Wisconsin Territory. Its medium length is about Ji'iO miles, and medium] 
breadth about 170; the area being about 59,500 square miles. 

The Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash, form about two-thirds of the whole bound- 
ary of this State. The other most considerable rivers are the Illinois, Kaskaskia, 
Muddy, Saline, Little Wabash, Mackinaw, Crow Meadow, Rainy, Vermillion, 
Spoon, Rock, Sangamon, Embarras, Fox, Des Plaines, &c. 

The southern and middle parts of the State are for the most part level. The 



220 



UNITED STATES. 



north-western section is a hilly, broken country, though there are no high moun- 
tain& The climate resembles that of Indiana and Ohio. The soil is generally 
very fertile, and yields abundant harvests. 

Maize is the staple production of the State, and the average produce is 50 
bushels to the acr^. Wheat is also raised in large quantities, and yields flour of 
superior quality ; rye is much used for distillation. Hemp, tobacco, and cotton, 
which is mostly consumed in household manu&ctures, but is also exported, Uie 
castor-oil bean, from which large quantities of oil are made for exportation, and 
the common grains, are also among the products. Large herds of cattle are kept 
with little trouble, and great numbers are driven out of the State, or sent down 
the river in flat-boats. Thousands of hogs are raised with little attention or 
expense, and pork is largely exported. 

Coal, salt, and lime, iron, lead, and copper, are among the known mineral pro- 
ductions of Illinois, but its bosom has not yet been explored for its hidden treasures. 
Coal is very abundant in many quarters, and is considerably worked. Lead is 
found in the north-western coiner of the State in exhaustless quantities : the lead- 
diggings extend from the Wisconsin to the neighbourhood of Rock River, and on 
both sides of the Mississippu The Indians and French had been long accustomed 
to procure the ore, but it was not until 1822 that the process of separating the 
metal was begun to be carried on here. Since that time, up to the end of 1835, 
70,420,357 pounds of lead have been made here, and upwards of 13,000,000 pounds 
have been smelted in one year ; but the business having been overdone, the pro- 
duct has since been much less. In 1833 it was 7,941,792 pounds; in 1834, 
7,971,579 ; and in 1835, only 3,754,290 ; this statement includes the produce of 
Wisconsin Territory as well as of Illinois. Some salt Ls made near Shawneetown; 
near Danville, on the Little Vermillion ; and near Brownville, on Muddy Creek. 
The springs are owned by the State, and leased to the manufacturers. 

The same provision has been made by Congress for the support of public schools 
in this as in the other new States, by the appropriation of certain proportions of 
the public land to this purpose. But the scattered state of the population has as 
yet prevented a general system of public education from being carried into opera- 
tion. There are several respectable academies in the State, and Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, Shurtlefi^ College at Alton, and the Alton Theological Seminary, 
at the same place, bid &ir to be useful institutipns. The Methodists and Baptists 
are the most numerous religious sects, and there are many Presbyterians, Roman 
Catholics, &c. 

An important public work has lately been commenced in this State, which will 
efiect the junction of the Mississippi and Lake Michigan : the Illinois and Chicago 
canal, extending from Chicago on the lake to a point below the rapids of the Illi- 
nois, a distance of about 100 miles, is in progress, forming the fourth navigable chan- 
nel from the Mississippi valley to the great lakes. The part of the National Road 
between Terre Haute and Vandalia, is not yet completed, and that part which is 
to extend from Vandalia west to the Mississippi, is not yet begun. Several 
important rail-roads are also proposed, which, when completed, will no doubt 
greatly increase the commercial prosperity of the State. The most extensive 
work of the kind contemplated, is to extend from Galena, in the lead-mine region, 
immediately south of the north line of the State, to the mouth of the Ohia It will 
traverse the whole length of Illinois from north to south, and be upwards of 400 
miles in length. Another will extend from Peoria, on the Illinois river, to a point 
on the Wabash, connecting the two rivers. One is likewise to be carried from 
Mount Carmel, on the Wabash river, to Alton, on the Mississippi. There are also 
several others of minor importance proposed. 

The population of Illinois has increased with the same amazing rapidity as that 
of the neighbouring States. The constitution provides that neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude shall hereafter be introduced into the State, otherwise than 
for the punishment of crimes ; and as negroes coming into the State are required 
to give bonds with security, that they will not become chargeable as paupers, 
there are few blacks. 



UNITED STATES. 221 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

In 1810, 12^82 

1820, 55^11 

1830 157,575 



INCRKASI. 

From 1810 to 1820, 42,929 

1820 to 1830 102,364 



Of the above population of 1830, there were, white Males, 82,202 ; white Fe- 
males, 72,974; deaf and dumb, 64; blind, 36; aliens, 447: toUl whites, 155,176. 
Free coloured Males, 1190 ; Females, 1209 : total coloured, 2399. Whole popula- 
tioo, 157,575. 

The most thriYing town in Illinois, and the principal dep6t of the State, is Chi- 
cago, on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of a small river of the same name. The 
canal now in progress fVom this place to the Illinois river, when completed will 
bring a vast increase of trade to Chicago, and probably render it in time one of the 
principal jriaces in the Western States. The town is pleasantly situated on a 
high plain, on both sides of the river, which affords easy access to the centre of 
business. An artificial harbour has been made by the construction of piers, which, 
extending some distance into the lake, prevent the accumulation of sand on the 
bar. The country around is a high, dry, and fertile prairie, and on the north 
branch of the Chicago, and along the lake shore, are extensive bodies of fine tim- 
ber. The town has grown up within four or five years, and contains at present 
six chufches, a bank, 51 warehouses, a printing-office, an academy, and near 8000 
inhabitants. In 1835 there were 267 arrivals of brigs and schooners, beside seve- 
ral of steam-boats. 

Vandalia, the capital of the State, is a small town, with a population of about 
500 inhabitants. It is on the route of the National Road, on the west bank of the 
Kaskaskia river, about 80 miles north-east of St Louis. The buildings, public 
and private, are respectable, if we regard the few years which have elapsed since 
the site was a wilderness. It is proposed to remove the seat of the State govern- 
ment from Vandalia to a position farther north. 

The most commercial place in this State on the Mississippi river is Alton, 
situated on the blufis at the northern termination of the American Bottom, two 
miles and a half above the mouth of the Missouri, and eighteen below that of the 
Illinois. It is the western depdt of the produce of Illinois. Possessing a fine, com- 
modious harbour, with an excellent landing for steam-boats, formed by a level rock 
of a convenient height, which makes a natural wharf, Alton has become the centre 
of an active and daily growing trade. The population at present exceeds 2000. 
There are here four churches, a lyceum, 2 printing-offices, and a penitentiary ; and 
the picturesque site of the town is well set off by its neat houses, surrounded by 
tasteful piazzas and gay shrubbery. Upper Alton, in the rear of Alton, and about 
three miles distant, is the seat of Shurtleff College and a theological seminary. 
Edwardsville is a neat and thriving village, to the north of Alton. 

Peoria is beautifully situated at the foot of the lake of that name, and on the 
Illinois river. It contains about 1000 inhabitants. Ottawa, above the rapids, and 
at the western termination of the Illinois and Michigan canal, is also a flourishing 
village, with deep water and a good landing. 

Cahokia and Kaskaskia are oW French villages on the American Bottom, with 
not more than 500 to 600 inhabitants, most of whom are French. These and 
similar sites are found unhealthy for new settlers, but their occupants do not suffer 
in this respect. ** The villages of Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, and Cahokia, 
were built up by their industry in places where Americans probably would have 
perished.** This bottom is remarkable for the number and size of the mounds, 
which are scattered "like gigantic hay-cocks," over its surfiice. Seventy of these 
may be counted on the Edwardsville road, near Cahokia ; and the principal mound, 
which is surrounded by a group of sixteen or eighteen smaller ones, is ninety feet 
in height, with a base of 600 yards in circumference. Springfield, near the centre 
of the State, on the border of a beautifiil prairie, and surrounded by one of the 
most fertile tracts in the world, and Jacksonville, further west, in the midst of a 
beautifiilly undulating and now cultivated prairie, are busy, flourishing towns, with 
about 2000 inhabitants each. Bloomington, further south, is also a gro wing village. 

19* 



222 UNITED STATES. 



On the Mississippi, above the Illinois, Quincy and Rock River City, at the 
mouth of the river of the name, are fiivourably situated. On the rocky extremity 
of a little island, about three miles long and of half that width, at the mouth of 
Rock River, stands Fort Armstrong, a United States military post Higher up, a 
few miles from the mouth of Fever River, which is navigable for steam-boats to 
the town, is Galena, a prosperous village in the lead district, with about 1200 
inhabitants. 



STATE OF MICHIGAN. 

Thb country to which the name of Michigan has been usually applied is a large 
peninsula, with its base resting upon the States of Ohio and Indiana, and bounded 
on the east and north-east by Lake Huron, for a distance of 250 miles, and having 
Lake Michigan for its. western boundary, an extent of 260 miles. It is in length 
about 288, and in breadth at the widest part 190 mile& Its area being 38,000 
square miles. 

Michigan, however, comprises without her bounds another and entirely distinct 
peninsula, forming a part of the region nominally attached to her while under a 
territorial government, and added permanently to her territory on her admission 
as a member of the American confederacy. It is bounded on the north. by Lake 
Superior ; on the east by St Mary's River ; on the south by Lukes Huron and 
Michigan; and south-west by the Mennomonie and Montreal Rivers; the latter 
emptying into Lake Superior, and the former into Green Bay : it is in length from 
east to'west, about 320 miles ; and in breadth it varies from 100 to 30 or & miles ; 
the area is probably about 28,000 square miles ; making the area of the whole 
State about 66,000 miles. 

The northern peninsula is but little known, having been explored only by 
hunters and trappers : the surface is said to be more irregular than that of the 
southern section, and also much less suited for agricultural purposes, but it will 
nevertheless doubtless become of importance on account of the large bodies of 
pine timber contained in varibus parts ; and also from the valuable fisheries on the 
shores of Lake Superior, white fish being taken in great abundance. The rivers 
are numerous and flow mostly into Lake Superior ; they are in general short in 
their length of course, and much broken by falls and rapids. The shores of the 
lake are mostly low, and but little indented by bays and harbours ; and as the 
prevailing winds are firom the north-west, and sweep with great fury over the 
wide unsheltered expanse of the lake, navigation is more stormy and dangerous 
than along the Canada shore. 

The Pictured Rocks, so named firom their picturesque appearance, are a remark- 
able natural curiosity. They form a perpendicular wall, extending near 12 miles, 
and are 300 feet high, presenting a great variety of romantic projections and 
indentations, having the appearance of landscapes, buildings, and various objects 
delineated by the hand of man ; among the features that attract particular admi- 
ration, are the cascade La Portaille, and the Doric Arcb» The cascade consists 
of a considerable stream precipitated from the height of about 70 feet, by a single 
leap, into the lake. It is thrown to such a distance that a boat may pass dry 
between it and the rocks. The Doric Rock, or Arch, has the appearance of a 
work of art, consisting of an isolated mass of sand-stone, with 4 pillars, supporting 
a stratum or entablature of stone, covered with soil, and giving support to a hand- 
some growth of spruce and pine trees, some of which are 50 or 60 feet high. 

The native inhabitants of this region are some bands of the Chippeways, on the 
shores of Lake Superior, and Mennomonies, on Green Bay ; the whole numbering 
only about 1400 or 1500. The only bettlenent in this region is the village of St 
Mary's, at Fort Brady on the St Mary's River ; it contains a population of 800, 

Ccipally half-breeds and French. St Mary's River, the outlet of the waters of 
e Superior, is about 50 miles in length, with a hW of 22 feet in half a mile, 
which prevents large vessels firom entering Lake Superior, although canoes and 
boats of small draught ascend and descend the rapids. An aet authorising the 



UNITED STATES. 223 



construction of a ship canal around these rapids has lately passed the legislature 
of Michijran. 

The soathem peninsula, or Michigan Proper, is generally a level country hav- 
in;r no elevation that can properly be called hills ; the centre of the peninsula 
being a table-land, elevated, however, but a few feet above the level of the lakes. 
Along the shore of Lake Huron there are in places high bluf& : along the east 
shore of Lake Michigan are immense hills of pure sand, of from 50 to several 
hundred feet in height, which have been blown up by the almost constant western 
winds sweeping over the lake and the sandy margin on its eastern side. 

The peninsula abounds in rivers : none of these have much extent of course, 
and but few of them are navigable to any considerable distance inland. Grand 
River is the largest : it empties into Lake Michigan : its whole course is about 
150 miles, and it is navigable 50 miles from the lake to the rapids for sloops and 
steam-boats, and above that point there is sufficient depth of water for boats 50 
miles farther. The St Joseph^s River is a considerable stream, and empties into 
Lake Michigan at the south-west angle of the territory. It is, like Grand River, 
navigable for large sloops to the rapids, and above them has a still farther extent 
of bMit navigation. It flows through a very fertile region, variegated by prairies 
and high forests; the country on this river is not surpi^sed, in point of beauty and 
fertility, by any in the Union. Several towns and villages have been recently 
settled on this river, which bid fair to become flourishing and prosperous places. 
The other considerable streams which flow into Lake Michigan are the Kalama- 
zoo, Grand, Maskegon, Pentwater, Manistic, and Aux Betises. Those which flow 
into Lake Erie are the Raisin and Huron Rivers. The Clinton is the only consi- 
derable river which falls into Lake St Clair. The Belle, and Black, or Dulude, 
fall into St Clair River. The Saginaw, a considerable and important river, run- 
ning northward, falls into Saginaw Bay, which is a part of Lake Huron. Many 
other, but smaller streams, fall into the same lake, such as the Thunder Bay, 
Sandy, Aux Carpe, and Cheboeigon Rivers. 

The eastern parts of this territory, from various circumstances, became first 
settled. Within the few last years a great mass of emigrants have begun to 
spr^ themselves over this fine and fertile country. Situated, as it is, between 
the west, the south, and the east, with greater fiicilities for extensive inland water 
communication than any other country on the globe, with a fertile soil, of which 
millions of acres are fit for the plough, with a healthful climate, and with a con- 
currence of circumstances, inviting northern population, the inhabitants are 
increasing, and wealti) accumulates with a rapidity that may vie with any of the 
neighbouring States. 

'Wheat, Indian corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, turnips, peas, apples, 
pears, plums, cherries, and peaches are raised easily and in abundance. It is a 
country more fiivourable to cultivated grasses than the western country. In short, 
it is peculiarly fitted for northern farmers. No inland country, according to its 
age, population, and circumstances, has a greater trade. A number of steam- 
boats and lal^ vessels are constantly plyfaig in this trade, which is with Detroit, 
Chicago, and Ohia 

The climate of this region, in c(»isequence of its being level and peninsular, 
and surrounded on all sides but the south, with sudi immense bodies of water, is 
more temperate and mild than could be expected fixxn its latitude. The southern 
parts have mild vruiters, and the spring opens as early as in any part of the United 
States in the same latitude : the position of the nortoem parts must subject it to 
a Canadian temperature. The winter commences here early in November, and 
does not terminate until the end of March. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, 
styled the Legislature ; the former are chosen for the term of two years, and the 
latter annually. The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are chosen l^ the 
people, and hold office for the terra of two years. The Judffes are appointed by 
the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, the term "of office being seven 
years. Sufirage is univeisal. The constitution provides that neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude shall ever be introduced into the State, except for the pun- 



224 



UNITED STATES. 



ishment of crimes; and that no lottery shall be authorised by the State, nor sliall 
the sale of lottery tickets be allowed. It is also a provision of the constitution, 
that the Legislature shall encourage by all suitable means the promotion of intel- 
lectual, scientific, and agricultural improvement ; shall provide for a system of 
common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school 
district at least three months in every ye^r ; and, as soon as the circumstances of 
the State will permit, shall provide for the establishment of libraries, one at least 
in each township. Measures have already been taken by the Presbyterians for 
the establishment of a college at Anne Arbour, by the Methodists of another at 
Spring Arbour, and by the £ptists of a third in Kalamazoo county. 

The State is divid«i into 38 counties. 

In 1810, the population amounted to 4762; in 1820, it was 8896; in 1830, 
exclusive of the counties now belonging to Wisconsin, 28,004; and in 1634, 
87,273. 

The city of Detroit, the principal place in Michigan, is situated on a rising 
plain on the western shore of Detroit River, which unites Lakes Erie and St. 
Clair. Few places can be more admirably situated for a commercial city, and few 
have a more solid promise of permanent prosperity. The city is regularly laid 
out and neatly built, and during the last five or six years its business and popula- 
tion have increased commensurately with the growth of the fertile country in its 
rear. In 1830, the number of the inhabitants was 2222 ; in 1835, it was esti- 
mated at 8000. The public buildings are five churches, of which the largest and 
most striking is the Roman Catholic Cathedral, a State-House, Academy, and 
county buildings. Detroit k the dep6t of all the country on the upper lakes, and 
there are sixteen or eighteen large steam-boats plying between this port and Chi- 
cago and Buffiilo. 

Among the small towns springing up in Michigan, are Palmer, on St Clair 
River, Anne Arbour, on the Huron, with about l^K) inhabitants ; also, Adrian 
and Monroe, on the River Raisin ; the latter is about 2 miles from the mouth of 
the river, and is accessible to steam-boats. It contains several saw and grist-mills, a 
woollen manufactory, and an iron foundery. The rivers afford a number of mill- 
seats, with a plentiful supply of water. The population, in 1835, was about 2000. 
At the head of St Clair River, at the outlet of Lake Huron, on a commanding 
position, stands Fort Gratiot, a United States military poet ; Mackinaw is on Michil- 
limackinac Island at the entrance of Lake Michigan. 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 

This State is bounded north by Wisconsin Territory ; west by the Western or 
Indian Territory ; east by the Mississippi River, which separates it from Illinois, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee ; and south by the State of Arkansas. Its length is 
about 280 miles, and medium breadth 230, the area being about 65,000 square 
miles. The Mississippi River runs 460 miles along the eastern border of the 
State, whilst the Missouri flowing for 200 miles along the western boundary, and 
through its centre for 350 miles, enters the fbrmer stream a short distance above 
St. Louis. The western line of this State, sooth of the Missouri River, is the 
meridian which passes through the point of junction of the Kansas and the Mis- 
souri Rivers. , 

Besides the great rivers Mississippi and Missouri, this State is watered by vari- 
ous others of considerable magnitude. The largest are the Osage, Grand, Salt, 
Chariton, Grasconade, Merrimac or Maramec, Big Black, and St Francis. The 
OsBige is a large river, savigable for boats 660 milea Much of the surface in the 
central portion of the section south of the Missouri is mountainous, or rather 
hilly, being traversed in different directions by the chains of the Ozark Moun- 
tains, one of which under the name of the Iron Mountain divides the waters of 
the St Francis and White Rivers from those of the Maramec and (jasconade, 
and another forms the water-shed between the Gasconade and Osage ; but these 
ridges are not very lofly. Between the Osage and Missouri, and north of the 



UNITED STATES. 225 



latter, the country is undulating and agreeably diversified, while in the south-east 
between the Big Black River and the Mississippi, the whole tract, with the excep- 
tion of a narrow strip on the border of the latter, is a low, inundated morass, 
forming a portion of the great swamp of which the principal part is in the State 
of ArluLusas. 

The lands bordering on the Missouri, we exceedingly rich. They ccmsist of a 
stratum of Uack alluvial soil, of unknown depth. ^ you recede from the banks 
of the rivers, the land rises, passing sometimes gradually, and sometimes abrupt- 
ly, into elevated barrens, flinty ridges, and rocky clifib. A portion of the State 
is, therefore, unfit for cultivation ; but this part of it, however, is rich in mineral 
treasures. The land is either very fbrtile or very poor; it is either bottom land 
or clifi^, either prairie or barren : there is very little of^ an intermediate quality. 
The climate is remarkably serene and temperate, and very favourable to health. 

Missouri is admirably adapted for a grazing^ country, and vast herds of cattle, 
horses, and swine are raised. The prairies are excellent natural pastures ; " the 
business of rearing cattle is almost reduced to the simple operation of turning 
them upon these prairies and letting them fatten until the owners think proper to 
claim the tribute of their flesh." Beef, pork, tallow, hides, and live-stock con- 
stitute important articles of export. Cotton is raised in the southern part of the 
State, but not in considerable quantities ; tobacco is more extensively grown, and 
hemp, wheat, Indian-corn, and the other cereal grains are cultivated with success. 
Maize, flour, lead, furs, buflalo-skins and tongues, and lumber, constitute, with the 
articles before mentioned, the exports of Missouri. 

The most remarkable feature in Missouri is its lead-mines, which are estimated 
to cover an area of about 3000 square miles. The centre of the lead-mine dis- 
trict is about 70 miles southrwest from St. Louis, and the principal diggings are 
included in an extent of 90 miles in one direction by 15 in another. The lead- 
ore is found in detached ma^es, and not in veins. The business of mining is, 
consequently, very uncertain. The ore is of that species called galena, and 
yields from 75 to 80 per cent About 3,000,000 pounds of lead are annually 
made, giving employment to about 1200 hands. In this region, are likewise 
found copper, zinc, manganese, antimony, calamine, cobalt, dtc. These lead- 
mines were wrought by the French, 100 years ago. 

Numerous shot-factories are established along the high rocky blu& of the Mis- 
sissippi, which renders the erection of towers unnecessary. Iron is found in in- 
exhaustible quantities, and is pretty extensively wrought Coal also abounds par- 
ticularly along the Missouri, and aluminous uid nitrous earth, marble, mlt-springs, 
sulphuretted and thermal waters, &c., occur. There are three colleges in the 
State : St Louis University in St Louis, and St Mary's College at Perry ville. 
Catholic institutions, and Marion College at Palmyra. The Baptists and Metho- 
dists are the most numerous sects; the Presbyterians and Roman Catholics are 
also pretty numerous, and there are some Episcopalians. 

Missouri is divided into 52 counties. The population is as follows : 

Total. Slave*. 

1810 (including Arkansas) 20,845 3,011 

1820 66,586 - 10,222 

1830 140,455 25.091 

1832 176,276 32,184 

Of the foregoing population of 1830, there were, white Males, 61,405 ; white 
Females, 53,390; deaf and dumb, 27; blind, 27: total whites, 114,795. Free 
coloured, 509; Slaves, 25,091 : total, 140,455. 

St. Louis is the commercial capital of Missouri, and th% largest town west of 
the Mississippi. It is built on two banks: the first, not much raised above the 
level of the river, contains two narrow streets running parallel with its course, 
and the second or higher bank, which spreads out into a wide plain in the rear, 
comprises the rest of the city. The upper part is well laid out with spacious and 
regular streets. St Louis was founded in 1764, but it continued to !]« an incon- 
siderable village while the country remained in the hands of the Spanish and 

2D 



226 UNITED STATEa 



French. It is the emp(n'iaiii of the Upper Missouri and Mississippi, and must in- 
crease rapidly in importance as the vast regions to the north and west become 
occupied by mdustrious cultivators. The lead mines in its vicinity and the estab- 
lishments connected with the Indian agencies, land offices, and army supplies, 
also create a good deal of business. The number of steam-boat arrivals in 1835, 
was 803, tonnage 100,000. The population is now chiefly composed of Ameri- 
cans, but there are many French, with some Germans and Spaniards. There are 
four or five Protestant Churches and a Roman Catholic Cathedral. In the vicinity 
are an United States Arsenal and Jeflerson Barracks, extensive stone buildings 
with accommodations for 600 or 700 men. In 1830, it contained 5852 inhabi- 
tants, and, in 1836, upwards of 10,000. St Louis stands nearly in the centre of 
the Great Valley, on the right bank of the Mississippi, 17 miles below the mouth 
of the Missouri, 175 miles above the mouth of the Ohio, 1350 miles from the 
Gulf of Mexico, and 850 from Washington. It has easy water communication 
with the country at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, 2600 miles distant by the 
course of the river, on one side, and with Quebec and New York, 1800 to 2000 
miles, on the other ; and with New Orleans, 1250 miles to the south, and Fort 
Snelling, 860 miles to the north. 

St Charles, 20 miles above the mouth of the Missouri, and the same distance 
north-west from St Louis, is a pleasant village containing nearly 1500 inhabi- 
tants, of whom about one-third are of French descent ; it consists of one long 
street, on which are many handsome buildings. St Charles was for a number of 
years the capital of the State. 

Jeflerson City, on the south side of the Missouri river, and near the centre of the 
State, is the capital of Missouri ; it contains the State-House, and a Penitentiary ; 
its site is not a fortunate selection, and it has not in consequence prospered. 
Higher up the stream are the villages of Franklin, Booneville, Keytesville, Lex- 
ington, and Liberty ; this is the most western settlement in the United States, in 
which a newspaper is published, being 1142 miles from Wasihington City, and 
324 west of St Louis. Westport at the mouth of the Kansas, is the most wester- 
ly village m the Union. Herculaneum, 30 miles below St Louis, is a small 
town, which contains numerous shot-works, and serves as one of the ports of the 
lead district St Genevieve is another old French village, built on a high alluvial 
bank which the river is now washing away. Cape Girardeau, situated on a high 
blufl*in the midst of a rich district, is the dep6t of the southern part of the State. 
New Madrid is an inconsiderable village, on a high alluvial bank, which, like 
that of St Genevieve, has been mostly carried away by the river. The village 
also sufiered from the earthquake of 1811. 



STATE OF ARKANSAS. 

Arkansas is bounded on the north by Missouri, east by the Mississippi river, 
which separates it from Tennessee and the State of MiBsif sippi, south by Louisiana, 
and west by the Western or Indian Territory and the northern part of Texas. Its 
southern line is the 33d degree of north latitude, and northern 36^ 30'. Its length, 
from north to south, is 245 miles, and mean breadth about 212 ; its area is 51,960 
square miles. 

l^he principal river is the Arkansas, which flows down from the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Its course is nearly through the centre of the State fVom west to east ; 
and it afibrds at all times steam-boat navigation to Little Rock, 300 miles from the 
Mississippi, and occasionally to Cantonment Gibson, nearly 350 miles higher up ; 
the other important streams are the Red River, (which flows through the south- 
west angle of the State,) St Francis, White, and Washita rivers. 

Arkansas has considerable advantages for commerce ; nearly every part of it has 
a direct and easy communication with New Orleans, the great emporium of trade 
for the whole Mississippi valley. j 

The surface of the country exhibits much variety. In the eastern portion, I 
along the Mississippi river, it is level, and oflen overflown by that noble river and 



UNITED STATEa 227 



itg large conflaents, which have their course through this territory. In the central 
part it is undulating and hrolen, and in the jurestern section it is traversed by Uie 
Ozark Mountains, which are estimated to attain an altitude of irom 2000 to SOOO 
feet above the ocean. The other considerable elevations are the Black Hills, 
north of the Arkansas, and the Washita Hills, or Masserne Mountains, on the 
head waters of the Washita river. The soil is of all qualities, from the most pro- 
ductive to the most sterile ; much of it is of the latter description. It has, how- 
ever, a sufficient amount of excellent land to enable it to become a rich and 
populous State. The column of emigration has begun to move in this direction, 
and it has nearly doubled its population within the last five years. 

Of the products of Arkansas, cotton is the staple ; corn and sweet potatoes 
thrive well; wheat, and other small grains, have not been cultivated to a great 
extent; peaches are remarkably fine; apples do not succeed, except on the ele- 
vated parts of the State, at a distance from the Mississippi. The wild fruits, 
grapes, plums, &c., are abundant Among the curiosities of this country may be 
mentioned the vast masses of sea-shells that are found dispersed over difierent 
tracts of it : they are generally found in points remote from limestone, and answer 
a valuable purpose to the inhabitants, who collect and burn them for lime. 

The hot or warm springs are among the most interesting curiosities of the coun- 
try ; they are in great numbers. One of them emits a vast quantity of water : 
they are remarkably limpid and pure, and are used by the people who resort there 
for health, for culinary purposes. They have been analyzed, and exhibit no mine- 
ral properties beyond common spring-water. Their efficacy, then, for they are 
undoubtedly efficacious to many invalids that resort there, results from the shade 
of adjacent mountains, and from the cool oxygenated mountain breeze, the conve- 
niences of warm and tepid bathing, the novelty of fresh mountain scenery, and 
the necessity of temperance imposed bv the poverty of the country, and the diffi- 
culty of procuring supplies. During the spring floods of the Washita, a steam- 
boat can approach within 30 miles of them. At no great distance is a strong 
sulphur-spring, remarkable for its coldness. In the wild and mountain scenery of 
this lonely region, there is much of grandeur and novelty to fix the curiosity of 
the lover of Nature. 

Arkansas formed a part of Louisiana, and afterwards of Missouri Territory, until 
1819, when it received a separate territorial government, and in 1836 it became 
an independent State. The legislature, styled the (xeneral Assembly, consists of 
a Senate chosen for the term of four years, and a House of Representatives elected 
biennially ; the General Assembly meets every two years. The Grovernor holds 
office for the term of four years. The superior Judges are appointed by the Gene- 
ral Assembly, those of the Supreme Court holding office for eight, and those of the 
Circuit Courts for four years. Every white male citizen of the age of 21 years, 
who has resided within the State during the six months preceding the election, 
has the right of sufllhige. Votes are given viva voce. In the prosecution of slaves 
for crimes, it is provided that they shall have an impartial jury, and slaves con- 
victed of a capital offence shall suffisr the same degree of punishment as free 
whites, and no other. No lotteries can be established, and the sale of lottery 
tickets within the State is prohibited. 

Arkansas is divided into 34 counties. 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIOD& 

TOTAI* SLAVKB. 

In 1800, 1,052 7 

1820 14^3 1,617 

1830, 4 30,388 4,576 

1835, 68,134 9,629 

This State being as yet but thinly settled, the towns are few in number, and of 
limited population. The capital. Little Rock, is situated on the Arkansas river, 
about 300 miles fVom the Mississippi. It was intended to give it the name of 
Arkopolis; but the people playfully called it by its present name from the numer- 



UNITED STATES. 



ous rocks found in its vicinity. The site is on a high rocky bluff on the right 
bank of the river; some of the other settlements are, on the Arkansas, Lewisburg, 
Scotia, Ozark, and Van Buren ; Fayetteville, in the north-west comer of the State; 
Batesville, on White River; Greenock, Helena, and Columbia, on the Mississippi; 
Washington, in the south-west part of the State near to, and Fulton on, Red River : 
these are the most important, but they are all as yet mere villages. The two 
last-named places will no doubt, on the opening of the Great Rafl^ and the improve- 
ment of the navigation of Red River, speedily receive an accession of inhabitant& 



WISCONSIN TERRITORY. 

This Territory, erected into a separate government in 1836, is a vast tract of 
country, stretching from the Missouri river on the west to Lake Michigan en the 
east, and from the northern boundary of the Union to the States of Missouri and 
Illinois on the south ; it is in length from east to west about 650 miles, and from 
north to south 560 miles in breadth, containing probably an area of about 300,000 
square njiles. A large portion of this Territory is but imperfectly known, and is 
for the most part still in the occupancy of the aboriginal tribe& It is settled by 
a white population only along a part of its southern and eastern border: its great 
mineral resources, fertile soil, and fine climate, are, however, attracting such nu- 
merous emigrants, that it is probable a few years only will elapse before those 
portions of the territory most suitable ibr settlement will number many towns and 
villages, and be covered with a deneo population. The whole region is a vast 
table-land, with its surface somewhat broken in places by hilly ridges, which gene- 
rally do not attain an elevation probably of more than 1000 or 1200 feet above the 
sea. 

The country in the northern part of the section, and westward from Lake Su- 
perior, appears to be a great swamp, in which the Mississippi and other rivers 
have their rise, and, flowing towards all points of the compass, reach the sea after 
traversing thousands of miles from their common centre ; from the same point the 
kindred waters take their departure to the ftozen seas of the Arctic circle and 
Hudson's Bay, the tropical regions of the Gulf of Mexico, and the far distant 
shores of the Gulf of St Lawrence. 

The principal rivers are the Mississippi and its tributaries, the St Peters, Chip- 
peway, Wisconsin, Iowa, Des Moines, &c. ; the Red River of Lake Winnipeek, 
the St Louis, Montreal, and other streams, flowing into Lake Superior; the 
Missouri and the rivers entering it on its east side, the Jacques, Sioux, &c., the 
Mennomonie and Fox Rivers of Green Bay, and others. This is generally a fine 
region for hunters : in the upper part of the country, buffaloes, elks, bears and 
deer are numerous ; and beavers, otters, and muskrat^ are taken for their furs. 
The trappers and Indians roam over immense prairies in pursuit of their objects. 
In some parts of it the soil is very fertile, and produces large crops of the various 
grains common to this section of the Union. In the vicinity of Lake Michigan 
the water courses, ponds, and marshes, are covered with wild rice, which consti- 
tutes a considerable part of the food of the inhabitants. 

This is a country rich in mineiab : lead is found in great abundance, and also 
copper and iron. The lead region of Wisconsin comprises a portion of the richest 
lead deposites in the world : it extends on both sides of the Mississippi River, on 
the east firom the Wisconsin to the Rock River, and on the west its limits are 
unknown, but probably extends for hondreds of miles towards and into the State 
of Missouri. Lead mining is carried on extensively on both sides of the Missis- 
sippi ; and that of copper is about to be commenced. 

Wisc6nsin Territory is divided into six counties ; four east of the Mississippi, 
and twi) on the west side. In 1830, at which time it formed a part of Michigan, 
it contained a white population of 3635 persons, and in 1836, 22,213. 

There are in the Territory several United States garrisons; among which Fort 
Snelling, a few miles below the &lls of St Anthony, and at the point of land 
formed by the junction of the Mississippi and St Peters Rivers, is the most remote 



UNITED STATES. 229 



military post occupied by the United States troops. Fort Winnebago stands at 
the portage between the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers ; the waters of the two streams 
here approach so close to each other, and are so nearly on a level, that boat% in 
wet seasons, have been floated from one to the other : it is proposed to join them 
permanently at this place by a canal. Steam-boats have ascended the Wisconsin 
to the portage. The route in this direction between the lakes and the Missis- 
sippi River, will probably attain in time some commercial importance. Fort Craw- 
ford, situated a little above ttte mouth of the Wisconsin, and almost adjoining the 
village of Prairie du Chien, has a small garrison : also Fort Howard, near the 
entrance of Fox River into Green Bay ; here is a good harbour, and in the vioi- 
nity are the thriving villages of Green Bay,' Navarino, and Astor. Fort Bes 
Moines, on the west side of the Mississippi, and a few miles above the mouth of 
the Des Moines River, is a United States garrison. 

Above this place and on the banks of the River Mississippi, several towns have 
been laid aS, some of which have a few inhabitants ; among them is the town of 
Madison, on the site of old Fort Madison. Burlington, with about 600 inhabit- 
ants, has been selected as the capital of Wisconsin until the year 1840, when the 
seat of government w^ill be transfbrred to the city of Madison, on the Fourth Lake, 
one of the bead tributaries of Rock River, and at a distance about equal between 
Lake Michigan and the Mississippi Another small town on the west side of the 
Mississippi is Davenport, directly opposite to the mouth of Rock River : higher up 
the stream is Dubuque, opposite the northern boundary line of the State of Illi- 
nois ; it is a thriving place of about 1200 inhabitants, and finely situated, being in 
the centre of a rich mineral and agricultural district A few miles north is Peru, 
also an improving village, with 500 or 600 inhabitants. The pnncipal settlements 
on the east side of the Mississippi, are Prairie da Chien, Cassville, &c. ; the 
former is about five miles above the mouth of the Wisconsin River : it is situated 
on a beautiful prairie, and has been long inhabited, mostly by French traders and 
their descendants, half-breeds, dz.c. Population, 600. Cassville, some distance 
south of the Wisconsin River, is a small town, and but lately settled, as are also 
Belmont, Mineral Point, and Dodgeville : these are at various distances east of 
the Mississippi, and between it and Lake Michigan ; they are situated in the 
midst of a rich mining district, and will probably improve as the country around 
tiiem fills up with population. 

Madison city, already mentioned, the city of the Four Lakes, and Wisconsin 
city, all on the head waters of Rock River, are, it is believed, as yet merely nomi- 
nal towns. The city of Milwalky* at the mouth of the river of the same name 
where it empties into Lake Michigan, although laid out but 2 or 3 years ago, is 
already a place of some trade, and will probably increase, being the only tolerable 
harbour on the west side of the lake between Chicago and Green Bay. A rail- 
road is about to be constructed from this place westward, through Belmont to Mis- 
sissippi city, a newly laid-out town on the east'bank of the River Mississippi, and 
in the vicinity of Cassville; distance about 175 miles. The village of Pembina, 
the southernmost settlement of Lord Selkirk's colony, ^Is within the limits of 
Wisconsin ; it is situated on the banks of the Red River of Lake Winnipeek. 
There are several Missionary stations in dififerent parts of the territory, of which 
two are among the Sioux, five among the Chippeways, two at Green Bay, among 
the Mennomonies and Stockbridge Indians, and one among the Sacs and Foxes. 
The aboriginal tribes in Wisconsin are the Sioux, Chippeways, Winnebagoes, 
Mennomonies, the Stockbridge Indians, from the State of New York, the lowas. 
Sacs and Foxes, and some Ottowas and Pottawatomiea 



WESTERN OR INDIAN TERRITORY. 

TttB Western or Indian Territory is the country assigned by the government 

of the United Stales for the future residence of the Indians, many of whom have 

emigrated from the south-eastern parts of the Union, and numbers are preparing 

I to take up their residence in it. It is about 600 miles in extent from north to south 

20 



230 



UNITED STATES. 



in the eastern, and in the western part about 300 ; and from east to west, im- 
mediately beyond Arkansas, it is about 320; but, westward of the central and 
not them parts of Missouri, it is full 600 miles in breadth. It contains an area of 
about 240,000 square miles. 

A belt of about 200 miles of the xnost eastern part of this region, and adjoining 
the States of Arkansas and Missouri, is supposed to be favourable for settlement : 
the soil is affirmed to be generally very fertile, and it is watered by numerous 
rivers, creeks, and rivulets, none of which, however, are suitable for navigation. 
The chief streams are the Red, Arkansas, Kanzas, and Platte Rivers, with their 
numerous tributaries : they flow in an eastern direction from the Rocky Moun- 
tains towards the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, of which they are all branches. 
The country, in its general character, is high and unduUting, rather level than 
hilly ; though some portions, particularly in the south-eastern parts, are entitled 
to the latter appellation, where it is traversed by several low ranges of the 
Ozark Mountains, here termed the Kiameche hills .'there is less marshy land and 
stagnant water than is usual in the Western country. 

The atmosphere is salubrious, and the climate precisely such as is desired ; 
beinj^ about the same as that inhabited by the Indians to the east of the Missis- 
sippi. It contains coal, «ome lead and iron ore, and many saline springs, suitable 
for manu^turing salt The most serious defect is a want of timber, l^t it is one 
which time will remedy, as has been demonstrated by the rapid growth of timber 
in prairie countries which have been settled ; where the grazing of stock, by 
diminishing the quantity of gra^ renders the axuiual fires less destructive to the 
growth of wood : the prairies are coyered with grass, much of which is of suit- 
able length for the scyth.e. This country will produce, it is believed* all the 
varieties of grain, vegetables, and agricultural products, which are raised in the 
States of the same latitude east of the Mississippi. It is also admirably adapted 
for the raising of domestic animals of every description. 

At the close of the year 1839, the population of the Western Territory amount- 
ed to 67,921 Indians, upwards of two-thirds of whom have emigrated from the 
States east of the' Mississippi River. The remainder appertain to tribes long 
resident in this region. The numbtrs belonging to each class and tribe respec- 
tively aro as follows : 

INDIGENOUS TRIBES. 



Tribes. Population. 

Pawnees 10,000 

Puncobs 800 

Omaha 1,400 

Otoes and Hiwomies .... 1,600 
Kansas 1,471 



Tribes. Population. 

QuapawB 450 

Osagw 5,510 



Total 2i;331 



EMIGRANT TRIBE& 



lYibes. Population. 

Ghippewas, Ottawas, and 

Pottawatomies 1,719 

ChocUws ;.. 15.000 

QoapawB « 476 

Cxwks 17,894 

Seminoles 407 

Appalachicolaa 265 

Gherokees 6,072 

Kickapoos 588 

DeUwam ^ 826 



Tribes. 

Shawanees 

Ottawas 

Weas 

Piahkeshaws 

Peorias and Kaakaskias 

Scnecas 

Senecaa and Kiawanees 



Population. 

1,272 

200 

. 222 

.... 162 
132 

.... 251 

.... 211 



Total 45,690 



In addition to the above, there are 48,018 Indiana, of vamis tribes, now east 
of the Missisaippi, under treaty stipulations to remove west of that stream : many 
of them are making preparatbns for that purpose ; and the whole, no doubt, will, 
in a few years, be permanently settled in the territory assigned them. 

The emigrant Tribes occnpy 74,312 acres of land, and the indigenous about 
33,670 acres. The Ghoctaws, Greeks, Gherokees, and Shawanees, are the most | 



UNITED STATES. " 231 



advanced towaids civiluation of any of the Indian tribes in this quarter. They 
have generally good hoases, well-fenced and well-tilled fields, and own horses 
and cattle to a considerable' extent: they have also native mechanics and mer- 
chants among them, of whom some of the Cherokees have from 5,000 to 15,000 
dolkurs capital. They likewise carry on spinning and weaving, and have some 
saw and grist-mills and cotton-gins. About 500 bales of cotton were raised by 
the Chootaws, ia 1835. They have also adopted an improved system of govern- 
ment: the Cfaoctaws and Creeks, in particular, have a written constitution; and 
the former has introduced the trial by jury. 

The country of the Choctaws, or Choctawland, the most southern in this Terri- 
tory, is situated between the Red River on the south, and the Canadian River and 
the Arkansas north : it is 320 miles in length, and from 65 to 110 in breadth. It 
is divided into three districts, each of which has its own chief, for whom the 
Federal Government is about to build houses. Fort Towson^ a military post be- „ 
longing to the United States on the Kiameche, is within the limits of this nation. 
The Board of Foreign Missions has six stations, and there are also two Baptist 
and one Methodist Mission. 

The Creek conntry is north of Choctawland and west of Neosho, « branch of 
the Arkansas : it is about two-thirds the area of Choctawland^ and extends to the 
western botmdary of the Western Territory. The government is administered 
by a general council of the nation, in accordance with the provisions of a written 
constitution. There are among the Creeks t^wo Baptist and one Methodist Mis- 
sionary Station, and also one mf the Board of Foreign Missions. Several of the 
natives are missionaries. The Cherokee country is north and east of the Creek : 
the eastern part extends to the river Arkansas, and also to the west boundary of 
the State of Arkansas ; this tract is about the same in area as the Creek country. 
The settlements are mostly in the eastern section. They manufacture salt from 
the springs on the Illinois and other streams, and own a large number of horses 
and cattle. • 

Fort Gibson, on the Arkansas, is in the Cherokee territory : there are here 
three missions of the Board of Foreign Missions; with 18 missionaries and a print- 
ing-press ; together with a Baptist and a Methodist Mission. 

The Osagcs are indigenous natives, and a portion of them have yet made no 
improvement in the arts of civilization : some of them, however, particularly a 
band on the Neosho, have tolerable houses, own some cattle, and have begun to 
use the plough : the remainder of tlie nation have not altered their habits. Their 
territory extends north of the Cherokees, with a width of 50 miles from the 
Neosho to the Mexican frontier. 

Adjoining the south-west corner of Missouri, and extending to the Neosho, are 
the Quapaws, the united band of Senecas and Shawanees, and the band of 
Senecas and Mohawks. Farther north, on the head- waters of the Osage River, 
are the small bands of Piankeshaws, Weas, Kaskios, and Ottawas ; ail of these 
have made some progress towards civilization, and have some Missionary Stations 
among them. 

On the south bank of the Kansas, and adjoining the State of Missouri, are the 
Shawanees : they are among the most improved of the Indian tribes. The Metho- 
dists and Baptists have missions among them; and at the Shawanee Station, 
under the care of the latter, there is a printing-press, from which have been 
issued school-books, and collections of sacred poetry, in several Indian languages ; 
a monthly journal is also printed here in the Shawanee language, and the valu- 
able Annual Register of Mr. M*Coy is also from this press. 

On the north side of the Kansas River are the Delawares, whose condition is 
similar to that of the Shawanees : among them are a Methodist and a Baptist Mis- 
sion. The Kansas, an indigenous tribe, inhabit both sides of the river of the 
same name,, and mostly west of the Shawanee and Delaware : they live princi- 
pally by the chase, and are the poorest of all the tribes hitherto mentioned. The 
Kickapoos reside on the Missouri, to the nortli of the Delaware country. There 
is a Methodist Missionary Station in their country. Fort Leavenworth is in the 

wSBBSSmSm 



232 UNITED STATE& 



Kickapoo territory. Most of the Pottawatamies have fixed themselves in this 
tract, but the lands reserved for them are on the other side of the Missouri. 

The Otoes, between the Platte and the Little Nemahaw, the Omahas, between 
the Plalte and the Missouri, the Puncahs further north-west, and the Pawnees, on 
the northern side of the Platte further west, are indi/^enoos tribes, who retain 
their original barbarous habits of life, with little or no change. 

In the desert regions further west, and along the base of the Rocky Mountains, 
are roving tribes of Riccarees, Shiennes, Blackfeet, Gros Ventres, and Arepahas, 
who pursue the trail of the bufiklo, and have had little intercourse with the whites. 
The great caravan road from Missouri to Santa Fe crosses the eastern part of this 
section, and there is a traders* fort near the head of the Arkansas. 



MISSOURI TERRITORY. 

This territory is a vast wilderness, thinly inhabited only by different tribes of 
Indians, many of whom appear to have no fixed residence, but follow the migra- 
tions of the game from place to place. Missouri territory extends from north to 
south about 520, and from east to west 600 miles, and contains an area of probably 
300,000 square miles ; it is bounded on the north by the British possessions, south 
by the Western or Indian Territory, east by Wisconsin, and west by the territory 
of Oregon. 

The greater part of this region has been but partially explored, and is imper- 
fectly kuown. It appears to consist of vast prairies, fringed along the lower 
courses of the rivers with patches of wood land. A large portion of it may be 
likened to the great steppes of Central Asia. There is, however, in the most ste- 
rile parts a thin sward of grass and herbage : countless droves of boffido, elk, and 
deer, range ujwn these vast prairies. They will perhaps, at some future period of 
our national existence, be replaced by herds of domestic cattle, and flocks of 
sheep, followed by moving bands of shepherds. 

To the west of these plains, the Rocky Mountains rise up in an abrupt manner, 
presenting a steep front with numerous frowning rocky precipices, and having 
many summits covered witli perpetual snow. The only elevation in the great 
plain, which stretches from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains, is the 
Black Hills, a spur of the former range, extending to the north-east about 400 
miles, and separating the eastern tributaries of the Yellow Stone from those that 
run westwanl into tlie Missouri ; the character and elevation of this ridge are 
unknown, but its height is believed to be moderate. 

The Missouri is the principal stream, which, with its tributaries, drains the 
whole of this region. The Yellow Stone is the largest of its upper tributaries, 
and is by some even considered the main stream: it rises among the Rocky 
Mountains, in the south-west part of this section, and flowing generally a north- 
east course enters the Missouri, upwards of 3000 miles from the ocean. Those 
tributaries entering on the west side of the Missouri, are the Cannonball, Wetcr- 
hoo, Shienne, Running Water River, and others. 

Our knowledge of this country is mostly derived from those intrepid traveller.? 
Lewis and Clark; in their journey to the Pacific Ocean, they passed their first 
winter at the Mandan towns, 1600 miles above St Louis, from November, 1804, 
until the following April. 

The Great Falls of the Missouri present a spectacle of uncommon grandeur. 
They consist of a succession of cataracts, the whole descent of which is 350 feet. 
In one instance the entire body of the river falls in a perpendicular sheet to the 
depth of 87 feet. The place where the Missouri passes from the mountains, 
called the Gates of the Rocky Mountains, displays a stupendous work of nature. 
The river is compressed to the width of 450 feet, between perpendicular rock^ 
1200 feet in height; for three miles there is but one spot where a man can find 
footing between the water and the mountainous precipices. About 100 miles be- 
low the great falls in the Missouri there are immense piles of rock, 300 feet in 
height, presenting the appearance of an artificial wall ; they are nearly perpen- 



UNITED STATEa 233 



dicular, and the beholder can discern, amid the varioas forms which they exhibit, 
tho shapes of ruined castles and other edifices. 

The principal aboriginal races are the Pawnees, the various tribes of Sioux, 
Ricarees, Mandans. Blackfbot Indians, &c. ; most of them appear to be nomadic 
in their habits, and being in possession of an ample store of horses, roam from 
place to place in quest of bufmlo and other game. 



OREGON TERRITORY. 

Thx country extending westward from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific 
Ocean, and lying between 42° and 54° 40' of north latitude, is generally known 
by the name of the Oregon Territory, and is claimed both by the United States 
and Great Britain. On the north and the east, as fiir south as the 49°, it is bounded 
by the southern part of the British possessions, and southwaid of the 49° by the 
Missouri Territory ; south by the Republic of Mexico ; and west by the Pacific 
I Ocean : it is in length about 880 miles, with an average breadth of 650 : area, 
about 450,000 square miles. 

The sur&ce of the country, so far as it is known, is broken and mountainous ; 
it is traversed on its eastern boundary by the vast ridges of the Rocky Mountains, 
many of the elevated peaks of which rise above the limits of perpetual congela- 
tion. Westward of the mountains the country descends by regular slopes, in form 
of immense terraces or descending plains, disposed regularly one below the other. 
At the distance of from 120 to 160 miles from the Pacific, and nearly parallel 
with the coast, a range of mountains extend, which'have as yet received no gene- 
ral designation ; the highest peaks have been named Mount Jefferson, Mount 
Hood, Mount St Helen's, Mount Regnier, &c. 

The only rivers explored in this territory are the Columbia or Oregon, and lis 
branches. This noble stream has its head waters near those of the Missouri, and 
collects its tribute for a wide extent along the western dividing ridges of the 
Rocky Mountains ; its principal tributaries are Lewis', Clark's or Fiat Head, 
M'Gillivray's, Okinagan, and the Multnomah rivers. The Columbia and its 
branches abound in the finest salmon, which seem to constitute the chief article 
of food of the natives west of the Rocky Mountains. Seals and other aquatic 
animals are taken in great numbers, and the skins shipped to China, which consti- 
tutes one of the chief articles of trade from this part of the world. The country 
bordering on the Columbia and its branches, is represented as having a good soil, 
and is covered with heavy timber, consisting chiefly of various species of fir; 
many of the trees being of enormous height 

The only other river of any note is fVazer's or Tacoutche Tesse, which flows 
into the Gulf of (reorgia. On the head waters of these streams the Hudson's 
Bay Company has some trading-houses or forts. There are several lakes in this 
region ; the largest are the Flat Bow, the Upper and Lower Lakes of the Colum- 
bia, the Okinagan, and the Kulleespelm Lakes, firom which flows a considerable 
branch of the Columbia. 

To this region the United States have acquired a title by the Louisiana treaty, 
by the discovery of the principal river, and by interior exploration. It is, how- 
ever, contested by Great Britain, who claims, not that the title is in her, but that 
the region is unappropriated, and open to the first comer. By a convention con- 
cluded in 1828, to last twelve years, it was agreed. between the United States and 
Great Britain that neither government should take possession of it, or occupy it, 
to the exclusion of the other, during the period of the convention, which either 
party might renounce upon giving twelve months' notice. 

This territory has been so named in ihe congressional discussions that have 
taken place in reference to the country. It was first discovered by the Spaniards, 
who, however, did not penetrate into the interior. In 1791 Captain Gray, of the 
ship Columbia, of Boston, entered the great river of this region, and from him it 
received the name of his ship. The celebrated navigator, Capt Vancouver, was 
then at Nootka Sound, and the discovery was very frankly and fortunately com- 



feK "" 20* 



234 UNITED STATES. 



municated to him, who sent one of his principal officers to examine the channel, 
and in his narrative admits the fact; thus placing the right of prior discovery in 
the United States, beyond dispute, on British evidence. In 1805, Lewis and 
Clark were sent out by the United States* Grovernment, for the express purpose of 
exploring this country : they navigated the Missouri to its source, ana crossing 
the Rocky Mountains, descended the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, and 
spent the winter on its shores ; they returned by the same river to the mountains, 
and most of the exact information that we have of the country is from them. 

The question of settling this territory permanently, has been more than once 
debated in Congress : were such settlement authorized, and rendered secure by 
the requisite military establishments, there can be no doubt that it would receive 
large accessions of settlers. Some attempts have been made by individuals to 
induce the United States* Grovernment to take possession formally of the territory ; 
and in 1810, a private expedition, at the expense and under the direction of John 
Jacob Astor, Esq. of New York, actually formed an establish men t| and named the 
principal dep6t Astoria. This colony of 120 men, went out well provided for trade 
and agriculture. Two years after the first settlement of Astoria, they had estab- 
lished themselves at five other places ; these posts, however, have not been sus- 
tained : some have been abandoned, and others have passed into the possession of 
the British Hudson's Bay Company, which has trading establishments, extending 
through various parts of this region, firom the mountains to the Pacific. 

The climate on the coast of the Pacific is believed to be milder than on the 
same parallels of latitude on the Atlantic. When Lewis and Clark left this coun- 
try in March, the prairies were in blossom, and the forwardness of the season 
seems to have corresponded with that of North Carolina, at the same period. The 
winters are rainy, and among the mountains the cold is very severe. 

On the coast of this territory are the countries, denominated by British navi- 
gators. New Georgia, and New Hanover ; and immediately north of the northern 
head waters of the Columbia, and west of the Rocky Mountains, is New Caledo- 
nia; the climate of which is severe in winter and hot in summer; the soil is poor, 
but the fur-bearing animals are numerous. The aboriginal tribes are the Chil- 
cotin, Talcotins, Attnas, &c. ; and on the Columbia and its branches, are the Flat 
Heads, Flat Bows, Pointed Hearts, Pierced Noses, &c. ; also the Shoshone or 
Snake Indians, who are the most numerous and powerful, and estimated at about 
15,000. The whole of the native tribes in this territory are probably about 80,000 
in number. 

Many portions of this territory, and perhaps the greater part, is well adapted 
for agricultural purposes. At some of the fur-trading establishments belonging to 
the Hudson's Bay Company, farming has been eommenced on a small scale, and 
^und to succeed well. At Fort Vancouver, cm the Columbia River, 130 miles 
from the Pacific Ocean, dOOO bushels of wheat of excellent quality were raised 
m 1835 : and apples, pears, peaches, and all the usual kinds of garden vegetables, 
grow in abundance. At Caldwell, a trading station on the north fork of the Co- 
lumbia, 160 miles above its junction with the main river, is another fiirm in suc- 
cessful operation: also a grist-mill. Several Missionaries arrived here lately 
from the United States ; they have been well received by the traders and Indians, 
and have every prospect before them of being unimpeded in their labotirs of love 
and benevolence. 



It has been already mentioned, that the prairie lands are quite likely to be 
more or less covered with timber, in time to come ; and there are also the other 
requisites for human sustenance and improvement As emigration presses to the 
west, there is little doubt therefore that meet of the regions we have just been 
describing will come to be peopled by numerous and thriving conununities. 



REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. 935 



REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. 

Thk Republic of Texas, which was, until lately, an integ^ral portion of Mexico, 
formed, in conjunction with Coahuila, one of the States of that confederacy. To 
the people of the United States this inftnt republic is peculiarly ioteresting, from 
the circumstances attendingr its struggle with the parent State, the gallantry dis- 
played by its citizens in the field, its immediate contiguity to the south-western 
parts of our territory, and also on account of Anglo-Americans forming the bulk 
of its rapidly increasing population. 

Previous to 1821, the only places occupied by whites were the Spanish posts of 
San Antonio de Bexar, Bahia, or Goliad, and Nacogdoches, comprising in all about 
3000 inhabitants. Soon afler that time, an attempt was made to establish here 
the independent republic of Fredonia ; but the Mexican constitution attached the 
territory to the province of Coahuila, forming of the united provinces a State, bear- 
ing the names of both. In consequence of the encouragement held out to settlers, 
there was a great influx of emigrants into the territory from the United States, 
many of whom carried with them their slaves. In 1832, the people of Texas 
formed for themselves a separate State constitution, and endeavoured to obtain 
from the Mexican Congress a sanction of their proceedings, and an admission into 
the confederacy as an independent State. Meanwhile, however, the mutual dis- 
contents and suspicions of the colonists and government were increased to such a 
degree, that resort was had to arms. Texas was invaded by a large Mexican 
force, headed by Santa Anna, the President, in person. At first the overwhelming 
numerical superiority of the invaders gave them some advantages, which enabled 
them to exhibit a remarkable ferocity towards their prisoners, several hundreds of 
whom were massacred in cold blood. But this state of things was soon reversed ; 
and at the battle of San Jacinto the Mexican army was utterly and irrecoverably 
routed, leaving their President a prisoner in the hands of the Texans. In March, 
1836, the people of this State declared themselves free and independent, and 
have since that time formed a constitution and government, modelled on that of 
the United States, and elected a chief magistrate, together with all the requisite 
officials and appointments of a sovereign and independent power. 

A soil of great fertility, and a geographical position highly favourable to com- 
mercial intercourse, with the United States and the rest of the world, are advan- 
tages which doubtless will, at no distant period, render Texas opulent and powerful. 
A sea-coast of 350 miles in length afibrds, by means of its numerous rivers, com- 
munication at a number of points witii the Gulf of Mexico, which, with the pro- 
bable employment of steam-navigation on those streams susceptible of it, will 
speedily enhance the value of the soil and its rich productions. The face of the 
country is generally level, and a great portion of it consists of immense prairiei, 
the soil of which is a deep black mould, mixed with sand ; the bottom lands on 
many of the rivers, are of a rich red texture, of great depth, and well timbered 
with eottoQ-wood, walnut, cedar, &c. Most of th^ productions of tropical cli- 
mates grow here in great perfection, and the cotton is equal to the finest produced 
in the UniCed States: the other products are sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo, wheat, 
&c. Tills region is one of the finest stock countries in the world : cattle are 
raised in' great abundance, and with but little trouble. 

Texas i« enclosed by the Nueces, the Sabine, the Red River, and the great 
eastern ridge of the Rocky Mountains ; but should its independence be secured, or 
should it he attached to the United States, it is not difficult to foresee that its 
frontier will be extended to the del Norte. Within the limits above described, it 
has an area of about 100,000 square miles, consisting chiefly of a level or slightly 
undulating surface. The country along the coast is low but free from swamps, 
and composed of good arable prairie, interspersed with well-wooded river bottoms, 
and fine pasture lands. Until the late emigrations from the United States, this 
section was filled with immense droves of mustangs, or wild horses, and wild 



236 REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. 



cattle ; but their numbers are now considerably lessened. In the south-west, the 
country is elevated, being traversed by a range of mountains, extending north- 
ward from the he«4 waters of the Neuces, and westward of the sources of the 
Brazos, Colorado, &<^. To the west and north are vast prairies, in which immense 
herds of bu&b supply the mounted Comanches with abundance of gaoie. In the 
north-east, the country is more undulating and better wooded. 

The rivers are numerous but the majority of them are not of much importance 
for navigation, being in the dry season extremely low, and during the floods a 
good deal impeded with floating timber. The Sabine, Neches, and Trinidad 
Rivers, are respectively 350, 300, and 410 miles in length ; they are all navigable 
to a certain extent during a part of the year. The River Brazos is considered 
the best navigable stream in Texas : vessels drawing six feet water can navigate 
it to Brazoria; and steam-boats of light draught to San Felipe de Austin, 90 miles 
higher : the tides ascend to Orazimba. At its mouth the River Brazos is 200 
yards wide, and continues about the same to San Felipe. The lands on this river 
and on all the streams from hence to the Colorado, inclusive, are the richest and 
deepest in Texas; and are considered equal in fertility to any in tiie world. The 
San Bernard ia the most beautiful stream in Texas ; it is navigable about 60 miles, 
and has fh>[n 4 to 5 feet water on the bar. The Rio Colorado rises in the high 
prairies east of the Puerco River, and, after a course of 500 miles, flows into Ma- 
tagorda Bay. About 12 miles above its mouth the navigation is obstructed by a 
raft of a mile in extent : beyond this light vessels may ascend it 200 miles. The 
La Baca, Guadalupe, San Antonio, and R. Nueces, are more or less navigable 
part of the year; they are, however, but imperfectly known. 

The climate of Texas is mild and agreeable, and, as tlie country is free from 
swamps, and the wooded tracts are quite open and destitute of underwood, is 
more healthful than the corresponding sections of the United States. The seasons 
are two ; the dry, from April to September, and the wet, which prevails during 
the rest of the year : the cold is pretty severe for a short time in December and 
January. 

The towns are mostly small ; the principal of them are San Augustine and Na- 
cogdoches, in the eastern part of the State, and both situated on streams flowing 
into the Neuces; San Felipe de Austin, Columbia, and Brazoria, on the Brazos 
River; Matagorda, on and near the mouth of the Colorado ; together with San 
Antonio de Biexar, and Groliad, on the San Antonio; Harrisburg, on BuflTalo Bayou, 
near to, and Lynchburg, at the head of Galveston Bay. The city of Houston, 
lately laid out near Harrisburg, is designated as the future capital of the Republic ; 
at present the seat of government is Columbia. 

The commerce of this youthful State is already sufficient to employ to advan- 
tage a number of regular trading vessels between her principal - sea-ports and 
New Orleans. 

The population of Texas is estimated at about 60,000, of whom probably 40,000 
are Americans from the United States ; 4000 or 5000 negroes ; 3000 or 4000 Mexi- 
cans ; and probably 12,000 Indians, of various tribes. The army is about 2500 in 
number, ardent, filled with enthusiasm for the cause of Texas, and highly efficient 
as a military body. The main pecuniary dependence of this State is up«i the 
great body of her rich and fertile lands, for the survey and sale of which, by a 
method similar to that of the United States, measures are about to be adopted. 

Since the termination of the campaign in which the Mexican President was 
captured, there seems to be no reasonable probability that Mexico, (at all times an 
inefficient military power, and of late years exceedingly distracted by intestine 
dissension,) can ever re-annex the State of Texas to her dominioibs. This per- 
suasion is 00 strong amongst the south-western inhabitants of the United States, 
that emigration to Texas has recently very much increased from that quarter ; 
numerous families, with their slaves and stock, axe rapidly augmenting the 
population of the infiint Republic. Notwithstanding, therefore, Sxe somewhat 
uncertain issue of all military enterprises, we may reasonably anticipate that 
Texas will maintain the ground she has won, and oontinuo U> assert her indepen- 
dence. 



MEXICO. 237 



MEXICO. 

j Mexico is an extensive and noble territory, forming the greater part of that 
vast tract of land which connects together Northern and Southern America. 
Originally a native empire, afterwards the principal of the Spanish viceroyalties, 
it is now a great independent republic. It has sometimes been considered as 
extending to the Isthmus of Panama, which was, in some degree, under the juris- 
diction of the viceroy of Mexico; but as Guatemala, to the southward of Mexico 
Proper, was always a separate intendency, and has now erected itself into an 
independent republic, it must receive a separate notice. Its length may be stated 
at about 2500 miles ; the breadth varies from 125 miles in the isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepee, and nearly 300 at the main centre of the republic, between Acapulco and 
Vera Cruz, to about 1250 on the parallel of 35® north latitude, and nearly 850 
between the Rocky Mountains and the ocean in the extreme north. The whole 
surface may be, therefore, described as lying between 100® and 125® W. long., 
and 15® and 42® N. lat, with an area of 1,4^,000 square miles. 

The surface of Mexico is elevated, composing part of that vast ridge which 
runs along the whole continent of America parallel to the Pacific, and which in 
the south is called the Andes or Cordilleras, and in the north the Rocky Moun- 
tains. In the middle part the chain presents a brood table-land, from 6000 to 8000 
feet in height, thus equalling Mont St. Bernard, and others of the most remark- 
able summits of the old continent. This table-land is not, as in Quito and other 
parts of South America, an interval between opposite ridges, but is the very high- 
est part of the ridge itself In the course of it, indeed, detached mountains occur, 
of which the summits rise into the regions of perpetual snow, on a level almost 
with the mightiest of the Andes. Sueh are the volcanic peaks of Orizava, Popo- 
catepetl, and Toluca. But these are merely insulated heights or chains, running 
in a different direction from the general ridge, and presenting few interruptions 
to that continuous level, as smooth almost as the ocean, which extends, for up- 
wards of 1500 miles, from one extremity of Mexico to the other. Honce while 
the communication between Mexico and the eastern and western sea^masts is 
extremely difficult, and, with slight exceptions, can be carried on only by mules, 
there is nothing to prevent wheel-carriages from running from the capital to Santa 
Fe in New M^ico, and thence to St. I>)uis on the Mississippi. 

The rivers n Mexico are not very numerous, nor, in general, of considerable 
magnitude. The principal is the Rio del Norte or Bravo, which, rising in the 
northern part of the country, flows, by a south-easterly course of about 1500 
miles, chiefly through wild and savage tracts infested by the Apaches and Ca- 
manches, into the Gulf of Mexico. The Sacramento, and Buenaventura are 
rivers of Upper California of which, however, our knowledge is slight. The Co- 
lorado of the west is a large river, but its course is through countries thinly 
peopled and little known. It falls into the Gulf of California, after receiving the 
Gila, a considerable stream. 

Tilie lakes of Mexico are numerous, and appear to be the remains of others, of 
vast extent, which formerly covered a much larger proportion of this lofty plain. 
The valley of Mexico is covered with small lakes, which occupy nearly a fourth 
of its surface; but the only one on a great scale is that of Chapala, in Michoacan, 
which is estimated to contain an area of about 1300 square miles. 

As an agricultural country, Mexico has been celebrated for the vast variety of 

productions which can be raised, according to the different degrees of elevation 

of its great tabular muss of territory. It is divided into warm lands (tierras calien- 

tes), temperate lands (tierras templadas), and cold lands (tierras frias). The 

warm lands, however, though capable of yielding in profusion all the productions 

I of the torrid zone, are subject to so deadly a pestilence, that even the natives pre- 

! fferred to inhabit a poorer soil on the higher grounds; and Europeans, except the 

i few fixed by oommercial avidity, pass through it in trembling haste, as if death 

pursued them. The cold lands, again, are nearly devoid of vegetation, exhibiting 



238 



MEXICO. 



on a few scattered spots the plants of the north. It is only on the " temperate 
lands,'* that the real and efiective vegetation exists ; and there the finest plants 
of the most genial temperate climates are produced in higher perfection than in 
most other parts of the known world. The Mexican wheat excels that of all 
other countries, both in quality and abnndance, provided that by nature or art it 
has been supplied during growth with sufficient moisture. Such is the aridity of 
the soil, that artificial irrigation is usually necessary. Maize, or Indian corn, the 
proper grain of America, is still more generally cultivated, and forms the standing 
food of the people. Its harvests are equally profuse. Barley and rye grow on 
the colder grounds, the first forming the chief food of horses. Farther down 
grows the banana, which, though the proper food of the torrid zone, grows so high, 
that Humboldt calculates 50,0(K) square miles may be fit for it. Of all vegetables 
it yields the greatest proportion vf aliment with tlie least culture. It bears fruit 
in ten months after planting, and then requires only to have the stalks cut, that 
new shoots may spring firom them, and to be dug and dressed round the roots. 
The amount of nutritive substance yielded by it, is to that of wheat, as 133 to I, 
and to that of potatoes, as 44 to 1. The manioc root, under the same clhnate, can 
be made to produce abundance of palatable and wholesome fiirina. The Mexicans 
set much value also on the maguey, which is extensively cultivated, and yields 
annually about 150 quarts of a sweet juice, easily convertible into pulque, the 
fiivourite fermented liquor of the people. Sugar, coffee, and cotton, are all pro- 
duced of excellent quality, but only for internal use; and cacao, though an uni- 
versal beverage, is procured by importation. Cochineal is almost the only article 
collected extensively for export The culture is laborious, and has diminished of 
late, but the price has not increased, substitutes being employed. There is also 
indigo, but it is inferior to that of Guatemala. Vanilla, the flavouring material 
of the chocolate, is obtained in the forests of Oaxaca and Vera Cruz, and exported 
to the amount of 8000/. or 10,000Z. value annually. 

Manufactures in Mexico are, and must long continue, in a very rude state. 
There are, however, considerable fabrics of coarse red earthenware, which is used 
in all the operations of cookery ; also manufactures of coarse woollens and cottons. 
The amount of these, in good times, was reckoned at 7,000,000 dollars ; but de- 
clined during the troubles. Working in gold and silver has, as might be e:tpccted, 
been a fiivourite occupation. Services of plate, worth 30,000 or 40,000 dollars, 
have been manufactured at Mexico, which, for elegance and fine workmanship, 
may rival the best of the kind in Europe. Glass has also made great progress. 
The coaches of Mexico have long been celebrated both for good construction and 
beauty, it being the particular ambition of all who possibly can, to have their coach. 

The commerce of Mexico does not' correspond with its great fame for wealth. 
The exports of the precious metals form the principal artide ; next to this is 
cochineal ; to which may be added, sugar, flour, indigo, provisions, vanilla, sarsa- 
parilla, jalap, logwood, and pimento. The exports at Vera Cruz in 1824, amounted 
to 12,082,000 dollars, of which 7,437,000 were for European and other foreign 
ports ; 4,360,000 for American ports ; and 284,000 for other Mexican ports. The 
imports, consisting chiefly of manufactured goods, wine, brandy, and metals, were 
from Europe 1,468,000; America, 3,022,000; other Mexican ports, 202,000. Un- 
der the Spanish regime. Vera Cruz and Acapulco had a monopoly of the trade ; 
but since the revolution, a considerable amount has centred in other ports, of 
which the chief are, in the northern part of the Gulf, Tampico, and Soto la Ma- 
rina ; Cam peachy and Tabasco in the south ; San Bias and Mazatlan on the west- 
em coast; and Guaymas in tfie Gulf of California. The value of exports from 
the United States to Mexico in 1834 was 4,000,000 dollara 

The mines, however, are the grand objects which have connected the idea of 
unbounded wealth and romantic splendour with the name of Mexico. Gold and 
silver, by a natural illusion, have always shone in the eyes of mankind with a 
lustre beyond that of any other metal. Peru, indeed, oflfers gold in greater abun- 
dance ; but Mexico, since the first discovery, has produced more silver than all 
the rest of the world imited. The silver ore of Mexico is fiir from rich ; it seldom 
yields more than three or four ounces to the quintal of earth, while that of Saxony 



MEXICO. 



239 



yields ten or even fifteen ounces. It is situated also very deep in the ground 
The quantity, however, is in many cases immense, obtained with com|Nmitivel 
little difficulty ; for, instead of being, as usual, placed in the heart of dreary ani 
almost inaccessible deserts, the mines occupy the very best situations of the grea 
table plain, are surrounded with brilliant vegetation, and with all the means o 
comfortable subsistence. There are 9000 mines in Mexico ; most of them, how 
ever, are now unproductive, and even ruinous : but adventurers have been encoui 
aged to begin, and to persevere while a particle of their capital remained, by th< 
enormous profits which have, in a few instances, been realized. 

The produce of the mines continued increasing till the commencement of th* 
late revolution. From 1750 to 1759, the average appeared to be 16,566,000 do] 
lars; from 1771 to 1803, it was 19,688,000; but in the first years of the presen 
century, the duties levied implied an amount of 22,000,000 ; and, allowing fo: 
contraband, the total might probably be 25,000,000. During the dreadfiil convul 
siona of the late revolution, the amount was greatly reduced, the water having ii 
many instances been allowed to rush in, the machinery destroyed, and tiie work 
men dispersed. The annual average produce since the revolution is not mort 
than 12,000,000 dollars. The silver coined in the mint of Mexico, which, in 181G 
amounted to the value of 17,950,000 dollars, had fallen in 1825 to 3,651,000. 

The mint of Mexico is a prodigious establishment, in which all the processe 
are carried on with the greatest activity. It is capable of stamping 100,000 dol 
lars within the hour. ^ rapid an operation is seldom required ; yet there havi 
passed through it probably upwards of 3,000,000,000 dollars. 

Owing to the unsettled state of the country, we can give nothing certain as t 
the military force of the republic. The army is not large, and recent events hav 
proved that it is not very efficient The want of harbours must ever proven 
Mexico from being a great maritime power. Little confidence can be placed ii 
any statements relative to the finances. The annual revenue is stated to be abou 
15,000,000 dollars. 

The territory of the republic, consisting of the old viceroyalty of New Spain 
of the captaincy>|feneral of Yucatan, and of the commandancy-general of th* 
Internal Provinces, was divided by the constitution of 1824 into nineteen States 
four Territories, and the Federal bistrict: this arrangement was subverted by Un 
decree of 1835, which provided for a new division of the country into departments 

The population of the Mexican States has been estimated, by different authore 
at from 6 to 10 millions, but appears to be generally reckoned at near 8 milliona 

Statei. Area, Sq. Miles. 

Tabasco 14,676 

Vera Cnut 87,660 

Oaxaca 32,650 

La Puebla 1 8,440 

Mexico 35,450 

Qoeretaro 7,500 

Federal District 

Michoacan 22,466 

Jalisco 70,000 

Guanaxuato 8,000 

Zacatecas 19,950 

Durango 54,500 

Chihuahua 107,500 

San Lais Potocd 19,000 

Tamaolipas 35,100 

New Leon 21,000 

Coahttila 33,600 

Sonora and Sinokta 254,700 

YtMatan 79,500 

Chiapa 18,750 

Territory of New Bfexico 200,000 

Territory of Califomiaa 425,000 

Territory of Colima 

Territory of Tlascala 



Population. 


Capital. 


75,000 


Tabasco (V. Hermoea). 


150,000 


Xalapa. 


660,000 


Oaxaca. 


900,000 


La Paehla. 


1,500,000 


TIalpen. 


100,000 


Qaeretaro* 


200,000 


Mexico. 


460,000 


ValladoHd. 


870,000 


Guadalaxara. 


500,000 


Guanaxuato. 


200.000 


Zacatecas. 


150,000 
190,000 


Durango. 
Chihuidiua. 


300,000 


San Luis Potosi. 


150,000 


Aguaya 


100,000 


Monterey. 


60,000 


Mondova. 


300,000 


Sinaloa. 


570,000 


Merida. 


92,000 


Chiapa. 


60,000 


Santa F6. 


50,000 


Monterey. 


10,000 


Colima. 


10.000 


TIascala. 



^0 MEXICO 



The classes of society are sin^ralarly varied, and are characterized by distinc- 
tions more striking than those observable in other countries. They are four, more 
distinct and almost more alien to each other than if they were separate people, 
actuated by the strongest sentiments of national rivalry. Those classes are, ia- 
tive Spaniards, Spaniards bom in America, the mixed castes, and the Indians. 

The native Spaniards, called Chapetones, did not exceed 70,000 or 80,000, and 
the greater number of these have now been expelled ; but, prior to the late revo- 
lution, the court of Madrid, either through jealousy of the Americans, or through 
personal interest, bestowed exclusively upon them every office in its colonies. 
They deported themselves as bein^ of a decidedly superior order to the Creole 
Spaniards, who, they openly asserted, were an effeminate and ignorant race, inca- 
pable of any elevated and liberal occupation. They are now fallen from their 
high estate. They are stripped of ail their honours and dignities ; many of them 
reduced to extreme poverty, and allowed only to exist under strict surveillance by 
a government to whom they are objects of perpetual jealousy. 

The Creoles, or Americans, as they prefer to call themselves, even when they 
were depressed beneath the preponderance of the Europeans, formed a privileged 
class in comparison with other natives. They are fbnd of splendour, and delight 
to ride on horses richly caparisoned. Many of them, descended from the first 
conquerors, or enriched by speculation in the mines, enjoy fortunes almost more 
than princely. Forty or fifty thousand pounds a year is not an uncommon income 
even for families who do not possess mines. 

The entire number of those denominated whites in Mexico, is about 1,500,000, 
of whom all except the small number of Europeans above mentioned are Creoles. 
Very few of these, however, are free from a mixture of Indian blood. The charge 
of ignorance is generally advanced against this class; and, notwithstanding some 
decided exceptions, and a peculiar aptitude, which most of them are said to dis- 
play in learning the principles of science, cannot be wholly denied. The causes, 
however, which have produced this mental degradation, are now at an end ; and 
though beneficial changes are not to be effected by magic, there can be no doubt 
that the permanent advantage of a free government will enable the Mexicans to 
take the station for which nature has destined them. 

The Indians, descendants of the original possessors of Mexico, still survive, to 
the supposed amount of nearly 4,000,000, and are, consequently, nearly three 
times as numerous as the white race. They bear the general features of those 
aborigines who have been found in all parts of North and South America. Thev 
have the same swarthy or copper colour, the fiat and smooth hair, small beardf, 
squat body, long eye, with the corner curving up towards the temples, prominent 
cheek-bones, thick lips, and an expression of gentleness in the mouth, strongly 
contrasted with a gloomy and severe look. Their hair is coarse, but smooth, and 
so glossy as to appear in a constant state of humidity. They share with the rest 
of their countrymen, and with most races of very swarthy complexion, an exemp- 
tion from almost every species of deformity. 

The mixed castes form a very numerous part of the population of Mexico, be- 
ing estimated at about 2,500,000. They are either mulattoes, descended fi'om 
mixture of the white with the negro ; zamboes, from the negro and Indian ; or 
mestizoes, from mixture of the white with the Indian. The latter, in consequence 
of the happily small number of negroes introduced into Mexico, compose seven- 
eighths of its mixed population. To be white, was formerly in Mexico a badge 
of rank, and almost a title of nobility. When a Mexican considered himself 
slighted by another, he would ask, "Am I not as white as yourself?" From a re- 
finement of vanity, the inhabitants of the colonies enriched their language with 
terms for the finest shades which result from the degeneration of the primitive co- 
lour. The union of a mestizo, or mulatto, with a white, prodnccs what is called 
a quarteron ; and the union of a quarteron with a white produces a quinteron ; 
after which, the next generation is accounted white. 

The Catholic religion was introduced into Mexico at the time of the conquest, 
with a body of clergy, both secular and regular, who do not possess the exorbitant 
wealth which has been ascribed to them. The archbishop of Mexico, and the 



MEXICO. 241 



eight bishops under him, have not among them more than 600,000 dollars a year. 
Neither is the number of clergy greater than corresponds to the extent and popu- 
lation of the country. They do not exceed 10,000 ; or, including every person 
connected with the church, 13,000 or 14,000. A number of the lower clergy, 
especially in the Indian villages, are excessively poor, their income not exceeding 
100 dollars a year. The influence and revenue of the church also have consider- 
ably diminished during the revolution. 

The sciences have not yet shone very bright in this part of the western hemi- 
sphere. Few governments, however, have expended more in the promotion of 
physical science than that of Spain in America. It sent three botanical expedi- 
tions into Mexico and other parts of its transatlantic territory, which cost 400,000 
dollars. Geometry and astronomy have made considerable progress in Mexico. 
A botanical garden and collections of minerals were formed in Mexico on a great 
scale. The school of mines produced great advantages to the country, and the 
pupils were initiated even in the highest branches of mathematics. These lights, 
according to the most recent accounts, had suffered a temporary eclipse, in conse- 
quence of the long revolution ; but the new government has endeavoured to re- 
vive them. 

The fine arts were also promoted with great zeal by the old government, which, 
at an expense of 40,000 dollars, transported to Mexico, across the rocky passes of 
the Cordilleras, a collection of casts of the finest antique statues. The Academy 
of the Fine Arts possessed an income of 25,000 dollars a year, chiefly supplied by 
government; and the benefit of its exertions was seen in the beauty of the public 
edifices which adorned the capital. 

The amusements are chiefly those of Old Spain ; bull-fights, and religious pro- 
cessions. The theatre is still fiur inferior to that of the mother-country. 

The state of Mexico comprises the Valley of Mexico, a fine and splendid re- 
I gion, variegated by extensive lakes, and surrounded by some of the loftiest vol- 
canic peaks of the new world. Its circumference is about 200 miles, and it forms 
the very centre of the great table-land of Anahuac, elevated from 6000 to 8000 
feet above the level of the sea. In the centre of this valley stands the city of 
Mexico, long considered the largest city of America ; but it is now surpassed by 
New- York, Philadelphia, and perhaps even by Rio Janeira Some estimates 
have raised its population to 200,0()0; but it probably ranges from 120,000 to 
140,000. It is beyond dispute the most splendid. " Mexico is undoubtedly one 
of the finest cities built by Europeans in either hemisphere : with the exception 
of St. Petersburg, Berlin, and Philadelphia, and some quarters of Westminster, 
there does not exist a city of the same extent which can be compared to the capi- 
tal of New Spain, for the uniform level of the ground on which it stands, for the 
regularity and breadth of the streets, and the extent of the squares and public 
places. The architecture is generally of a very pure style, and there are even 
edifices of a very beautifiil structure.'* The palace of the late viceroys, the 
cathedra], built in what is termed the Gothic style, several of the convents, and 
some private palaces, reared upon plans fijmisbed by the pupils of the Academy 
of the Fine Arts, are of great extent and magnificence ; yet, upon the whole, it 
is rather the arrangement, regularity, and general eflect of the city, which render 
it so striking. Nothing, in particular, can be more enchanting than the view of 
the city and valley firom the surrounding heights. The eye sweeps over a vast 
extent of cultivated fields, to the very base of the colosettl mountains covered 
with perpetual snow. The city appears as if. washed by the waters of the Lake 
of Tezcuco, which, surrounded by villages and hamlets, resembles the most beau- 
tiful of the Swiss lakes, and the rich cultivation of the vicinity forms a striking 
contrast with the naked mountains. Among these rise the tamous volcano Po- 
pocatepetl and iJie mountain of Iztaccihuatl, of which tlie first, an enormous cone, 
burns occasionally, throwing up smoke and ashes, in the midst of eternal snows. 
The police of the city is excellent; most of the streets are handsomely paved, 
lighted, and cleansed. The markets are remarkably well supplied with animal 
and vegetable productions, brought by crowds of canoes along the Lake of Chalco 
and the canal leading to it These canoes are often guided by females, who at 

sssBBsammsaBsss^ssssmms^ssssi^mm 



21 2F 



i 242 MEXICO. 



j the same time are weaving cotton in their simple portable looms, orplncking fbwb, 
and throwing the feathers into the water. Most of the flowers and roots have 
I been raised m chinampast or floating gardens. They consist of rails form^ of 
' reeds, roots, and bushes, and covered with black saline mould, which, being irri- } 
\ gated by the water of the lake, becomes exceedingly fertile. It is a great disad- 1 
, vantage to Mexico, however, that it stands nearly on a level with the surrounding 
) lake ; which, in seasons of heavy rains, overwhelms it with destructive inundations. 
The construction of a desague, or canal, to carry off the waters* of the Lake of 
Zumpango, and of the principal river by which it is fed, has, since 1629, pre- 
vented any very desolating flood. The desague, though not conducted with skill 
and judgment, cost 5,000,1)00 dollars, and is one of the most stupendous hydraulic 
works ever executed. Were it filled with water, the largest vessels of war might 
pass by it through the range of mountains which bound the plain of Mexico. The 
alarms, however, have been flrequent, and cannot well cease, while the level of 
that lake is twenty feet above that of the great square of Mexico. 

Acapulco, on the west coast, has been celebrated in an extraordinary degree as 
almost the centre of the wealth of America ; the port whence the rich Spanish 
galleons took their departure to spread the wealth of the western over the east- 
ern hemisphere. It is one of the most magnificent harbours in the world, seeming 
as if it were excavated by art out of a vast circuit of granite rocks, which shut 
out all view of the sea. Yet while Vera Cruz, with its wretched anchorage amid 
sand-banks, annually received from 400 to 500 vessels, that of Acapulco scarcely 
received ten, even in the time of the Manilla galleon, the discontinuance of which 
reduced it to a state of insignificance. It is said, however, of late to have consi- 
derably revived, and its customs, after falling so low as 10,000 dollars, had risen, 
in 1826, to 400,000. 

The state of Puebla stretches nearly across the continent, and over the high 
table-land. It has few mines, but contains an extensive tab4e plain, 6000 feet 
high, eminently fertile in wheat, maize, and fruit. Popocatepetl, the loftiest 
mountain in Mexico, exceeds by 2000 feet the highest in Europe. The volcano 
has for several centuries thrown up only smoke and ashes. 

La Puebla, or Puebla de los Angeles, is a handsome and large city. It is en- 
tirely Spanish, having been fbund^ since the conquest The streets are straight, 
broad, and cross each other at right angles, dividing the whole into spacious 
squares. They are well paved, and have broad foot-paths. The houses are large 
and lofty, the walls often covered with paintings, while the roof is ornamented 
with glazed tiles. The cathedral is a vast pile, with little external ornament: 
but the interior is rich beyond description. The high altar is composed of the 
most beautifiil marble and precious stones : its numerous and lofty columns, with 
plinths and capitals of burnished gold, its statues and other ornaments, have an 
unequalled eflect In manufactures it takes the lead of other Mexican cities : 
those of woollen have declined, but those of earthenware and glass are still flour- 
ishing. The population is estimated at from 68,000 to 90,000. 

Clralula, the ancient capital of a great independent republic, has declined into 
a town, containing 6000 souls. The pyramid of Cholula is the work of art which, 
next to the pyramids of Egypt, approaches nearest in magnitude and vastness to 
those of nature. It is not nearly so high as the Great Pyramid, being only 172 
feet; but the length is nearly double; 1335 feet, instead of 728. 

Vera Cruz occupies a great length of sea-coast on the Gulf, but it is compara- 
tively narrow. It extends inland from the level of the Gulf of Mexico to that 
of the great central table-land. In a day's journey the inhabitants may ascend 
from regions of the most sufibcating heat to those of eternal snow. This state is 
capable of yielding in abundance the most precious productions; and within a 
recent period, sugar, tobacco, and cotton, all of excellent quality, have been raised 
to a much greater extent: but the horror with which the climate is viewed both 
by Europeans and Indians is such, that the greater part of it remains a complete 
desert, where often, fbr many leagues, there are only to be seen two or three huts, 
with herds of cattle, half wild, straying round them. 
Vera Cruz, in which centres almost all the trade of Mexico, is well and hand- 



MEXICO. 243 



somely built of the submarine material called madrepore, which is also made into 
lime ; and its red and white cupolas, towers, and battlements, have a splendid 
eifbct when seen from the water. The streets also are kept extremely neat and 
clean ; yet it ts considered the most disagreeable of all places of residence. This 
arises not merely from the pestilence which taints the air; the surrounding coun- 
try is covered with sand blown into hillocks, which, reflecting the rays of the sun, 
render the heat more oppressive. There is not a garden or a mill now within 
many miles of it; and the only water which can be drunk is that which falls from 
the clouds. The markets are bad for every article except fish, of which many 
beautiful species are here caught The place appears to have sensibly declined 
since the dissolution of the ties which connected Mexico with the mother-country. 
The population of Vera Cruz is about 7000. The castle of San Juan de UUoa, 
the last hold of Spain in the New World, and which commands the entrance of 
the port, is of immense strength. 

The f^ne calzada or paved road, from Vera Cruz into the interior, runs up to the 
handsome town of Xalapa or Jalapa, the capital of the state. The Puente del 
Rey or Royal Bridge, between the two cities, is a stupendous work of solid ma- 
sonry thrown over a wild and steep ravine. Xalapa is commodiously situated in 
a delightful district, about 4000 feet above the sea. It has 12,000 inhabitants, 
and was formerly the residence of the rich Spanish merchants of Vera Cruz dur- 
ing the sickly season. The neighbourhood is finely wooded, and is particularly 
remarkable for the medical article jalap, which takes its name from the city. 

On the coast, to the south, are the ports of Alvarado and Huasacualco, the for- 
mer of which became the principal entrep6^ on the Gulf, during the occupation 
of San Juan de Ulloa by the Spanish forces; and the latter derives some interest 
from its situation at the termination of the proposed canal, from the Gulf of Mexico 
to that of Tehuantepec. 

The state of Queretaro, detached from the intendency of Mexico, lies to the 
west of Vera Cruz. It is wholly on the central table-land, and contains some rich 
mines of silver, but the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. Quere- 
taro, the capital, is one of the most beautiful and delightfully situated, as well as 
one of the most industrious and wealthy cities of Mexico. The streets all cross 
each other at right angles, and terminate in its three principal squares. Its aque- 
duct, about ten miles in length, with its bold and lofty arches, and its splendid 
churches and convents, give the city an air of magnificence. The convent of 
Santa Clara is more than two miles in circuit. Population 40,000. San Juan 
del Rio is remarkable for its great fair, and for its famous sanctuary, a magnificent 
temple, visited by great numbers of pilgrims. 

Michoacan, or Valladolid, is an extensive state, situated to the north and west 
of that of Mexico, on the summit and western declivity of the table-land, in the 
unhealthy tract along the coast, enjoys a fine and temperate climate, is intersected 
with hills and charming valleys, and presents the appearance, unusual in the tor- 
rid zone, of extensive and well-watered meadows. This territory has been marked 
by some phenomena of the most striking nature. On the 29th of September, 
1759, from the centre of a thousand small burning cones, was thrown up the vol- 
cano of Jorullo, a mountain of scorite and ashes, 1700 feet high. In an extensive 
plain, covered with the most beautiful vegetation, deep subterraneous noiites, 
accompanied by frequent earthquakes, continued for the space of fifly or sixty 
days. On the night of the 28th of September, the sounds recommenced with 
such fiiry, that all the inhabitants fled from the district. A large tract of grotmd 
was seen to rise up and swell like an inflated bladder, and spectators reported 
that, throughout this apace, flames were seen to issue forth, and fragments of burn- 
ing rocks were thrown up to prodigious heights ; and that, through a thick cloud 
of ashes illumined by the volcanic fire, the softened surface of the earth appeared 
to heave like an agitated sea. The plain is still covered with numerous small 
cones, sending forth from their crovices a vapour, the heat of which oflen rises to 
95*^. From among these rise six large hills, of which the highest is Jorullo, Ftili 
burning, and throwing up immense quantities of scorified and basaltic lava. The 
only large town in the state is Valladolid, with 25,000 inhabitants, delightfully 



214 MEXICO. 



.situated, 6300 feet abof« the sea, where snow sometimes &II3. There are several 
mines, but none of first-rate magnitude. It has wide, clean streets, a magnificent 
cathedral, and a handsome plaza. 

Guanaxuato is one of the smallest but most populous of all the states. It owes 
its fame to the great mine of Valenciana, discovered late in the last century, 
round which rose one of the most splendid cities in the New World. Between 
1766 and 1803, this mine yielded silver to the amount of 165,000,000 dollars. 
Since that time it has sufiered a severe deterioration from the efiTects of the revo- 
lutionary contest, and has declined also in consequence of the greater depth of 
the workings, and the increased difficulty of clearing off the water. 

This state also contains the celebrated Baxio, a rich plain, highly cultivated, 
and producing in perfection all the fruits of Europe and many of those of tropical 
countries. The Baxio became the theatre of many of those horrible events that 
delugcMl Mexico in blood during the revolutionary struggle. The capital, situated 
in the midst of the rich mining district, is built on very uneven ground, and the 
streets are often very steep; but the buildings are in general handsome, and some 
of the churches are very fine ; the alhondiga, or public gpnary, an immense 
quadrangular edifice, is a remarkable object. The population of the city and 
neighbourhood has been reduced from 90,000 to about two-thirds of that number. 

Jalisco, or Guadalaxara, is an extensive state, which has the iiiiportant advan- 
tage of being traversed througl>out its extent by the river of Santiago, the largest 
in the southern part of Mexico. It appears that within the last thirty years very 
important advantage has been taken of this cirgimstance ; that industry has made 
rapid progress, ^nd an active commercial spirit prevails. The capital, Guada- 
laxara, which, in 1798, was estimated to contain 19,500 inhabitants, has at pre- 
sent 6iO,(X)0. It is regularly laid out, with wide, straight streets, and contains 
many handsome churches and convents. The mountain of Colima in this Terri- 
tory, 9000 feet high, throws out smoke and ashes, and forms the western extre- 
mity of the volcanic chain which traverses Mexico from east to west 

The silver mines of Bolanos in this state rank among the richest in Mexico. 
San Bias, at tlic mouth of the river, is a mere roadstead ; the holding ground is 
bad, and the road is much exposed to westerly winds. It is perched on the top 
of a cliff, near the mouth of the river, and during a certain season of the year, it 
is extremely unhealthy, though not in so deadly 8 degree as Vera Cruz ; and at 
that time the rain falls in such torrents that no roof can exclude it, and it is im- 
possible without danger to go out into the streets. At the commencement of this 
season, therefore, a general migration takes place; and the population is reduced 
in a few days from 3000 to 150, at which it remains stationary until the return of 
the dry season. 

Topic, eighteen leagues from Sau Bias, is a beautiful town, in the midst of a 
cultivated plain, and its streets, regularly laid out, are enlivened by rows of trees, 
gardens, and terraces. Thither the people of San Bias remove during the sickly 
season, at which time the population of Tepic amounts to 8000 or 10,000. 

Zacatecas, north and east of Guadalaxara, in the inland centre of Mexico, is an 
arid rocky plain, strongly impregnated with carbonate of soda, and suffering under 
the inclemency of the climate. It derives its wealth and distinction solely from 
mines, of which the most important in Mexico, next to that of Guanaxuato, are 
here situated. ■ The mine of Pavellon, in Sombre rele, has already been mentioned 
as having yielded in a given time a greater produce than any other mine known 
to exist Zacatecas, the capital, is reckoned by Humboldt to contain 33,000 inhfv- 
bitants. The mint, which is the second in point of importance in Mexico, em- 
ploys 300 persons, and 60,000 dollars have been coined here in twenty-four hours. 
The total coinage in five years, from 1821 to 1826, was upwards of 17,500,000 
dollars. Aguas Calientes, which derives its name from its warm springs, is a 
pretty town, in a fertile district, and with a delightful climate. The inhabitants, 
about 20,000 in number, carry on seme manufactures. Fresnillo, Sombrerete, and 
Pinos, are mining towns with from 12,000 to 16,000 inhabitanta 

Oaxaca is a fine state, situated near the borders of Guatemala. The beauty 
and S9.1ubrity of the climate, the fertility of the soil, and the richness and variety 



MEXICO. 



of its productions, render it one of the most delightful countries in the world. 
These advantages were appreciated at an early period, when it became the seat 
of an advanced civilization. Oaxaca has no mines of any importance, and has, 
therefore, attracted less attention than the more northern parts of the table-land, 
though in every other respect inferior to it. Oaxaca, the capital, called Ante- 
quera at the time of the conquest, is a flourishing place ; in 1792, it had 24,000 
inhabitants, and although it suffered severely during the revolution, its present 
population is about 40,000. Teh aan tepee, its only port, is not a good one ; but it 
is of consideTable value as a channel by which the indigo of Guatemalans con- 
veyed te Europe. 

The little state of Tabasco^ to the north of Chiapa, is chiefly covered with vast 
forests, which contain valuable dye-woods; the cultivated lands yield cacao, to- 
bacco, pepper, coflTee, and indigo ; but during the rainy season a large portion of 
the state is under water, and the only method of communication is by canoes. It 
contains no large towns. The capital is the little town of Hermosa. Tabasco, at 
the mouth of the river Tabasco, is remarkable as the spot upon which Cortez 
landed in his memorable expedition to Mexico. 

The state of Yucatan, comprising the peninsula of that name, forms the east- 
ern extremity of Mexico. It is a vast plain, only intersected by a chain of moun- 
tains, which do not rise above 4000 feet It is thus excessively hot ; yet, from its 
extreme dryness, it is by no means so unhealthy as most of the low lands under 
this burning zone. The heat i^ too great for the ripen^ngjof European grain, and 
the only articles which it yields for subsistence are maize and roots. This was 
the first part of Mexico in which the Spaniards landed, and, though it be less im- 
proved than the interior, they found, to their surprise, indications that civilization 
was in a more advanced state here than in the islands ; stone houses, pyramidal 
temples, enclosed fields, and a clothed and civilized people. Having no mines, 
however, it owes its commercial importance solely to its valuable products, log- 
wood and mahogany. Merida, the capital, is a small town. Campeachy, also a 
small town, is, however, a fortified place, and is important on account of its har- 
bour, from which is shipped the logwood cut in the vicinity. On the other side of 
the peninsula the British possess the settlement of Honduras. The population 
consists of about 4000 persons, of whom about 300 are whites, and the rest In- 
dianp, negroes, and mixed breeds. Balize, the capital of the settlement, is a well- 
built town, on both sides of the river of the same name. The colony was founded 
for the purpose of cutting logwood and mahogany, and its exports in 1830 were 
of the value of 1,500,000 dollars. 

Chiapa formed the most northerly district of Guatemala ; but the greater part 
of it, on a late occasion, separated itself from Guatemala^ and united with Mexico. 
The soil is fertile, and capable of yielding, in profusion, tropical fruits and gtain. 
Though low, yet it is free f¥om damp, and not unhealthy. 

Chiapa of the Spaniards, called also Ciudad Real, though ranking as the capital, 
is now only a small place of 4000 inhabitants. Chiapa of the Indians is larger, 
and carries on a considerable trade. There are several other large villages, 
chiefly Indian. Near Palenque, the most northern of these, Don Antonio del Rio 
traced, in 1787, the remains of the great ancient city of Culhuacan. Fourteen 
large buildings, called by the natives the Stone Houses, remain nearly entire ; and 
for three or four leagues eitiier way, the fragments of the other fallen buildings 
are seen extending along the mountain. They are of a rude and massive con- 
struction, Well calculated for durability; and the principal apartments are adorned j 
with numerous figures in relief, representing human beings of strange form, and 
variously habited and adorned. 

The state of Tamaulipas occupies the wliole coast from the river Panuco, or 
Tampico, to the Nueces. It is difficult of access, as it contains few harbours, and 
a continual turf breaks along the whole shore, which, during the prevalence of 
the Northers from November to March, is tremendously increased. The Del 
Norte traverses the northern part of the state, and the Panuco, or Tampico, the 
Bouthern. The latter abounds in shrimps, which are boiled in salt and water, 
dried and packed in small bales, and sent to all parts of the country. Tampico de 

21* 



246 MEXICO. 



las Taraaulipas, or New Tampico, near the mouth of the river, was ft>unded in 
1824, and has rapidly increased on account of its commercial advantages, which 
have attracted thither inhabitants of Altamira, once a place of some importance. 
Tampico has now about 5000 inhabitants, but it suffers under a want of good 
water. The river is navigable for small vessels, 80 miles to Panuco, a place cele- 
brated in the history of the conquest, and still remarkable for the remains of build- 
ings, weapons, and utensils found in its vicinity. Further north, on the Santander, 
is the port of Soto la Marina, with some trade, and on the Del Norte is Matamoras. 

Ascending the table-land to the west of Tamaulipas, we enter the state of San 
Luis Potoei, which contains some of the richest silver mines of Mexico. The in- 
habitants are described as industrious, and they supply the states of Leon and 
Coahuila with cloth, hats, wearing apparel, &c. The capital, of the same name, 
is a neat and well-built town, contaming a mint, and many handsome churches 
and convents, and it carries on an active trade with the interior. Including the 
suburbs, it is said to have a population of 50,000. Catorce, whose mines are sur- 
passed in riches only by those of Guanaxuato, is built in a wild and meged region, 
at the foot of a dreary mountain, surrounded by huge bare rocks, and intersected 
by deep narrow ravines. 

The state of New Leon, lying to the east of the Sierra Madre, is yet sufficiently 
elevated above the sea to enjoy a delightful climate. Monterey, the capital, is a 
well-built town, with about 12,000 inhabitants, many of whom are wealthy Span- 
iards. Linares is also a neat town, in a highly cultivated district, and has a po- 
pulation of 6000. 

West and north of New Leon is the state of Coahuila, comprising a compara- 
tively narrow tract south of the Nueces, and between Tamaulipas and Chihuahua. 
Its extreme southern part lies on the central table-land, and the dreary mountains 
and barren plains in the vicinity of Saltillo present a striking contrast to the fer- 
tile land and luxuriant herbage of the Tierra Caliente of New Leon. Leona Vi- 
cario, formerly Saltillo, the capital, is a neat town, with 12,000 inhabitants. 

The whole of the north-eastern part of New Spain was occupied by the ex- 
tensive intendency of San Luis Potosi, which comprised the provinces of San 
Luis, New Santander, New Leon, Coahuila, and Texas ; the four last-named form- 
ing what were termed the Internal Provinces of the E^t Only a small portion 
of this vast tract lying on its western border, is mountainous, the greater p&Tt be- 
ing low and level, and containing extensive prairies. The coast is deficient in 
harbours, and is lined with long, low, narrow islands of sand, forming a succession 
of shallow lagoons. The moutJis of the rivers are also blocked up by sand-bars. 
This intendency is now divided into four states. 

Proceeding again into the interior, we find the central table-land occupied by 
the states of Durango and Chihuahua, formerly composing the intendency of New 
Biscay, or Durango. " To the inhabitants of the southern and central provinces,** 
says Ward, " everything north of Zacatecas is terra incognita, and the traveller 
is surprised, after passing it, to find an improvement in the manners and charac- 
ter of the inhabitants. Durango, where the change first becomes visible, may be 
considered as the key of the whole north, which is peopled by the descendants of 
a race of settlers from the most industrious provinces of Spain (Biscay, Navarre, 
and Catalonia), who have preserved their blood uncontaminated by any cross with 
the aborigines, and who retain most of the habits and feelings of their fore&thers. 
They have much loyalty and generous frankness, great natural politeness, and 
considerable activitv both of body and mind. The women, instead of passing their 
days in languor and idleness, are actively employed in afiairs of the household, 
and neatness and comfort are nowhere so great and general as in the north. These 
characteristics extend, with some local modifications, to the inhabitants of the 
whole country formerly denominated the Internal Ptovinces of the West, and 
which now compose the states of Durango, Chihuahua, and Sonora and Sinaloa, 
with the Territories of New Mexico and the Californias. In all these the white 
population predominates, and the Indians continue unmixed, residing in toWns and 
villages of their own^ as the Yamayas or Mayas, or hovering, lik» the Apaches, 
round the civilized settlements, and subsisting by the chase." The latter are the 



MEXICO. 247 



moBt numerous of the aboriginal tribes in this quarter. Their territory is deno- 
minated Apacheria. 

Durango contains some rich mines of silver, which, with the agricultural pro- 
duce, comprising cattle, mules and sheep, cotton, coffee, sugar and indiga form 
the wealth of the inhabitants. The capital, of the same name, is a well-built 
town, with a mint, in which the silver of tlie vicinity is coined. It contains 
25,000 inhabitants. I'arral, famous for its rich silver mines, had once a population 
of 50,000 ; but the mines are now filled with water, and the population is reduced 
to 7000. In the neighbourhood is a celebrated Jump of malleable iron and nickel 
The mines of Guarisamey and Batopilas are also noted for their richness. 

The central table-land may be considered as nearly terminating in Chihuahua, 
which consists in part of dry, unwooded plains: the soil is here impregnated with 
carbonate of soda and saltpetre. The capital, of the same name, is well built, and 
contains some costly churches, monasteries, and other public edifices ; but the po- 
pulation has been reduced from 50,000 to one-third of tliat number. The rich 
mines of Santa Julalia, in its vicinity, once yielded 5,000,000 dollars a year. In 
the western part of Chihuahua, are the Casas Grandes, or ruins of large square 
buildings, whose sides are accurately ranged north and south : a space of several 
leagues is covered with these remains, consisting of aqueducts and various other 
structures. 

The Sonora and Sinaloa is a vast tract lying between the Gulf of Mexico and 
the Colorado on the west, and the Rocky Mountains on the east The southern 
part only contains some white mhabitants, the centre and north being occupied by 
various Indian tribes, amon^ whom are the Apaches, Seris, Yaqni% Moquis, Mayas, 
&c. Many of them are civilized and industrious. The southern part of the state 
belongs to the Tierra Caliente« and consists of a vast sandy plain, destitute of 
vegetation, except in the rainy season and in some well-watered spota Further 
north the climate is mild and agreeable, and the land is productive and comprises 
some beautiful valleys. The state contains rich silver mines ; gold b obtained 
firom washings, and auriferous copper ore abounds. There are also pearl fisheries. 
Wheat, hides, furs, gold, silver, and copper, are exported. Guaymas is said to be 
the best harbour of Mexico, but the town is unhealthy, and the water brackish. 
Pitic, or Petic, in the interior, is the residence of the wealthy merchants, and is a 
place of considerable trade, being the dep6t of articles imported into Guaymas for 
Upper Sonora and New Mexico. The town is irregularly built, but it contains 
many good houses, and about 8000 inhabitants. Alamos is a place of about 6000 
inhabitants, having in its vicinity some of the richest silver mines in Mexico. 
Villa del Fuerte is the capital of the state. Mazatlan has a good harbour, though 
exposed to the south-west winds. 

The territory of New Mexico is only an infiint settlement, formed on the Rio 
del Norte, in a fertile territory, but having a climate remarkably cold, considering 
the latitude. It is separated fVom Chihuahua by a vast, arid, and perilous desert 
The settlers have a still harder conflict to maintain with the Indians, a few of 
whom, however, have attained a certain' degree of civilization. A great number 
of sheep are reared, of which about 30,000 are sent to the southward ; and there 
are some mines of valuable copper. Santa Fe, the capital, contains about 5000 
inhabitants. The caravan route from St Louis terminates here. 

Lower California is a long peninsula in the Pacific, parallel to the continent, 
from which it is separated by its deep gulf. California enjoys the most beautiful 
sky in the world ; constantly serene, blue, and xsloudless ; or if any clouds for a 
moment appear, they display the most brilliant tints. But the soil is sandy and 
arid like the shores of Provence, and only a few favoured spots present a trace of 
vegetation. There are about 7(X)0 or 8000 Spaniards and converted Indians, and 
4000 savages; and it is not supposed that the population can ever be much 
greater. The missions have been pretty much broken up since the revolution. 
Loreto, once a place of some note, now contains about 250 iahabitant& 

New or Upper California is a vast traet extending north from Lowisr California 
to the lat of 42^. A lofty ridge of mountains runs along its western side, not far 
fh>m the sea, forming the prolongation of the mountains of the peninsula, and 



I 248 GUATEMALA. 



extending' north beyond the Columbia. Along the coast the Spaniards have esta- 
blished some missions, and formed some settlements of whites. The former are 
now rapidly declining. There are twenty-one establishments, containing about 
7000 converts' They are oflen forced to join the missions, but they are kindly 
treated, and well fed ; they are, however, not allowed to leave the settleme